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VOL, III. NO. 1. 

<i. II. !>)IIATTVC'Ii, 

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New York. 



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Letter Writing, How it may Become 
Plague and a Nuisance. 

Hendii of Statett nre not by auy meaus ex- 
empt from one of tlie pliigues by which or- 
diuary mortals arc iu the present day so 
much tormented. Lotttrrs nre delivered iu 
the most exalted places. Indeed, the postmau 
knocks much more frcqueutly at palaces than 
at the cottages of the poor. In a trustworthy 
French chronicle of the German occupation 
of Versailles it is set forth that one of the 
daily ttwks of the King of Prussia consisted iu 
reading nud nuuutnting the numerous letters 
of entreaty, remonstrance, reproach and often 
of insult directed to him from all parts of 
invaded France. In one epistle from Stras- 
burg he was styled "Sire Bombaedeur," and 
wa.<* thrent«ned with diviuo vengeance for 
having caused so many fine buildings and so 
lUftuy unfortuuftt* inhabitants in the capital 
of Alsace to be destroyed by the fire of ar- 
tillery. In a communication of a more argu- 
uieutative chaiiii:ter he was asked why, aft«r 
declaring that he made war against the Em- 
peror Napoleon, he still persisted iu making 
war when Napoloon had fallen into his hands 
(IS a prisoner— an inquiry which his Majesty 
answered by ^v^itiuB on the margin of the 
letter, " Je ne Tai jamais dit." A third cor- 
respondent, better acquainted with the Eng- 
lish language than with the rules of poUte- 
uess, described the veuerable monarch on the 

sviperscription of his euvelope as "Old rascal." 
What was most astonishing in the matter was 
not that Bo many letters were forwarded to 
the Prussian King as that be should have 
taken the trouble to read them, and even to 
note down on many of them materials for a 
reply. But for one who possesses a genius 
for work no sort of labor that lies within the 
sphere of his duty is too insignificant ; and 
the Emperor William is by no means the only 
ruler who makes a point not only of reading 
all the letters addressed to him, but in many 
cases of answering them. 

There are but few if any cnuntries in which 
more letters are posted thou in the United 
States of America ; and it is asserted by a 
Washington journal, which is in all proba- 
bility well informed on the subject, that the 
President of the United States "receives 
more letters a day than any other individual 
in the nation." Every mail brings him a 
large batch. The letters, too, are upon every 
couceivable subject. The published extracts 
from the correspondence addressed from va- 
rious parts of France to the Emperor William 
at Versailles eeem to show that no one wrote 
to the chief of the Prussian armies on auy 
subject but that which was, as a matter of 
course, occupying at that moment the heart 
of every Frenchman. The writers, however, 
who pester President Hayes with their effu- 
sions are far from confining themselves to any 
one topic. Invitations, criticisms on State 
policy, theories of government, retpiests for 
pecuniary aid, petitions for office, good wishes 
and sound advice find expression in the in- 
numerable missives received daily by the 
head of the American republic. Many inno- 
cent miuded persons send their jihotographs 
and a few of the photograph senders do not 
content themselves with enclosing their own 
"counterfeit presentment," but wish to know 
what the President thinks of the Ukeness. 
Others are troubled with second thoughts, 
and, posting the first photograhic impression, 
write iu hot haste to beg that it may be 
placed in the President's album by a more 
successful print, which is duly transmitted. 
A gentleman from Vermont, whose merits, as 
set forth by himself, consist in his having 
lived seventy-four years, during which length- 
ened period " he has worked hard and zealous- 
ly cherished the public welfare," wrote some 
time since to the President, informing him of 
a desire he had long entertained, and now 
proposed to gratify, of taking up his residence 
in the midst of the Presidential family. Hav- 
ing arrived iu Washington, he had now, he 
observed, an opportunity for carrying out his 
cherished design, "unless some unusual 
Providence prevented. Providence, in the 
shape of foresight, as exercised by the wise 
President, did naturally prevent. In vain did 
the gentleman from Vermont protest that he 
was a "strictly temperate man." and that he 
"entertained great aversion to the hotels." 
In vaiu did he plead that bis object in press- 
ing his request was not economy, but a sin- 
cere wish to express to the President, in 
friendly and personal intercourse, the admi- 
ration be felt for the course of conduct he 
had hitherto pursued. Thackeray has some- 
where said that the surest way of obtaining an 
invitation is to 'afik to be asked." But this 
simple stratagem failed in the case of the 
Vermonter. The President remained deaf to 
his appeal, though he was assured that it pro- 
ceeded from an " unknown but patriotic citi- 
zen," who would come directly alone, and 

f^or is the President troubled by American 
correspondence alone. Letters reach him 
constantly from the other side of the Atlantic, 
and especially from England. One of the 
President's correspondents, who, it is gratify- 
ing to hear, signs himself "A Londoner," 
calls upon the President, as chief of a "free 
and humane " government, to issue a pro- 
clamation prohibiting under penalty of death 
the "killing of any of the feathered tribe.any 
dog, or even a rat or a mouse." The Presi- 
dent's London correspondent is apparently an 
anti-vivisectionist of extreme views. At first 
sight he might be taken for a vegetarian. 
But vegetarianism is opposed above all to the 
slaughter of cattle : whereas the daring re- 
former who would make the shooting of par- 
tridges a hanging matter, and for every 
mouse slaughtered would take the life of a 
man, restricts his sympathy to birds, dogs 
and the commoner sorts of vermin. He for- 
gets, however, that the consequences of not, 
for a time, being killed might in the end 
prori5,very injurious _, to the protected ones 
themselves. A reaction against the move- 
ment for allowing birds, dogs, rats and mice 
to exist uuharnied woidd ultimately set in, 
and there would be a considerable chance, 
not, perhaps, that birds or even dogs, but at 
least that rats and mice, would in some sum- 
mary and comprehensive manner be exter- 
minated ; for if animals were no longer de- 
stroyed they would multiply to such a point 
that life would be rendered impossible to hu- 
man beings. Long, however, before that 
state of things could arrive the Londoner and 
his theories would have disappeared from the 
world, and meanwhile the unfortunate Presi- 
dent of the United States will continue, no 
doubt, to receive from his indefatigable cor- 
respondeut suggestions for sacrificing, in ac- 
cordance with the true fundamental principles 
of vegetarians and of anti-vivisectionists, man 

That requests for pecuniary aid reach the 
President in large numbers can readily be be- 
lieved. But applications of this kind from 
"unknown but patriotic citizens," may in 
most cases be left, without impropriety, un- 
answered. The letters chiefly to be dreaded 
are those which must really in some form or 
other be replied to ; and the President of the 
United States is not the only person who must 
feel that the task of reading and answering 
letters is one which is becomingso severe that 
in its present shape it can no longer be borne. 
The evil, it is true, tends in some measure to 
remedy itself. Letters, as they have become 
more numerous, have at the same time be- 
coniie much shorter than of old. If a man of 
bufiiue.Si wtTe to answer letters at such length 
as would at ont- time have been expected, he 
would find himself occupied excluBi%ely in 
letter writing, and would be unable to attend 
to the subject matter of bis correspondence. 
With the gradual diminution of rates of post- 
age a corresponding diminution in the length 
of letters has taken place. It is true that idle 
persons, whom the cost of postage formerly 
prevented from indulging too frequently in 
useless correspondence, are now no longer 
kept back by an ignoble fear of expense. But 
such letter writers as flourished in the days of 
Richardson, when the interminable epistles of 
Clarissa Harlowe and her friend iliss Howe 
were not thought unreasonably long, are hap- 
pily no longer to be found ; while a Lovehice 

is at the present day, instead of covering 
several pages of note paper with ardent pro- 
testations, would send telegi-ams, and profit- 
iiig by out improved means of commi 
tion, visit the object of his pursuit in person. 
The introduction of telegraphy has had t 
portaut indirect effect iu simplifying and 
shortening coiTespondence. It has led to the 
replacement of long and formal letters by 
short, informal and sometimes rather abnipt 
communications in "memorandum " form. 
The pldgue of letter writing, too, has lost 
some of its virulence through the gradual 
adoption of post-cards iu lieu of letters, and 
the Presidtut of the United States might get 
rid of some portion, at least, of the burden of 
letter writing now weighing upon him it he 
were to make it a mle to answer no corres- 
pondents but such as are addressed him in 
telegrams, and to reply to these by post card 
alone. — J'all Mall Gazette. 

Ancient Penmen of Olden Times. 

It was not my intention to further trouble 
yon with sk'^tches of this kind, your list of 
contributors haviij(J so largely increased and 
their contributions on live subjects of so 
much more interest ; but seeing in your last 
number a photo-engraving from a work of 
Eleazar Wigan, unaccompanied by any notice 
of the man, I enclose the following : 

I can say nothing of his birth or parentage, 
but have been informed that he had not only 
the appearance of a gentleman iu his conduct 
and behavior, but he was also a general 
scholar. These qualifications doubtless rend- 
ered him respectable to his friends and ac- 
quaintances in general, so that what Mr. 
Cocker says of him, in a copy of verses pre- 
fixed to his book entitled "Morals, or the 
Muse'Q Spring Garden," ought uot to be 
looked upon as a mere compliment, viz. : 

So far as is known, he published but one 
copy-book from the rolling press entitled 
" Practical Arithmetic," wherein the titles and 
principal ndes for common arithmetic are 
exhibited, and adorned with flourishes by 
command of hand. 

It contains thirty folio plates, and was en- 
graved by J. Stuart, who, I believe, was the 
best engraver of writing in England at the 
time, but was excelled afterwards by bis 
apprentice, the celebrated Mr. George Bick- 

The aforesaid book has Mr. Wigan's picture 
at the beginning of the book with this motto 
at the top, penna vetat mori, and this inscrip- 
tion underneath it, Eleazar Wigan, venting 
mmtvr. at tlir Band and Pen, on Great Tower 
Hill, Loudon, IGOr.. It is dedicated to the 
Rev. Mr. Samuel Hoodley, master of a board- 
ing school in Hackney who had the education 
of Mr. Wigan'H two sons. ITie performance 
was not bad for the time ; but there are great 
improvements made in writing since. His 
figures in particular have a faintuess, which 
by no means would be approved now. Gent- 
lemen in public offices and merchants find it 
much to their advantage to have the figures 
in their books of accounts to be made bold 
and strong. These figures are not only more 
lasting than small ones, but are also a means 
of preventing many mistakes in business. 
Such is the account Massey gives of Eleazar 
Wigan and his work. 

^M^^^^K ^. /i ^J ^-^.^'f jjvfaaj te^^^ 


Iiwcribed tothoedltor of Thje Pi 

e ltnpr1aoD«d idIdiI of n 
with rapturona chlmo. 

And Kculpture root the n 

Tbe mnrblo rose n 

Dnd city domf^, 

Aroiiiid lier like a fair; droam , 

But lo I the Per, tho wojidroiu Pen, 
CnchainiDg Thougbl'a bewUdorod thron 

Tbitt to earth's proudest gift belonged. 

For migbtler tban tho battle sword 
It moved bouoatb the golden apberes. 
And rodianco round ltd advent poured 
To light tho gloom of future years. 

Clear mlnda held Liberty and Law, 
Strong hcarW and hands pence-offerings 

Historic grandeur tobo to shi 
And Poeay attuned her lyre. 
'Till glowed upon Itcltglon's ; 
Her lights of genius, and of 1 

Oh I strong of soul I whose eai 
Of good, in golden frnitn|;clio 
Urlght be the page tbo angel h 

Spelling Among Penmen. 

Somp pfi-souB fisurrt tbiit pt'inueii, as a rule, 
arc illiU'riite, iiinl thiit thisilliternty is partial- 
ly attested by poor spelliug. It cauuot be 
that this charge is well founded. Incorrect 
spoUiug is bad enough Quywhere, but when it 
appearH coupled with pc>umausliip so good as 
to attract speoial attention, an en-or in spell- 
ing which in ordinary writing would not be 
uoticod will stand out promincutly oud make 
il« author appear ridiculous. It behooves 
penmen, therefore, to take special pains to 
become good spoilers. It is such a pity when 
a piece of fine writing, which has been aptly 
termed a ' 'speaking pictui'e, " is marred in this 

English orthogi-aphy is irregular and anom- 
nlouH, and it may be more difficult for some 
to learn than tor others, but if one has enough 
perseverance and application to make himself 
a good poumau, he need not shrink from the 
task of also making himself a good speller. 
His practice in plain writing should be a con- 
stant lesson in spelling. By spending an 
hour or two each day in copying from a print- 
ed book or paper, paying particular attention 
to spelling, capitolizntiou and punctuation, 
one will learn more of practical grammar and 
BpeUiug thon ho would in twice the time spent 
in studying the grammar, rhetoric oud spell- 
ing-book in till' oUl-fdsliioiud wtiy. N( 
ei-cise can !'.■ nn'i. ■..-.! .1 ili.m ibis, and the 
young roftdi 1- ■ i - lolumu ji 

varueslly ttd\i- I [■ : - v. y,iliir pn 

lico. If the pniiii. 11 ,1 III .1 L, atv uot noted 
for correct spelling or good gmmmar— which 
may or may uot be true — let it not be true of 

Poor spelling may uot be a mark of illiti 
acy. but many consider it such. How c 
any one with any ambition to appear well 
among intelligent people, be sati&fied to write 

a word incorrectly pt-rhaps thousands of times 
in a whole life-time, when by filing his atten- 
tion on the word three minutes, and writing 
it correctly a dozen times, he could print it 
60 indelibly on his memory that he would 
never forget it ? To become a good speller is 
not the work of a day or of a week. We 
gather words as the miser gathers pennies, 
and just so sure as be is to accumulate doll- 
ars, so sure are we to become masters of a 
large vocabulary by that process. By acquir- 
ing a few new words— spelling and significa- 
tion—every day, how rapidly we should add 
to our knowledge of language, day by day 
and year by year. A sudden resolve, quickly 
formed and as quickly forgotten, will not 
answer ; a settled purpose and a definite plan, 
a little each day and that little always done, 
is the secret of success, in this as in every- 
thing else. 

The true way of learning to spell is by writ- 
ing the words. "We recognize printed words 
as we do persons, by their appeai-ance, as we 
notice the features, the hair, the form of those 
whom we meet for the first time, and recog- 
nize when seen again, so we should notice the 
features — that is, the letters — of new words, 
and it is just as easy to remember the letters 
in the one case as the features in the other. 
Oral spelling is beneficial, but it is not the best 
method, and hence should not be practiced. 

Fellow winters, let us redeem ourselves in 
this respect in the estimation of an intelligent 
community. Good penmanship is not a mark 
of ignorance in all cases, and should not be 
in any. A page cannot be truly beautiful in 
the eyes of cultured people when man'ed by 
misspelled words and ungrammatical sen- 
tences.— T/;/; Home Guest. 

The Mysteries of the Dead Letter Office 

furnish Carlton Hughes the material for an 
interesting lecture, which he delivered in 
Washington recently. He has been a clerk 
in the office. The first authenticated dead 
letter was mailed November 22, 1777. To- 
day, 18,400 pages of lGx22 ledgers, are re- 
quired annually to keep a record of the busi- 
ness of the office. About 10,000 lett^-s are 
opened daily, and the money contained in 
thtae averaged $81,600 per month. Each 
clerk can open 1,000 to 1,500 letters daily. 
In telling how letters came to get into the 
dead letter office, the lecturer said that mis- 
directions and non-postage were the principal 
causes. He described many of the problems 
and cryptographies which the office is obhged 
to solve and decipher, the most notable of 
which are the following, as reported in the 
Washington Post : 

" A gentleman traveling on business sent a 
letter containing $1,.'")00 to his wife at home. 
By some unaccountable neglect he sealed the 
envelope and deposited it in the mail with- 
out any address whatever. After the letter 
was opened at the dead letter office, we found 
that he had written but a few lines, announc 
ing his determination to go further south 
uot mentioning any probable destination, and 
signing the name 'George.' There wa 
chifi to trace the wife,and but a sbght one t 
writer. The postmaster at the city where the 
letter WBs mailed was requested to have the va- 
rious hotel registers examined, and report to 
us the names of all persons recorded as 
'George' on or uear the day during which 
the letter was mailed as recorded in the en- 
velope. He found tbirty.two of that name, 
ten of them residents. The remaining twenty- 
two went off in different directions, while 
six went south. One of these merely si] 
his name, without saying where froi 
whither going. From this carelessness it 
concluded that this was the right person, and 
comparing the letter with the writing oi 
register, verified the conclusion. It wasfound 
that the boot-black of the hotel had been oi 
intimate terms with this particular ' George 
and it was through the information obtained 
from the boot-black that the owner of the 
letter and its $l,f.00 were at last found." 
An interesting recital was the following : 
"A poor widow, residing in New Tork, 
sent five dollars to her only child, a mere boy 
of fourteen, who had gone into one of the 
interior towns of New York State to obia: 
employment, and had been taken siok. The let- 
ter had been returned to the dead letter office 
endorsed 'not found' and search was then 
made for the mother, whose name was Smith. 
I This was oU the clue to the lady. The Ken 

York postmaster could give no help. The 
letter was carefully examined, and it was dis- 
covered that the envelope used was one 
hich had been previously spoiled, and when 
used by the widow had been turned wrong 
side out, and thus directed to her boy. On 
this envelope was a monogram, and in a 
amer a surname closely written. Searching 
directory it was found that the initials and 
ames were that of a well-known New York 
lady. The envelope was sent to her for in- 
spection, and she remembered that she had 
thrown it out of the window. The question 
was, who picked it up ? The lady told the 
circumstance to some friends, in the presence 
of a servant. The latter told her mistress 
that she had seen a woman pick it up and 
this woman lived in a tenement near where 
she did. The matter was furtherinvestigated, 
the woman was found to be the looked-for 
widow, and her money returned. In the 
meantime her son had been sent home by 
some kind friends, and had sickened and died. 

Anniversary and Graduation Exercises 
of Packard's Business College. 
It is Mr. Packard's custom to combine the 
anniversary and graduating exercises of his 
college in a pleasant reunion, which occurs 
just before the hohdays. Ordinarily the ex- 
ercises are held in the college rooms, which 
are capacious, accessible and in every way ap- 
propriate. This year they were held in 
Chickering Hall on the evening of Friday, 
December 13, and the occasion was a memo- 
rable one. The haU was fiUed with a more 
than usually intelligent audience, and the en- 
tertainment came up to high-water mark. The 
music was good, and the speaking was good; 
and there was an 'air of homeness and re- 
spectability about the whole affair that was 

Mr. Packard's opening address was upon 
"The AVork of Business Colleges," and was 
devoted to an examination of education as it 
is conducted in our pubhc and private schools, 
colleges and universities, and as it should be 
conducted in business colleges. As we all 
know, Mr, Packard has a high conception of 
his own work and of the field which it should 
occupy, and he enforced his ideas with the 
ergy and enthusiasm which is his wont. He 
claimed that, with all their drawbacks and 
necessary limitations, the business colleges of 
to-day were doing much of the most impor- 
tant work of education; that " by devoting 
their efforts to the special studies applicable 
to business — studies most neglected in the 
classical schools and colleges — they have 
earned the right to a participation in the hon- 
ors awarded to educational work, and through 
the efficiency of their training have forced a 
recognition, not only from the public whom 
they have served so well, but from the in- 
stitutions of general culture, which to retain 
their hold upon patronage, are very generally 
and very wisely establishing separate depart- 
ments for commercial branches." 

He made a strong point upon the unreason- 
able demands made upon business colleges 
to fuiTiish their graduates with lucrative 
places, although he did not, as be might have 
done, give the reason for this false position, 
viz: the advertised guarantees to this end, 
upon which the shoddy in.stitutious depend 
til fill their coffers. In regard to the argu- 
ment sometimes used against business col- 
leges that thej are "glutting an already over- 
stocked clerk market" he said, "If the clerk 
market is really overstocked, and I don't 
doubt it, though I am sure it is not more so 
than the other channels of employment, the 
reason is not because the idle ones have been 
too well trained in the essential duties of 
business, but i-ather that they have been too 
poorly trained, or not trained at all. I have 
no doubt of the truth of the stories that are 
told as to the myriads of applications which 
any newspaper advertisement for a clerk will 
elicit ; but the reason is obvious, and the 
statement can best be answered by an asser- 
tion that I will here make, viz: that during 
the past twenty years of my labors in this 
city, there has never been a period when I 
could not, within a reasonable time, procure 
a fair position for a well-quaUfied and well- 
cultivated clerk. But after all, this is a matter 
which interests me only incidentally ; for in 
the first place, I am not running a clerk fac- 
tory, and next, I claim to have no responsi- 
bility aside from that which covers the bon- 

discharge of my duly as a schoolmaster 
!g the wisdom, tact, or good fortune 
in after life of those who entrust their school 
education to me; and least of all, shoidd I 
be held accountable for the ill-luck which may 
befall a poor class of bonie-made clerks, who 
are displaced by another class who. on ac- 
count of a better preparation, can do better 
work for the same money." 

President Hunter of the Normal College 
followed in an off-band address of much pith 
and appropriateness. He lauded the efiorts 
which had been put forth by Mr. Packard, 
and the eminent success be bad achieved, and 
fully recognized business colleges as legiti- 
mate and necessary adjuncts to our educa- 
tional system. He had entnisted bis own 
son to Mr. Packard's care, and esteemed 
this part of his school training as the most 
practical and available. 

The allumnus address by Mr. H. H. Bow- 
man on " The Value of a Knowledge of Com- 
mercial Law to the Business Man," was ar- 
gumentative and forcible, and, for an extem- 
poraneous address, was remarkably close and 

Mr. Hickman's valedictory was of a little 
higher order than most efforts usually are, 
and admirably se*. forth the aesthetic qualities 
of business. 

The address of Rev. Wm. Llyod to the 
graduates, was one of the very best efforts of 
the kind to which we have ever listened. 
Through the courtesy of Miss Lottie Hill, 
Mr. Packard's teacher of phonography, we 
are favored with a verbatim report of this 
addi'ess, but for want of space we cannot 
publish it in this issue of the Journai.. It 
will appear in the February number. 

Commercial Law In Business Colleges. 

The following is a communication address- 
ed to the Penman's Convention by Jonathan 
Jones, St. Louis, Mo.: 
Oentlemen of tJie Convention: 

Permit me most respectfully to submit for 
your consideration my method of treating one 
of the leading branches of a hbt^ral business 
education. I hope it may elicit free and un- 
restricted discussion. My only regret is that 
I shall not be present to participate in your 
deliberations, and to be instmeted and im- 
proved by your invaluable criticisms. 

It is not so much to the subject matter (com- 
mercial law), as it is to the manner of teach- 
ing it, that I would direct your attention and 
solicit your criticism. Gentlemen, I have 
been somewhat influenced in my selection of 
this topic by a kind of general impression 
prevalent that commercial colleges through 
out this country have found this to be one of 
the most difficult and unprofitable subjects 
they have to manage. 

I, in former years, have made two costly 
and somewhat extensive arrangements to es- 
tablish permanently a commercial law de. 
partment in my institution, but in both in- 
stances I failed. During the last fourteen 
years I have delivered four full courses of 
twelve lectures each, in each year, and the 
classes have averaged forty-seven per class ; 
that is to say, fourteen years multiplied by 
four equals, fifty-six classes, which multiplied 
by forty-seven (average per class), gives 2,632 
total nusiber of students. 

Commercial law is now absolutely a neces- 
sary factor in our regular course of instruc- 
tion, and it is paying proportionately as well 
as that of any of the more common branches 
taught in business colleges, / 

I account for my former failures and pres- 
ent success in a manner entirely satisfactory 
to myself. In the first instance I failed for 
the simple reason that there was too much 
merchant and not enough lawyer in the lec- 
ture room. I had become familiar withmany 
of the rules and customs in trade, recognized 
as binding among merchants, bad read most 
of the cheap popular publications, such as, 
"Every Man his own Lawyer," " Every Man 
his own Legal Adviser," Ac., but all to no 
practical or useful purpose. They came in- 
finately short of meeting the demand. We 
soon discovered the fact that intelligent busi- 
ness men will no more control their acts in 
the management of their capital by such un- 
reliable, insufficient and questionable author- 
ity than they will risk thei/ lives in case of ex- 

'-i'-Llil Ji^ifcCfo^ 

tromo illotiMi by following tbfc (lirectioos of a 

iri the Hccood ioHtsnce we failed because we 
I too mucli lawyer and not enough uier- 

irit in the lecture room. Webadable, learn- 
><i und elofiuent Jecturem, that could not fail 
of being appreciated by the legal profeBsion, 
but these as far excelled the comprehension 
of the merclmnt an our former course came 
abort of meeting bis demands. 

There remained an alternative, that ih, to 
unit^ the learning and law of the attorney with 
tin- practical knowledge of the intelligent 
I' I itx'KS man with mercantile customs and 

'K' -^ into one ofEcc. and tbuH produce the 
), 1 v Merchant" on "Mercantile Law." View- 
in-' liiw from the profL-smonai standpoint, 
Hi' ir JN a vaMt amount of knowledge in wbich 
I Im liujiinesa man has little interest. Though 
1 1 1 1 ■■ ]if strictly true, nevertheless it requi 
iii riiugh knowledge of law and the B])ecial 
r. (iiirtmentH of the buuineos man to enable the 
I ' iiiriT to Buccessfully teach that little than 
i[ 'I'liH to practicehis profession. In this in- 
-I Hi. .^ it requires more skill and prudence to 
I !■ rrnine what not to teach than it does 

I Muuuercial law is to the businesa man just 
V, lirii lools are to the mechanic. It is an ef- 

"' in'trumentolity or means, if properly 

iiiniLihtond, designed to keep a business man 
"it ..f law, as it teaches him his own rights, 
■ ■mI the character and legal bearing of bislia- 
I'lliii' M and acta toward others. Having thus 
ppwjiist<d, permit mc to proci-ed to tlie main 
• \n< siKin ((. r., to the mode of treating the sub- 
it . I arrange the several topics as de- 
■•ii:iii(I to be taught in the order tlu-y will 

' up in the lectui 

When is he said to be soond of mind '' 
When he transacts business with ref- 
e to a given subject, and there is a 
between the thing done and the 
thing he proposes to do. 

Q. When is he said to be capable of doing 
the thing proposed to be done ? 

A. When the thing proposed to be done 
is within the range of human possibility, 
('. e.. when it is physically, intellectually or 
morally possible. 

Q. When is a contract made? 
A. When the contractee accepts the propo- 
sition of the contractor unconditionally. 
When is it binding in law? 
A. When some part of the work is done, 
or some of the money shall have been paid. 
Q. What is a lawful consideration ? 
A. Time given, service rendered or money 

The foregoing is a verbatim report of the 
questions and answers as they are given and 
received at the conclusion of the lecture. In 
addition to which each student writes a com- 
position on the various subjects, which he 

Please accept, personally, my thanks for 
kind attentions, and present my regards to 
the Convention. 

Jonathan Jones, 

' 'lil'-iL i I [imau is proudof hisArtisto , time, it would become such an irksome task 
say whiuistnie; iiuttosaythatbeissoselfishly | that, after the close of one lesson, they would 
in love with his own works that a humble dis- ' scarcely have a desire for a second one. 
ciple of old father Spencer dare not look at Hence the old writing-master style of copy 
them, is to say what is not tnie. ; imitation hour after hour is about obsolete. 

But the question whether or not the end The art of flourishing has been found to be 
justifies the means used, we will leave to the j very productive of easy and gracefid writing, 

irate business college l 

X. Y. Z. 

Please send catalogiie, &<!., and specimen 
of plain or ornamental penmanship, and much 
oblige, yours. Specimen." 

is is a sample epistle of which business 
colleges are in frequent receipt. It is not a 
very elaborately written document- the writer 
well understanding the principles of econ- 
omy and simplicity as frequently to put it on 


Penmanship is queen of Aits, and is also 
as property styled the business and indispen- 
sable Art, since it is becoming so generally 
recognized, that its use forms such an impor- 
tant part of the daily life of every business 
mau. The rapid growth of the country and 
consequent increase in trade, commerce, and 
all branches of business, the greater portion 
of which is done through the pen, requires 
thousands who can use it with dexterous hand. 
And yet how very few ready, easy and 
elegant writers are to be found, and how many 
whose chirography it is more than a question of 
time and patience to decipher. Why is this 
so? Because tbey have never been train- 
ed under a proficient teacher, of penman- 
ship. It is now becoming very generally 
recognized that there is much in penmanship 
which requires careful study, and that good 
writing is not obtained by practice alone. 
The analysis and construction of writing 
must be understood before a person is pre- 
pared to execute correct forms. How in the 
name of reason can any one even hope to 
form beautiful letters with the pen when the 
mind's eye cannot first see the letters ? IIow 
can you expect to become a gracefid writer, 
when there is not a graceful form laid down 
in the mind? Absurd e 

and ought to be studied by pupils after hav- 
ing obtt\ined a medium style of easy muscu- 
lar writing. The flourishing of every variety 
of birds, swans, eagles, quills and scrolls 
requires but a few simple principles and 
may be mastered in u much shorter time than 
expected, if under the instructions of a good 
teacher. P. B. Habdin. 

No Time. 

A note from a sterling principal says, "I 
have nine assistant teaohers, but I cannot in. 
duce them to take an educational journal; 
they say they have no time ! nor could I get 
them to read one if I pay for it myself ; no 
fact is 80 discouraging." This reminds us of 
a mu'acle performed upon ten persons ; only 
appears, returned to give any thanks. 

' W/in 

r the 



Before taking up the topic, I prepare my- 
self aa thoroughly us if I were going to deliv- 
er a lecture to an intelligent audience of busi- 
ness men in Cooper Institute. Everything is 
methodically arranged with reference to the 
iJUgli) point or subject under consideration. 
I may deliver two lectures before completing 
thiH division, and I proceed thus from subject 
to Niil)jc(!t untill shall have completed the en- 
tiv lourse, consisting of contracts in gen- 
' nil, loutracts of sale, contracts of afifreight- 
mc-iit, contracts with common can-iers, Ac. 
Fire insurance and marine insurance, with 
such other subjects us have a bearing 
mercantile contracts ; bailments in general, 
foreign and domestic bills of exchange, prom- 
isHory notvs; bonds, covenants and othei 
BOftled obligations; set-off recoupment, prin 
cipala and agent, principal and security, cor 
poratious, Ac, with such subjeotfi as may be 
of practical utility to the business man, and en- 
able the moK-haut to understand his rights 
and responsibilities. At the conclusion of 
each lecture we institute a rigid examination 
of the class and cultivate the art of respond- 
ing in unison. 

We herein enclose a sample nf questions 
and answers for the purpose of conveying an 
idea of our plan, and for that purpose have 
selected topic No. two : 

Question. J. Jones -What is a contract ? 
Answer. Class A contract is a mutual 
agreement between two or more parties to do 
or leave undone, to perform or leave unper- 
formed, a certain duty, work or thing for a 
lawful consideration. 

Q. \\Tiat do you understand by the term 

A. That the agreement takes place at one 
and the same time with both parties, and that 
It is equally and reciprocally binding on each. 
Q. ^V•hBt are the parties called? 
A. Contractor and 
Q. What 

i the pre-raquisitea of a cou- 

A. That ho should be twenty-one years of 
ago. sound of mind, and capable of domg 
the thing proposed to be done. 

Q. When is he said to be twenty-one years 

A. For all ordinary- purposes, when be 
holds himself out to the world as such, 
and transacts business as men do who are 
twenty-one. and two men of ordinary judg- 
ment would take him to be so old 

a po.stal card ; but there is a design in it which 
the business college man cannot fail to see. 
Freely translated, it would read os follows: 

"If you will send me a nice specimen of 
penmanship from the penman of your college, 
something that is worthy of a niceframe, imd 
also your catalogue, I will look over the lat- 
ter, and if your propositions are satisfactory, 
I may, sometime in the future, attend your 
college ; and if that is impossible, I will pass 
it over to my next friend. Enclosed find a 
three cent stamp," 

How many professors would delight over 
such a prospect of an increase of attendance ? 
How many would send a two or three dollar 
specimen in consideration of tliat three cent 
stamp, or perhaps a piece of Uncle Sam's 
royal pasteboard? We are not acquainteii 
wi'hany; but we know that their genero.sity 
has often led them to overlook the motives 
by which some aspiring geniuses in the pen art 
are prompted. Many an amateur has been 
immensely benefited by attempts to imitate 
beautifully written specimens obtained from 
business college penmen, and many are in- 
debted to these business college penmen as 

that it may 

forms, then by 

s love for 

being the first to awaken this i 
the beautiful. 

A specimen from a master hand 
thusiasm, stimulates exertion and 
ural result, makes many good bui 
And this is the case with i 
have never had the advantages of a thorough 
training under a master of the Art, and who 
have nothing but a genume specimen to imi- 
tate and a wiUing hand to do it. Refreshing 
Jt IS to obtain such fine specimens at such a 

This generosity of penmen towards their 
younger brethren would seem to conflict with 
the assertion that penmen are selfish. Is 
there not an inherent love of self and self's 
power in evm^ person? To say that every 

First educate the mind 

cultivating the muscles and training the 
hand you will be prepared to form them with 
much ease ; but unless the mind is firet in- 
formed, any amoimt of practice, in a large 
majority of cases, will prove useless, " Prac- 
tice makes perfect " if you know how to 

It is important that a student of penman- 
ship have good models and carefully study 
them analytically and synthetically. After 
the principles and elements are well under- 
stood, each letter should be separated into its 
constituent elements, so as to reveal the pro- 
cess of itscon-struction, thus many of the diffi- 
culties attached to writing may be avoided and 
the Art made simple and interesting. 

The old fogy idea that penmanship iw a 
special gift to some, still exists among a small 
number of people, but is fast becoming obso- 
lete, and the intelligent have come to the 
conclusion that all it requires to become a 
good business writer is a proper and system- 
atic training under a proficient teacher of 
the Art. 

One to be a successful teacher of penman- 
ship should be a good black-board writer, 
that he may thereon present with ease to 
the class graceful letters, giving a thorough 
analysis of them so as to draw the whole inter- 
est of the class to the subject, for unless 
there is an interest awakened in the pupils 
and kept up through the course, there 
can be no satisfactory results obtained. I 
have found, by experience, that by the use 
of the board and crayon I can present 
many new and interesting exercises, and that 
it is not difficult to keep up a strong inter- 
est throughout a writing-lesson of from one 
and a half to two hours, whereas if I were 
to confine the class to one exercise, half that 

upon all of tbi s. t. ai !,. is ,i -r..Ht educational 
work has beeu wrrNij^.hi — ;, i-,.,! iiiimele; they 
are not barburiiuis. iL^uk^ to n different 
teaching ; they know something of the earth, 
the sea, the air; something of God and Heav- 
en. All of their real value has been derived 
from some educator who had time to tell them 
this wonderful knowledge. Have they time 
we wonder, to make frizzles, bangs and trains 
to sweep the dirty school-room floor ; to work 
crochet; to read novels, &c. Not at all! 
Those people who are so economical of their 
that they cannot pray, find plenty of 
time to gossip, if nothing worse; those 
teachers who "have no time" to read 
upon education, find more time to waste 
in one year than a real teacher does in 
ten. These same teachera probably 
have no time to prepare themselves 
the lessons the pupils are to 
They enter to-day the same as 
yesterday; know no more, probably a 
little less. Teaching, to them, is turn- 
ing around a question-crank ; it is, as 
they manage it, about equal to the 
organ -grinder's business, only it is so 
respectable. They do not at all consider 
the claims the pupil may have upon 
them, that they enter fresh and bright 
each morning, so that the class look 
forward to their coming with dehght. 
"She will have something to tell us to- 
Those who complain for want of time to 
read on educational subjects are only teachers 
in name. They have sought the school for 
the purpose only of securing a little money, 
and hence the npi n't ot teaching is wanting; 
there is plenty of language that may be in 
measure and rhyme, and not be poetry, be- 
cause the spirit of poetry is wanting. It pro- 
duces no permanent effect upon its readers ; 
60 with this teaching. 

Teachers, take time to make yourselves the 
best kind of teachers ; take time to know 
more to-day about teaching than yesterday; 
take time to know the reason why knowledge 
presented in a certain method, serves to de- 
velop the human mind, and presented diffei-- 
ently, really produces stupidity. Take time 
to know the work of the great masters of your 
profession. Take time to prepare yourself 
daily to teach as well as the most faithful of 
your pupils does to recite. Take time to in- 
vestigate the principles upon which your 
methods are based ; take time to study over 
each pupil to see if you are doing him all the 
good you can. Take time to learn what other 
laborers in the field are doing.— iV'. Y. School 

Each inhabitant of the United States 
pays $2.02 for the support of the public 
schools, and $1.29 for military pur- 
poses. These two items of expenditures in 
other countries of the world are as follows : 
Prussia, .11 cents and §2.29; Austria, 34 
cents and $1.39 ; France, 29 cents and $+..'50; 
Italy, 1,1 cents and $1.57; England and Wales, 
6a cents and $3. 8G ; Switzerland, 88 cents and 
$1. — NatioTial Journal of Education. 

Again Cluh» are trumps. We hope < 
friends will promptly show good hands 

w York. 

Sfrclmm ooplca fi 


wltbbold Pll 


Ui niAko tbc JoonKAL «o tiit«reatliig and 
111 no iieoman or teacher wbo *e«B It can 
bpr bU •ub»crtptloii or a good word ; but 

lend I 

To iiijr poraoD sending (heir i 
lame aa iubioiibcr*. Incloalng t3. v 

>f poDiDBniblp evor publlibed, vU. 
Oontennlal Picture of Progreas. 

The Family 1tw)>ir( 
3 8p<pln.i<uMbi-et8 
Or IfiOBctuUfulSi 

II Oarda, 18 differ 

Of A 

m' Oompoufllni 

retails for t3.00. 
irnamouto] Penmanship, 

I gilt V 

1 be B 

elgbt«nn siibscrlbors and $18, prico $7.60. 

For twolvo nainCH and $13, we will forward a copy 
of Williams & Packard's Ocms of Penmanship, retalla 

All oomTnunlcatloiis designed for Thb Peku&m's 
Akt Jodrn*!. should be addressed to the office of 
publication, 303 Broadway, New York. 

Tbe Journal will be Issued ua nearly aaposMble on 
tbe Bmt of each moulh. Mutter designed forlnser- 


S BroBdwoy, New York. 

as very dUtlnctly. 


The New Year and the Journal. 

Agiiin we wish our ruadcrs a Happy New 
Yuur — niu' richly fruiiglil with tbe blessings 
of peace and prospi-iity— and, if we rightly 
interpret the signs of the times, so fur as 
happiness depends upon favorable oppor- 
tunity for employment, it may be reasonably 
anticipated, not alone for tbe incoming year, 
but tor the next decade of years. We be- 
lieve that this country is upon the threshold 
of a period of prosperity more grand and 
BUbstjintial thtia any it has ever known. 

It has during the past five years passed 
through tbe most trying business and finnn. 
cial ordcBl since the dark days of the revo 
lution; during which time values have 
shrunk from n high point of iullation to the 
lowest ebb of contriiction, paralyzing every 
industrj', causing hitherto -williiig and in- 
dustrious hands tu suffer from enforced 
idleness and consequent want. No occupa- 
ttou has been exempt from the cahmiitous 
offecla of this business au^ financial revul- 
sion. If all have shared in itsliardships and 
misfortunes, we trust that all will likewise 
profit by its lessons for greater economy and 
diligence; and as the hum of reviving indus- 
irj- is agniu heard throughout the laud, call- 
ing all hands from idleness to profitable 
employment, the prosperity that shall ensue 
will be greatly exalted, aud more properly 
appreciated from its contrast witJi the severe 
aud bitter experience of adversity. As 
sunshine seems brighter after interveniug 
clouds aud storms, so that prosperity which 
follows adversity is doubly productive of 
solid thrift and happiness. 

To no people upon the face of the earth 
is there open a more propitious future than 
ours ; with finance restored to a solid gold 

undeveloped fields for agriculture. 
cU and inexhaustible, mauufact- 
aud splendidly equipped; 
networks of railroads, canals, navigable 
lakes and rivers to facilitate domestic trade 
and intercommunication; a great and grow- 
ng foreign commerce, whose balance, even 
low, is largely in their favor, all these, not 
o mention the broad field, open alike to all, 
for professional labor and distinction, are 
ifflcienlly varied and ample to give a place 
all having the rcquiuite skill and eotcr- 

With a reviving and vastly increasing 
trade and commerce, will come a corres- 
ponding demand for skillful writers as clerks 
and accountiints, to provide which will be 
neumbent upon our business colleges and 
largely upon tlieir teachers of writing, hence 
:cure a full and liberal share in the 
mg prosperity of the country, they have 
only to prove their ability and determiualion 
meet fully and promptly this demand, and 
proportionate to the degree of their qualifi- 
and ability to do this, will be the 
of their prosperity; therefore wlmt- 
/er tends most to add to their qualification, 
r to awaken a public interest in, and create 
demand for their specialty, does them the 
greatest service, and should accordingly 
eet with their most prompt and liberal 
pport. Such an agent we deem to be 
Tub's Art Journal. No other 
equally powerful or effective agencyfor that 
purpose exists. Already during nearly 
years of its publication, it has awak- 
ened, to a perceptible degree, a general in- 
i writing and practirjvl education. 
From the many practical thoughts and illus- 
trations contained in its columns, the teach- 
er has gained new strengtli, skill aud en- 
thusiasm, and is thereby a more able and 
ready teacher, while from the awakened and 
ncreased public interest and desire for his 
ervices, he is finding more ready and nu- 
merous patrons and enjoying a greater 

t is our earnest purpose, and will be our 
bPBt endeavor, to render the Jobrnai, all 
that can be desired on the part of its patrons, 
*ind tf> that end we invite a liberal and earn- 
•"il CO operation of the friends of good writ- 
ntj and practical education, both as 'con- 
tributors to its columns and active workers 
for the increase of its circulation. 

They should ever bear in mind that to 
sustain such a journal as they desire— one 
that will honor and serve well, the pro- 
fession—costs much labor and money which 
can only be repaid by a hearty support of 
all interested in the specialty it advocates. 
i\Iany teachers of writing having received 
specimen copies of the Journal and return- 
ed compliments and thanks for the same, 
with their best wishes for its success, have 
not favored us with their subscription, an 
mauy subscribers have failed to renew their 
w has expired. Almost without e: 

ception these parties are friends of tl 
Journal, and speak truly, when they wish 
it success, and would sincerely regret its 
failure, yet so far as their aid goes, its 
cess would be impossible but its failure 
certain. We beg to remind all such that 
good wishes, however earnest, are not ne- 
gotiable for printing, postage or other ex- 
pense of conducting a paper, and that al- 
though the Journal has survived, and will 

all human probability continue to do so, 
without their aid; it might have been much 
more attractive and interesting, and its suc- 
cess much more certain, bad they each con- 
tributed to help make it so. We shall be satis- 
fied with nothing short of the best penman's 
paper possible, and that we shall furnish to 
the fullest extent of our ability and the 
means furnished by its patrons. 

We trust that said patrons will bear this 
iu mind, and by their liberal support make 
ye editor happy, and secure to themselves 
the best penman's paper ever published. 

Begin with the New Volume. 
Now is the time to subscribe and get a 
splendid premium and begin with the New 
Year and new volume. Sixteen consecutive 
back numbers will be sent for $1. These 
numbers are worth $5 to any one interested in 
either practical or ornamental penmanship, 
since they contain an entire course of instruc- 
tion in practical writing aud flourishing, 
with copies and examples for each. 

; education was considered of sufficient 
mportance to demand tbe attention of any 
but those who were actually engaged in com- 
niercial pursuits. The great mass of stu- 
dents in our high schools, academies and col- 
leges were never instructed that a knowl- 
edge of the principles which govern business 
transactions was at all necessary ; and hence, 
after three or four years spent in fumbling 
over Latin and Greek lexicons, and in reading 
Hf'iithi 11 Mytbolopy, the student found him- 
eilf .1. ririi III in 11]. very things on which his 
futnr- ^iirr, ss i,,ii>l .Icpend. 

Bii-iu' -^-^ roll, ^r s Imve supplied the facili- 
ties for remedying this wide-spread deficiency 
in business education ; but there are thou- 
sands who do not improve them. The know- 
ledge derived from a four years' course of 
classical study is very much of an accomplish- 
ment ; but for practical utility, it is not to be 
compared to a thorough knowledge of double 
entry book-keeping, and the collateral branch- 
es of a business education. We fiud use for 
our knowledge of book-keepiug a thousand 
times, where we find use for our knowledge 
of the Trojan war once. 

We think a knowledge of commerce as it is 
carried on in our day by means of our magni- 
ficent steam vessels, a far greater accomplish- 
ment, and certainly of far more utility, than 
a minute knowledge of the vauderiugs of 
^neas, in bis fleet of barges aud row-boats. 
We do not wish to speak lightly of a knowl- 
edge of the classics ; but we think that that 
knowledge which we are to use in our inter- 
course with our fellow-men. should receive 
our first attention. After the ordinary ele- 
mentarj- education, the next in importouce is 
a good business education. It is a fit prepar- 
ation for active hfe. The classical student 
may devote years to his favorite studies , but 
he must, in tbe meautime, transact more or 
less business ; be must, in a majority of cases, 
get a living- Evidently, then, be should 
kuow how to transact business. 

The student ought first to acquire a good 
business education ; be then can, as a busi- 
ness man, command the respect of business 
men, aud, if he choose, be one araoug them. 
He may then, if he have leisure, euter upon 
the study of the aciiomplUhments of an edu- 
cation. Frequently students go through 
a business course, preparatory to entering 
upon classical or professional studies. Such 

Hints on Staking Specimens. 



As a Special Inducement 

For present subscribers to renew their sub- 

'iptions and to induce others to subscribe, 

begin with tbe volume of 1879 (January 
number), we make the following liberal 
offer of premiums worth $2. For each re- 
newal or new subscriber enclosing $1, and 
20c. extra in stamps for postage on pre- 
miums, before February 1, we will send, 
with tbe first nu nber of the Journal, b 
copy of the Centennial Picture of American 
Progress, 20x28. and a copy of the Lord's 
Prayer, 22x28 inches ; each of which is 
alone worth the price of the subscription. 
Remember this offer extends only to Febru- 
ary 1, 18T9. The regular premiums offered 
for clubs will be given additional to tbe 
premiums herein named. 

Prof. J. C- Miller. Icksburg, Pa., says "I 
am in receipt of the ' Lord's Prayer.' It is 
elaborate and beautiful; excellent alike in 
design aud execution ; it is dazzling to the 
eye and mind of even an expert penman." 

W. J. Todd. Wallingford, Conn., says "It 
is a real beauty, a gem of pen art." 

G- A. Buesing, New Orleans, La., writes, 
"The 'Lord's Prayer' is most beautiful 
My friends arc all delighted with it." 

D. S. Porter. Lawrenceville, Ohio, says 
"Both premiums are received. They are 
beautiful and elegant in design and execu- 
tiou. ' A thing of beauty is a joy forever.' " 

The above are among the multitude of 
similar compliments from those who have 
received these premiums. Remember that 
you get the Journal and premiums, worth 
$2.00, all for $1.20. 

Death of Mrs. Fielding Schofield. 

We copy the following obituary notice from 
the Newark Daily Journal : 

Mrs. Fielding Schofield, the wife of Pro- 
fessor Schofield, of tbe Bryant & Stratton 
Business College, died at her residence, 882 
Broad street, on December 18. 

Mrs. Schofield was a lady of great personal 
beauty aud of remarkable intelligence. She 
composed both in poetry and music, aud some 
of her sougs are very sweet aud beautiful. 
She caught cold iu tbe latter part of the sum- 
mer, which resulted in hasty cousuniption. 
After three mouths of suffering, which she 
bore with a resignation most remarkable and 
without a murmur death enoued. The son-ow 
occasioned by her death to many who re- 

esteem will be lasting and s 

the office of the Journal, is so executed a; 
to admit of reproduction by the photo-en 
graving process, and of those that have ap 
peared in the Journal, a large number 
has been returned once or twice with sug 
gesiions to the author to be re-executed. 
The principal fault is iu the bad quality of 
ink used; another, the manner of execi 
the work, it being geuerally executed ou too 
small a scale, and over done, with a multi- 
tude of useless scratchy lines. 

All specimens designed for reproduction 
in the Journal must be executed ou a fine 
quality of Bristol board, 7x14 or SAxlO 
inches in size, and with the best quality of 
jet-black India ink — no other will do. 

Since all specimens are designed to be re- 
duced one-half in the process of engraving, 
they should be made very open, and clear, 
using no lines not necessary to give charac- 
ter to the work ; where scrolling and shad- 
ing is made, clear, strong, well-spaced, 
parallel lines should be used. Fiue scratchy 
cross-line shading cannot be successfully 
reproduced or printed. 

It should be distinctly understood that no 
red, blue, purple or gray line can be repro- 
duced, nothing but jet-black. Lines ever so 
fiue, if clear, and black can be engraved. 

Let Your Light Continue to Shine. 

To the many ciiiucst and skillful teachers, 
authors and workers in our profession, who 
have so liberally favored the Journal with 
valuable articles and iUustrations from their 
pens, we return our most earnest thanks, 
and trust that in future their light will con- 
linue to shine with increasing lustre through 
its columns, while we hope to add many 
brilliant contributors to our list before the 
close of this new year. 

Our Teachers' Agency. 

Teachers wishing situations and prin- 
cipals wishing good teachers of writing or 
any of the commercial branches, should 
bear in mind that they can probably secure 
tbe same through our agency. Send in 
your applications, with $2, aud we will 
render you all the service possible. 

Why Not? 
A correspondent asks : Why is it that 
authors ond teachers of writing differ so 
widely regarding the number of elt-mentary 
principles employed in writing? Why does 
not three, viz.: the straight Une, right and 
left cui-ves embrace them all V Will Kome of 
our authors of practical writing please ex- 
plain why ? 

Steiger's Educational Directory 

For 187S, has been received. It consists of 
;^20 compact aud well arranged ICmo pages 
devoted to educational institutions and pub- 
licatious. It will be found a valuable hand- 
book for all persons in any manner interested 
in education or educational works. Published 
by E. Steiger, 2.'5 Park Place, New York. 


Prof. Geo. G. Steams was married on the 
24th ult., at Newport, Ey., to Miss Mattie J. 
Amos. Mr. Steams is an accomplished 
teacher of drawing and writing, and, at 
present employed teaching in tbc public 
schools at Newport. We wish tbe new part- 
nership the most abundant prosperity and hap- 

Teachers and others desiring speciol in- 
struction in the higher departments of Pen 
Art. arc requested to read our advertisement 
in the advertising columns. 

C. S. Chapman is teacbing writing at 
Baylie'8 ItusiueMi College. Dubuciue, Iowa. 
He IH a very graceful writer. 

William Dnice, Hamilton, Canada, is n good 
writer and in highly complimcDted by the 
pretM for his skillful engros8ing. 

iiml in having a good defjree of s' 

I. 8. Preston, who has been teaching 
large closBes in writing at Saratoga, is spend- 
ing bis hoUday vacation at his home in 

T. D. King is teaching writing and book- 
keeping at South liaeton, Pa, Mr. King is a 
good writ«r and onjoys the reputation of being 

L. D. Smith, the accomplished teacher of 
writing in the public schools of Hartford, 
Conn., IS Rpr-ndiug his holiday 
this city and Brookl^-n. 

Mrs. Jno, Van Everen was recently ap- 
pointed a special t«acher of penmaiiBhip ' 
Mount Vernon, N. Y.. publi. " " 
congratulate the patrt 
of Mount Vernon. 

A. A. Clark bos charge of classes in book- 
keeping and writing in the high schools, 
Cleveland, 0. Mr, Clark is one of our very 
best writers and teachers, and will undoubted- 
ly do honor to his new position. 

Tfif! Temperance A nvf I, Washington, D. C. 
for November, devotes a page aud half to a 
highly comph'mentary, though well deserved, 
biographical sketch of Prof. H. C. Spencer. 
Principal of the Washington Business College. 

Prof. A. II. Dunton, the famous expert of 
Boston, isengagedin looking up testimony re- 
lative to the murder of Mrs. Sarah Meservey, 
at Tenant's Harbor, Me-, which occun-ed on 
the uight bi.'fi 



for life, the chief ti-siium 

anonymous letttini ^iiid to hit 

by him. Professor Dunton 

not written by Hart, which fact be has 

doubt be can establisb by the testimony of 

himself and other skillful experts. 


poatnl ourd. 

C. M. T., Dixon. 111. You write a very fair 
bond. Less shade and shorter loops \\ II 
greatly improve it. 

H. C. D., Pottidiim. O. For answer t ) ^o 
question, "Where to bogin in flourishing 
bird?" See exercise for flourishing in tins ib 

P. R. S., East Mauch Chui.k, Pa lou 
write a good practical hand. Your pnucipd 
fault is ju the unequal si/e aud height of your 

0. K. K.. Philadelphia. Pa. Your writing 
is good in every respect. More practUL will 
impart more of the appearance of Last* an 1 

G. W. D., Hannibal, Mo. You wTitt a 
Buperior hand for oue doing beaij woik 
Your curves are not sufficiently defined ui th 
connecting lines of your n's, lu's and * s \oi 
seem tj lack somewhat in ease of movement 

E. C. B.. Wakefield, Moss. Our piopobed 
agency will include teachers of all eommen-ial 
brancht's. book-keepers aud copyists \ou 
write a good hand for business purpose^ and 
with a httlo careful practice and skillful in 
struction, would become a good professional 

E. S. F., Boston, Mass. Y< 
legible and excellent hand ; as 
iug it needs no criticism ; as professional 
writing It has several faults, most conspicuous 
of which IS unequal spacing, unequal slopes, 
especiaUy in the last stroke of in. n, A and n 
\ourloops are rather too smaU, the loop in 
the small * and r are loo long giving to those 
letters a diniinnUve appearance. 

A. C. Smith, Burg Hill, Ohio, sends a fiue 
specimen of off-band writing. 

J. K. Farrel, Brooklyn, N. Y., sends a well 
executed specimen of lettering, 

C, H. Hamilton, New Augusta, Ind., sends 
a very fine specimen of a flourished bird and 

John McCarthy, Washington, D. C, sends 
the compliments of the season in a very hand- 
some specimen of off-hand writing. 

H. C. Clark, Principal of Forest City Busi- 
ness College, KockfoM, 111., sends some very 
handsomely written slips of business writing. 
M. E. Blackman, Worcester. Mass., sends two 
elegant specimens of olT-hand flourishing. For 
grace and freedom of movement they are 
rarely excelled. ^ 

T. J. Prickett, Penman at Soule's Busines^ 
College, Philadelphia, Pa., writes a very | 
^(icefiil letter in which he incloses fiue speci- 
mens of card writing. 

Joseph Foeller. Ashland, Pa., sends a varu" 
Tly of very skillfully designed and flourished 
bird specimens and some good specimens of 
card and copy writing. 

•W. C. Sandy, teacher of writing, Troy, N. 
Y., Business College, writes an elegant letter 
in which he incloses an exteuMve variety of 
very skillful flourishing. 

F. C. Chapman, Penman at Bryant's Busi- 
ness College, St. Joseph, Mo., sends a well 
executed set of off-hand capitals and good 
specimens of card writing. 

F. P. Preuitt. who is now teaching large 
classes lit Forney. Texas, sends a handsomely 
written letter, inclosing good specimens of 
ciird writing and flourishing. 

The promised specimen from Prof. Jackson 
Cagle was received too late to admit of its 

The Business College department in con- 
nection with the Methodist College. Fort 
Wayne, Ind., will hereafter be designated as 
the Miami Business College. It is in charge of 
Prof Addis Albro. aud is spoken very favor- 
ably of by the press of that city. 

The fifth anniversary and graduating ex- 
ercises of Miller 6c Stockwell's. New Jersey 
Busiuess College, Newark, were held in their 
college rooms on December 23, Diplomas 
were awarded to fifteen graduates. The ex- 
ercises consisted of music, orations, recitations 
and .iddresses. 

The twentieth anniversary and graduating 
exercises of Packard's Business College took 
place at Chickering Hall, on December 1*2, 
before a large and appeciative audience. Di- 
plomas were awarded to eighteen graduates 
including one lady. The exercises were liigh- 
ly interesting ; very practical and able ad- 
dressee were delivered by Mr. Packard. Thos. 
Hunter, President of the New York Female 
Normal College ; H. H. Bowman and the 
Bev. William Lloyd. 

At the close of the course of the Bryant, 
Stratton & Sadler's Busiuess College, Bal- 
timore, Md., for the holiday vacation, the 
students presented to the proprietor, W. H. 
Sadler, a complete set, teu volumes, of Cham- 

bers' eucyclopfedia, beautifully bound in 
Turkey morroco : also a gold headed cane. 
Other tf'achers in the college were likewise 
the recipii-'iitv nf vtlnr-;''!'^ ]>rcseuts, which in- 
dicates a If '" i v'M Hill feeling on the 

part of tL. 1 i~ i r heir instructors, 
which w.^ it -. 11 merited. The 

cuetoniarv < ni 
the students l.y 
their residence 
ore personally 

r'^ ,:- >■ ■■■ jtiou was ^iven to 
Prof.'ssoi- and Mrs Sadler, at 
in Irvingtou, and those who 
icquainted with Prof. Sadler, 

will have no doubt that the occasion will be 
remembered by those present for its genuine 
aud liberal hospitality. 

Esterbrook Steel Pen Company. 

This company which leads all other manu- 
facturers in the United States, has introduced 
so many new and desirable styles that to 
and describe them all woidd take a 

appearance in this issue, but will appear in 
Ihe February number. 

1. W. Pierson, teacher of penmanship in 
the public schools. Mecca. O., sends a skill- 
fully executed sijeciinen of flourishing and a 
package of well written copy slips. 

W. J. Titsler, Stoueboro, Pa., sends speci- 
mens of writing and flourishing; the writing 
is superior in grace and form; the flourishing, 
though creditable, lacks the ease and gi-ace 
displayed in the writing, 

E L Burnett Penman at the La Crosse 
Wis Business College sends several bupt nor 
specimens of flourishing and caid writing 
also Hpecimen" written by seveial of his pu 
pils which I - '■ '' 

red table 

'* T >T I 1 I il -of the Gem 

I College sends 

nil pils wit 

f the fae ilty and 

' o " P 

L ( M ku Bi lb 1 ut \\Lbt^a sends 

an elaborate and attiacti\e specimen of dran 

ing flourishing and lettering designed for 

p iblioation in the Journal which owing to 

' " '' lot be done 

< 1 oi\ Bu in ^ C II New ul ^ 

I his Mil en led ml tin c lle,e effeds 
an luUcHihtd for valt on the 2d in^t b) 

Thos I Bryant St Joseph Business Col 
lege reporU that he is enjojing an unusual 
degree of success this s<a^on and also fa\ors 
us with his photo for our collection. 

The- students aud graduates of the Brvant 
& Stratton Commercial School of Boston 
have recently organized the "Commercial 
Club, Its membership to be comprised ex- 
clusively Of students aud graduates of that 
school. The club yave its first reception 
December 10. on which occasion addresses 
were made by ex-Govemor Rice and several 
other aistmguished speakers. 

couple of columns of the Journal. Wher- 
ever we go we meet the "Esterbrook Falcon '• 
pen No. 48, the most popular ofall the Ester- 
brook makes and the best known pen in Amer- 
ica. Of this pen nearly a quarter of a mil- 
lion gross are sold annually, and the demand 
is increasing steadily. There are few offices 
or business houses where this pen is not em- 
ployed in some capacity. The Esterbrook 
Une of eugio'isng pens is very full, and es- 
p 1 ] 1 1 pn taken to provide every 

I ! ould possibly be desired 

II 1 i HI engrossing, and No. 

{**+ 1 1 k toue r the leading styles, and are 
higl Iv a[ predated The school per.s of this 
company will beai with" the trials inflicted 
by the ludimeutary beginners better than 
those of any oth i make known in the school- 
rioin and among other noted marks includes 
the celebrated n m bers ;i33 extra tine, Ui 
school medium aud I'S extra fine elastic. 
It IS in the hue of bu-iiness or mercantile 
jens however that the Esterbrook folks 
1 ave shown the f lUest force of their ingenui- 
ty and tiuewoikmtuhhip, their Bank, Falcon 
d Eos) 'Wr ter being especial favorites. No 
kind of pen wl ich e in be wished for by a 
business man w 11 he fail to find here, while 
it IS in this hue that the largest number of ad- 
ditions arc being constantly made. For nec- 
essary protection e^er^ pen bears the trade 
mark of R E terbrook it Co., while every 
box bean, the fac simile of the firm's signa- 
ture The works of the company are loca- 
ted in Camden N J and the main office at 
No. 2C John street. New York city. The 
English agents are Waterlow & Sons. Lon- 
don Wall, London : the Canadian agency is 
at 442 St, Paul street, Montreal, and every 
stationer is required to keep their pens as 
staple goods. ~ Boston Journal of Commerce. 

I back numbers of the 
t for $1. 

Bryant's Business College. 
St. .Jostrn, Mo., Dec is, IS7S 
Editor Pfnman's Art. Journal: 

Dear Sib — It is very evident that your val 
uable paper is doing much towards teaching 
the public what constitutes a lousiness educa 
tiod, and in opening the eyes of many who 
have long been under the impression that 
those who have never had an hour's experi- 
ence in a respectable business, aud have only 
the most inferior common school education 
are fully competent to qualify young mcu for 
accounfcints, cashiers, &c., and that the only 
essential is that they shall be able to write 
something better than most other persons or 
have a few specimens bought from transient 
teachers, which they occasionally employ for 
this purpose. 

Every person possessing reasonable intelli- 
gence should know that the very defective 
course in penmanship aud book-keeping as in- 
troduced about thirty years since, and as is still 
offered by many colleges as the only necessary 
qualifications for business, with all of its 
present and ritpidly multiplying intricacies is 
both superficial and defective in almost every 

The intelligent business man or practical 
accountant justly regards such teaching as the 
jurist does the ordinances of a village, or the 
surgeon would a uostmm, and hence the 
graduates of such institutions may have much 
conceit, but vi-ry littlu that is calculated to 
caU their .-^eivirrs nilo <l luand ; and yet if 
one such fails m .il,i Dniir- .ui easv place at 
large wages, ;.ll l.^iMr,. -^ rnll, gen are pro- 
nounced "huiiiUiitis ■ withiiut the least dis- 
crimination between the best and the worst. 
Book-keepiug can never be successfully 
taught as an insulated theory, because it is a 
part of a series of sciences and admits of no 
uncertainties as to facts, whys, or its calcula- 
tions and results, while it calls for such read- 
iuess aud precision in the use of the pen and 
business terms as is never taught by those 
who have deficient education and no experi- 
ence in the practical details of busiuess. The 
accouutant is as much dependant upon cata- 
luctics, ecouomy, ethicsaudthe laws of busi- 
uess as is the physician upon anatomy, phy- 
siology and ohemisti-y, or the jurist upon the 
constitution. It requires both a profound 
aud a practical knowledge of the relative 
branches to utilize accounts or to impart the 
most valuable instruction therein, aud as in 
any professional or scientific course, both 
teacher and pupil must give their undivided 
attention to these branches and their connec- 
tions with and bearing upon each other. 

Hence, if teachers of seminaries had both 
the necessary time and ability they could not 
teach the business course successfully in con- 
nection with other branches that disconnect 
the reasouings and illustrations that ar** es- 
sential. Tliis uo more implies that graduates 
of business colleges should be profound in all 
that should be taught therein than that every 
young lawyer should be a Webster or a Kent 
on admission to the bar, for each has but 
erected the foundation on which the solidity 
of his future structure greatly depends. Yet 
if it be too imperfect or narrow he will prob- 
ably be a groveler or smatterer, if not a con- 
ceited simpleton in all his practice. In no 
department of science are lectures, illustra- 
tions and recitations more essential in awak- 
ening the reasoning powers of pupils, and the 
well-informed teacher cau always fiud sub- 
jects for dissection in books, business houses 

As in the acquisition of the professions, the 
pupil thus gains much valuable information 
of, and becomes permanently interested in, 
branches to which he here devotes but little 
time. This not only prepares him to act 
more intelligibly in the counting-room, but 
gives a comprehensive knowledge of business 
not attainable in many years by any former 

:qiiallL-d in awak- 
H de- 

process. Such 
ening the reasoning po 
ficieut in calculation oi 
have lost 
defective in them. 

Very truly youi-s, 

Thos. J. Bryant. 


" The better (he fruit the more the tree i 

In that we find consolation, and meckl; 
submit, ao elub away. 


^'^^^..•'-^^Sac^j;- -*?!' 

■ J. U j^ :p'^>j \ ^^' — 

ftud base, followed by the first 
four priDciples. or common 
corapotuid parls of the thir- 
teen ebort letters, supplement- 
ing each principle -with prac- 
tice on its corresponding group 
of letters. The first irregular 
and uDcerlain steps of the 
pupil are best guided by trftc- 
iug-copies. Let the children 
trace with pen or pencil, fol- 
lovring clo>ely each line of tbe 
copy. The results of enthu- 
siastic effort ou the plan of 
simple and scientific develop- 
ment are woaderful- — Prima- 
ry Teachtr. 

The Innocent School* 

He doesn't know very much. 
He con ask quest! 
down in hie text-book, and car 
determine with a good degree 
of accuracy whether the ans. 
wers are repeated correctly, 





holding thu peu in a leviTbcd potii: 
nbove Hpcciinen by the mimy who 
executed off-hand according to direction! 

ihuU be pleitKcrd to receive 
attempt it, and shall take pleasu 

Quld ever bear in mind the appropr 

a stick in his right hand and 
a book in his pocket. He 
consiJers it of much more 
importance to secure obedience 
and submission than intellect- 
ual discipline. He frequently 
says : ' ' Learn your lessons ! 
, ,,, . |, If you ask aoy questions you 

f4fjliy^f^\ shall be punished 1 It is not 
for you to know the reason 
why ! Wiser heads than yours 
or mine have written these 
books, and it is your duly to 
learn what is written, and mine 
to make you do it 1 Study I " 

He I'equire absolute, unques- 
tioning submission. He neith- 
er thinks for himself, nor per- 
mits his pupils to do so. He 
th.. above design, we repeat the parts given in the lastissun of the Journal, showing ^^lie^es his books and follows 
Older in which they are given above. The point of beginning and direction of the his nose. He is the sworn 
< uutjuued so as to form the body, breast and under biU of the bird at a continuous enemy of uormal school teach- 
. nnder of the bill and the top line of the head is best made by changing the pen to 5,-5- jngtitutes aud universal 
i|\ n shght erasure mny be made in the body stroke, or if the outhne of the body , , . ' .... 

1 and sunounding flourishing, reverse the sheet so as to have the bottom from you, "^*' education. \\ ith new text 
specimens showing the practice upon and degree of success attained in executing the books he has no patience, and 
of the person who sends the best copy takes no special interest in new 

fact, he rather 
than half believes that 

, which is from the Latin. Translated, it is: " Labor 

The Writing Class. 



1 1 excite enthusiasm in the writ- 
ing-exercise? " is a question often asked by 
teachers. In my experience, I have awaken- 
ed the most enthusiasm in a class, especially 
of primary pupils, where the matter is a nov- 
elty, by throwing the children upon their own 
resources. I finit explain and illustrate tho 
aiinplu elements and principles which enter 
into the construction of a letter, and then re- 
quire the scholars to direct me how to make 
it : thus teaching them to see, to compare, 
aud to criticise. Nothing pleases children 
more than to communicate tlieir knowledge. 
Pride is hero, which, if properly encouraged, 
is a strong incentive to progress. Let mo 
give you a practical example. 

^■,x yyr ..,^ j:^/^^ makesm.dl 
M on the board, aud cidl the attention of the 
oliws to the general form of tho letter, — that 
it is like double t without tho dots ; that it 
has sharp angles at top, and short turns at 
base. From their previous drill, they easily 
recognize tho different lines which compose 
the letter, — the three right-curves, aud two 
straight Hues, with tho short turns at basu. I 
tell them that these simple parts of the letter 
are olemuuts. I fully iUxislrnte the lines, 
pointing out that the right-curves extend from 
blue to top ; that tho straight lines extend 
fn.un top nearly to base ; that the short bends 
or turns begin a little above, aud end at 
base ; that if the straight hue should run 
dear to base, there would bo no room left for 
the turn ; that if the turn was left out, and 
the straight lino curried to base, there would 
bo a point, the same as at top. I then draw 
tho main line with the short turn at base, 
united to tbe right-curve, and show them a 
compound part of a letter. This, 1 tell them 
is called tho first principle. Nfxl^ they find 
n second compound part Uke the firet, which 
they fi'ftdily name the first principle. I then 
illustrate, by means of longer straight lines, 
the slant of the main lines, and that of the 
curves, aud incite comparison. The points 

at top are noted, and they are 
led to see how the right-curve and straight Hne 
form a sharp upper-angle, also that the 
short turn at base connects the straight line 
with the right-curve. 

,, Now children " (erasing the letters), "can 
you tell me how to make small « .' " " Yes," 
imanimously. "Well, what is the first Une?'' 
All answer, "A curve." " Like this? " mak- 
ing a wrong curve. All hands are up in an 
iustant, and a universal "No " is responded. 
Here you observe the dawn of criticism. The 
children are all alive at the idea tliat they can 
criticise their teacher. " Why is it not right?" 
•' It curves the wrong way." "How should it 
curve?" "To the right." "Oh! it is the 
right-curve, isit?" "Yes." "Well, when 
I ask what the first lins of u is, what should 
you say ? " " The right-curve." "All right; 
now we have started," -naking the right-curve 
on the board, not slanting rightly. All the 
bands are moving excitedly, aud the children 
almost jump from their seats. " ^Vllat is the 
matter now ? " " It don't slant right." " Is 
this right 'i " making it the right slaut. A sat- 
isfied " Yes." " What is the next line in «.'" 
"A straight line." "Like this ? " makiug it 
vertical. Au enthusiastic "No! it don't 
slant." "Then it muBt be a slanting straight 
line." " Yes." " Like this ?" making it co- 
incide with the curved Une, part way down. 
A perfect storm of "No! " "Why isit not 
right now? " "It should not touch the oth- 
er line." "At no place?" "Only at the 
top." " Then it must not slant Hke the cvn^ed 
line?" "No." "Is this right?" "Yes;" 
and calm is restored. 

"Shall I carry the straight lino clear to 
base?" "No." "Why not?" "IJecause 
you must leave room for the turn." 
is the next line?" All answer. "A turn." 
"Like this?" makiug it too broad. S. great 
clamor of " No." *' Don't get exrited, child- 
ren : tell me how il sboidd be made." All 
answer. "It shoidd turn shorter." "Is this 
right ? " " It is." " Are you sure there is a 
turn at base?" "Yes; yes." "Can you 
seethe turn?" "We can." "^Vhatisaturn?" 
" A Short beud in a loiter." " Well isu'l the 
turn part of the next line ? " " No " "Why 
not my young critics?" " Because the tum 

ends at base, and the next line begins at 
base." "If you should leaie out the turn, 
and make the strigbt line as far as has", what 
wo>Ud you have ? " "A point." "I am glad 
you all know the turn." 

"Where does tbe turn begin ? " " A very 
little above the base-line." " Where does the 
turn end?" " Just at the base-Une." "What 
is the next Une, Utile teachers?" "A right- 
curve." "Like this ? " A geneiul "No." 
"Why not?" " It don't slant right." "How 
should it slant ?" " Like the first." " Then 
the last part of w- is like the fiirst? " An ea- 
ger "Yes," " What lines slant aUke in u ? " 
" The straight hnes have one slant, and the 
right curveu have another," " What are the 
parts of the smaU h /" "The right-curve 
and first principle twice." " How many kinds 
of Unes are there in smaU u?'' "Three." 
"Name them, in concert." "Straight line, 
lower turn, right-curve." "What do you 
call these taken separately ?" *• Elements." 
" What are elements?" "The simplest parts 
of letters." " liVhat do you caU the straight 
line, lower turn, and right-curve when com- 
bined ? " " The first principle. " "What 
are principles?" "Compound parts of let- 
ters." " What other letter is made up from 
the same parts as m.'" "Small/" "How 
does it differ from u*" "It has the first 
principle only ouce, and a dot." 

Note.. You see, teacher, that your pupils 
are thoroughly enthusiustic over the fact that 
thoy know the letter in aU its parts, and 
can tell me how to make it. The analysis of 
these alphabetic signs can be made an intel- 
lectual recreation to the youngest writers, 
while the synthesis of the letters from ele- 
ments and principle;* appeals to the construc- 
tive faculty common to childhood. Even the 
earliest practice on lines, elements, and com- 
What ' pO"»fl forms can be made exceedingly inter- 
esting when the child sees that he is truly 
working on a part of some letter. Real work 
delights children Teach your fresh, young 
pupils how to build up the letter from its pri- 
mai-y purts. You ciin have a class of httle 
anhihi-l- .il .■.'■\V. Ilr-.t. ^l.■^lguing the letter 
ill tin- Tirii .) 'I ■ ■ ' I ■ !■ u ith unskilled but 

I'lii'i'i 111- ■ ■ ■ ■!:.■ plan. Let the 

jiupiN 1" ^Mi I i , .■.,;.,! i I.- short, horizou- 

boldiug, and simple forearm t 

take up in order, slanted straight Unes, 

and left curves, angular combinations a 

Edison is a humbug. He daily puts on the 
skuU-cap of his own ignorance, and lives in 
the foggy atmosphere of bis favorite pipe, 
and one of these days he will wrap tbe drap- 
ery of his snuff-stained garments about him 
aud Ue down, unbonored, unwept and unre- 

The above is no ideal sketch. We have 
many such teachers yet lingering in the val- 
leys of our dark comers. It is ouly by per- 
sistent effort that they can be driven from the 
teachers' ranks into the darkness of obscurity. 
— Jiarneif Edn^Mional Monthly. 

St. Joseph, Mo., Dec. U, 1878. 
Edittn- PenmaiVa Art Journal : 

Dear Sir— I have been reading the last 
number of the Art Jodrnal, aud I must say 
that it is the best publication of the kind I 
oversaw. There is more sound, logical read- 
ing in the last number than in any similar 
joni-nal I ever read. Yours truly, 

F. C. CiiArMAN, Penman. 


is hereby extended to penmen aud teachers to 
favor the columns of the JontNALwith items 
of interest and practical thoughts bearing 
upon the profession. 

Mary's Little Lamb. 

e bappr rtaya of pIcaMi 

give tbolr tboogbU b fi 
b mlgbt remafn wjtbou 

Br lUne, wboro Egrpf. 
goated Rometblog new. 

wltbout a qall). 
iblo pl.ii. 

twors moat bow. 

laii'a rlgbt. a uamo to bligbt 
t Bruce will grant no tmca 

EIDd groutliiga bavo forgot. 
Holla back upon tbc beart, 

Writing in Country Soliools. 
Editor I'tnmaii'sArt Jmriial: 

Deab Sib-How con writiag be most thor- 
oughly mid systematically tatight in our coun- 
try suhooUi' 

Being directly interested for the Board of 
Education in our town, I make the inquiry. 
The systems used in cities, of which the 
JoDBKAi. has spoken, is not what we can satis- 
factorily adopt. 

If some one of experience will give me an 
ejpression through the next Jonasii, the 
favor will be duly appreciated. 

Yours truly, 
John B. Mohoan, 
t'eacher of writing, Braiuard Academy, 

Haddam, Conn. 

Want of time and space prevent an extend- 
ed answer to the above enquiry at this time 
What was said in the Dec. issue relative to the 
method of criticism and correction of fatUts m 
the practice of the pupU; ako, the iUustrations 
for positions and the analysis of wiitingare 
ahke applicable to teaching at aU times and 
p aces. W e are aware that tiuiehing writing in 
the nngi-aded coimtry schools is very dif- 
ferent, and much more difficdt than in our 
finely graded city schools. In the former bv an 
unprofessional teacher, we should advise the 
use of some one of the systems of copy-books- 
practicing the copy down the page in sec 
tions as n^rly a. the copy may bVSvided, of 
about one fourth of the length of the hne in 
the^copy-book. thus enabling the pupil ,o 
,°f!l."/r."' "•'o"!'"!' and practice upon i 

a tew letters and principles of writing at a ' 

time, and the teacher to more thoroughly 
criticise and point out to Ibe pupil the special 
fault« in his writing. This short exercise 
being quickly and frequently repented, while 
the faults aiidtLeir corrections are fresh and 
vivid in the pupil's mind, he can more suc- 
cessfully avoid them, and more rapidly acquire 
skill than he could were he allowed to care- 
lessly write an entire line, making faults so 
numerous that, if corrected, he could not half 
remember them, while in the less frequent 
and numerous repetitions of hie copy he has 
less opportunity for their con-ection or gaining 
the mastery of the principal characteristics 
of bis copy. 

We should be pleased to hear from some 
of our many experienced teachers in the coun- 
try in answer to Mr. Morgan's inquiry. 

Flikt, Mien,, Dec. i), 1878. 
Editor Pcnman'x Art Journal : 

Dear Sie — I am a subscriber of your in- 
structive, interesting and valuable paper, and 
voluntarily would like to add my small 
weight of testimony in regard to its helpful- 

Every month I anticipate ils coming with 
eager interest, and only regret that it is 
monthly in issue when I would have it every 
week. In every number I find something 
worth the year's subscription; as for exam- 
pie, in the October number that match- 
less article on "Teaching versus Skill," by 
A. H. Hinman. I think I would like to take 
him by the hand and thank him in be- 
half of myself and those who have not the su- 
perior skill which commands admiration, yet 
who may obtain a certain degree as penmen by 
faithfully serving our fellow men. Whilst I 
am earnestly aiming at improvem nt for ray- 
self, as a practical penman, my one absorb- 
ing thought is : How can I teach better? And 
I have need to ask this question, for I have 
over thirteen hundred children and youths un- 
der my direct instruction and superintendence 
every week, and just here I want to say that 
in your excellent paper I find many valuable 
helps. I am particularly interested iu my 
primary work, an 1 hud the e U-^ of m 
labor in this dej a u t osf " a fj ug I 
send you a few sj u e f om i e I 

"Little PlojI a 
the elates of i y 
old, many as good spec 
ing for your paper the i 
serves, I am e y tin ly yours 


Snperintendent of Wr t ng and Draw u 

Public Schoolb of rimt 

Inclosed with tb above lettei weie 
specimens of w t ng with a pencil by s x j 
of Mrs, Burrows puj Is in the publ s hooL, 
vai7ing iu age f om seven to twelve y a s 
which evinced degree of un foim excel 
leuce, we have rarelj if e er been e luaU d 
by pupils of that age n any publ e school 
Mrs. EuiTows is evidently 
of no ordinary skUl and as her letter and 
indicate, has soul in the work bbe is lomg 
Many such teachers of wr tmg a e vanted u 
our public schools —[Ed 

Suggestions tending to augment the prac- 
tical usefulness of my (unremunerative) labors 
in this special direction are respectfully so- 
licited and will be carefully considered. 
Yours truly, 
E. Steioeb, 

Provoking CMrography. 

Professor S , whose loss is deeply la- 
mented in the scholastic circles of New York, 
was at one time a highly valued contributor 
to the jonrnal of which he afterward took 
charge, and being one day introduced to its 
editor, was greeted with every expressiou 
cordiality and respect. It was a great pi 
ure to meet one whose learning and sen 
badbeen. &c., &c. "But, Professor, " added 
the editor, turning upon him, and seizing his 
hand with sudden earnestness, and with sol- 
emnity iu bis face, "I hope you pray for my 
printers ?" 

The Professor replied that he was vei-y 
happy to offer bis prayers in behalf of any who 
were in need of them ; but what was the spe- 
cial urgency in this case? 

"All!" answered the editor, shaking his 
head impressively, "if you could but bear 
them swear when they get to work 
manuscript !" — JJa/i-per'a. 

Ames' Compendium 

of Practical and Oruaaiental Penman- 
ship is deMgned especially for the use of 
professional penmen and artists. It yives 
ail unusual number of alphabets, a well 
graded series of practit^ul exercises, and 
S[>ec-imeii8 for off-hand flourishing, and a 
great number of specnmeu sheets of en- 
grossed title pages, i-eHoIiitions, certili- 
cates, memorials, &c. It is the most com- 
prehensive, practical, UBefi'l, and popular 
work to all classes of professional peumen 
ever published. Sent, post-paid, to any 
addre-ss on receipt of S5 00; or for a pre- 
mium for a club of 12 subscribers to 
the Journal. 
The following are a few of the many 

Penstock Provoked. 

The following letter speaks for itself — per- 
haps too forcibly, and yet is not altogether 
uncalled for : 

Mb. Editob — Was it the printer's devil or 
the devil's printer who meddled witb my 
paragraphs in the last issue of your journal ? 
My first thought when reading them was that 
I had been anticipating my New Year calls, 
and was somewhat fuddled, but I think I am 
able now to trace the mistakes in arrange- 
ment to the right source, and I would ask the 
guilty one how he would bke to have this par- 
agraph specially applicable to him, disjointed 
as follows : " You are respected by no one" 
— when T intended to make appear— "more 
highly than by Penstock," 

flattering notices fro 



1 I CO Id ho 

es five ye 
s these W sb 
it BO well de 

An Interesting Calculation, 

Mr, Spofford, the Librarian of Congress, 
has discovered the cause of all the trouble in 
business. It is too much interest on borrow- 
ed money. He says that one of the causes of 
bankruptcy is that so few persons properly 
estimate the difference between high and low 
interest, and therefore borrow money at a 
ruinous rate that no legitimate business can 
stand. Very few, Mr. Spofford thinks, have 
figured on the difference between six and 
eight per cent. One dollar loaned for a hun- 
dred yeai-B at six per cent, witb interest col- 
lected annually and added to the principal, 
will amount to $840, At eight per cent, it 
amounts to $2,L'0a. or nearly seven times as 
much. At three per cent, the rate in Eng- 
land, it amounts to $19.25, whereas, at ten 
per cent, which has been a very common rate 
in the United States, it is $12,809, or about 
seven hundred times as much. At twelve 
per cent, it amounts to $8S,07.i, or more than 
four thousand times as much. At eighteen 
per cent, it amounts to $15,144,007. At 
tweutv-four per cent, which we sometimes 
hear spoken of, it reaches the sum of $2,- 
451,799,404. One hundred dollars boiTowed 
at sis per cent, with interest compounded an- 
nually, will amount to $1,842 in fifty years 
wh le the sa ue on one h ndred at S per cent 
wll amo ntto Ir* 90 n fifty yeais One 
tl ousand To la at t n i ent comj ounded 
V II run J to $ ] 1 u fifty years — Nor 
mal MontJ yl 

Now IS the Time 
ul scr be for the Tourn vl and b g n w th 
"cw year and a new volume Back 

25 Pabe Place New T k ) 
Nov JO 18 8 I 
Editor Penman's A 1 1 Jtmrmil : 

Deab Sui— I take pleasure in aCv 
that I have forwarded to your addr pj 

of the Educational Directory for 187 

Please accept this book as a fre h Q 

meut of my labors in behalf of all ed na 

interests generally and of educationa 
ture in particular. 

Numerous indications and expres d 

me to hope that both the Year Book Ed 
cation and the Educational Du-ecto ( h h 
ure hereafter to be issued regu'arl n n 
formity with the statements in the p 
and on page 100 of the Directory) will prove 
useful reference books, not only for all active 
educators, but also for clergymen, parents, 
students and the pubbc generally. 
In the same degree that it becomes appar- 
itto aU educational institutions that a full 
Id correct enumeration is of the greatest i^xi- 
portance to them, it wiU foUow that aU ne 
cessary information concerning such institu- ' 
tions wdl hereafter be promptly furnished for 
my publications above mentioned, and thus 
their constantly increasing value as to cor 
rectness and completeness may be reUed 

inrfy, T.-oy, N. 1'. 


-.-.J tiic uooK or an dooieb unon 
^-Ptfif. G. r. Stoelewell. yetcark. 




Ornamental and Artistic 



without whioli no application will receive attention. 

F T. 8 () :\r ■ s 
Business College. 

AI^UA>'V% iV. V. 

Hrlrnilllr Rtii 


FOLSOM & CAE.HAHT, Proprietors. 

DiHtliiotivc FoatiHM-i- 

Model Copy-Books 

P" A C K >V R D ' S 


Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


VmiI 111 bII (be Du»ln<:.<> CoIIcgeB In the country, 
and unaun>aBM..<I a« & text-book. Specimen copies 

S. S. PACKARD. Publisher. 



-^-'•i ""-M cunt II it , """t;^ 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 
Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand-Writing and Accounts, 


We bave eeveral appropi 

itB, Handbills will be more 
UiiltlirntOB in Kleeiroi 

ociolly for displaying 

copy. Korty-oljtht lltt"" "f 





Ptioto-LltlioOTli of tlie M's Prayer, 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publisliers, 




Common School .'|;'"* ,'*° '''"piuiH^^ralucar 

Elementary VA\U\on, Double Entry jprmolplo*- 

Commercial '''''•■'■. '*••■''■''• '"•■' '*'""'" ^^"; 
Countine-Hout;i:' ' ' ' ■ ■■ ■ i ■ -■■ i '■.■ i- "i 

Not a Revision, butan Entirely 

N J^: W SKRI ii^S' 

llii' .\,i..f, .Ve<,((.(, /i««( end t'Ae<t;iMl Bookkeepli 


.\'"'."': '■'':"":•""'■■ 

tvlll bi< of great valuo to them. 

Webitve tlie lurgcBt nod flneet collection of ppuniaii- 
iUlp and pbotOgruphB of eiimple-work that <!aii be 

CinuliiragtviDg full purtloulore will be mailed on 

We n-ler'. by permi«lon, to S. 8. Pnckrird, D. T. 
Ame», L. P. Spencer, H. C. Spencer, T. J. SlMvart, 


by return of mnil, or by expreoB us stated, any arilol 
uamed m the folluwlnft list. 

By orderlnR from us, patrooa can rely not only 
upon receiving a superior article, but upou doing 8o 

Ditto" bJiif leatiier and gilt 7 60 

Ames' Copy-SllpB for iuiitructlou and practice in 
practical writing, per abeet, containing 40 ex- 

fiOsboetaTsoiuVuetaoVcopieaj 3 00 

100 " 100 " " S 00 

Bristol Board,3abeettbtck,32s28m.,])erabeet, f 60 
•> 92X2H per abeele, by Kxpress, 30 

per Bh«et quire 
by mail, by ex 
B. drivwg. paper. bol-presB, lSx30 In., $ IS f 1 2U 

y carda, birds ftud ecrolla, 


20 Kcniblc Hi., Utica, N. Y. 


Ilk', or pendrawing, fresh fron 

tDS written for 25c. per doxei 
quality of blank cards, good : 

lable I 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens 

^UOUT HAND Wltl'nSO.— T«ache 

I UOK I B 4 U bur visiting car<l 

TEU,— A ix-nman of good a 
:••.) ability In couducling cln 

The «'i 

Forged. Disguised & Anonymous Writing 

Address. I>. li. nirsSEI.ItlAN, 

U'lat Oem City Business ColloRe, Quincy, HI. 


What Everybody Wants. 



CougJon'a Normal Systrmi o 


These are good works for 

Key to Speuwjrtan Penmaua 


l^iyaou. Duutuu and Scrlbu 
Spencerlaii Uompendiuiu. . . 

Bi>ongc Rubber, 2x2 in., ver 

II you want a an-flp-bool: 

acoompamed by cash to 

cards wiU nenivt attention. 

^t published by us 

Empire Weatwuni, u 

ivill rcoi 

ion from Its inspection. 
rrtary nf SlaU. Wanhing- 

The lllmtratlon of the subject Is admirable: —Son. 
.V. It. Waite Chief Juatiet U. S. Sitprr-nit Court. WoMh- 
infftfftt, D. C. 

The Osntonnlal Picture of Progress Is o worV of 
great ability and real geuius,— Hen. Bdwarda Pierrt' 
pout, UinUUr to Hngland, 

Sec.^War, Wankinglon, V. ' 


Ex-See. C. S. Trr4i 

', iViMhingUm, I 

.—Hon O. B. Britlow 

e history o 

; Wathin'gtan, D. C. 
r VonScho. 


Of superior BNOLIsn man- 
ufnr-tur^: in tS JV,,„,fc^r»; s.iir- 

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138anai40 Or 



PiibUslietl IHontlUj-, at siOS Bi-o ad-waj , fc 

Sl.OO per ^'oa 


VOL. III. NO. 2. 

;oUcg«8, occupying 


inorikl Agent Speocerlau Copy Books, 

TAVLOB & CO.. New Yot 


805 BBOvDWAV. 



Late Ouily, WiUauu ft WulWortU'a, 


a'Ho.Ti.^ SIVY pmucE, M. A„i---ait*-. 

39 SoutU ToutU Street, PliUacIelpblii. 

NIESS FOKJIS," liiolu 


WntiULi iu the Public Schools, 

There are 5,900,000 adulte enumei-ated in 
tbe last United States census who could 
neither read nor write. This means that 
0716 sevent?i of the entire population on the 
average, in this laud of schools, stands in 
need of the services of the writing teacher. 
The percentage of illiteracy is as follows 
among the population of the sereral States : 

South Carolina 58, Georgia .'JG, Florida 55, 
Alabama and Mississippi 54, Louisii^ua and 
North Caroliua.i2, Virginia 52, Tennessee 41, 
Arkansas and Texas 39. Kentucky 30, West 
Virgiuift 2C,, Delawai-e 25, Maryland "24, Mis- 
souri 18, Rhode Island 13, Indiana 11, Kan- 
sas 10, Ohio and Pennsylvania 9, Massachu- 
setts, New Jersey and Minnesota 8. Illinois, 
Wisconsin, California, New York, Counect- 
iout, Vermont and Oregon 7, Michigan and 
Nebraska G, Iowa 5, Maine and New Hamp- 
shire 4, and Nevada '2. 

These five and a half million adulta with 
nil annually increasing army of echool child- 
ren now numbering fe« milliona, requiring 
chirographic instruction, makes a formidable 
array of iguomuce in this essential require- 
ment, which has become a probld;n for edu- 
cators and statesmen. 

The menus estoblished for solving this 
problem ore the 250,000 teachers of our pub- 
lic schools, who ore supposed to devote about 
enA-sixth of their time to instruction in wrlt^ 

Of the 250.000 teachers, 200,000 are fe- 
males and 50,000 are males, a proportion of 
four females to one male. 

Assuming that the time of 40,000 teachers 
be spent wholly in teaching the art of 
writing to the school children of the land, we 
have an average of 250 pupils to each teach- 
er daily, or 40 per hour— an average of a 
minute and a third to each. 

Hence, from this view of the situation it 
will be seen that some more general method 
of instruction must be resorted to than the 
ancient oue of individual instruction, aud 
that the essentials and i-udiments of the art 
only can bo properly undertaken iu the public 
schools. Moreover, that which is attempted 
to be taught must be adapted to the very 
limited capacity of the c~hildren of the inastes 
and of femalf teic/iers, who principally in- 
struct them. 

This raises the all-important question of 
w/iiit and how much of the art of penmanship 
is to be taught in public schools, and also the 
ability of women to teach practically to boy^; 
a« wpII as girln. When we regard writing as 
a prnctictl art, as we surely must, in its rela- 
tion to public schools, tbe fact that it must be 
taught largely by example conjoined with 
precept, tlie physical ability of the teacher to 
furnish a proper example by actual perform- 
ance in the presence of the pupil becomes of 
first consequence, and if the execution of a 
plain business hand even is to be attempted, 
the ability o( the teacher 1o write such a 
haud is of paramount importance. That even 
a majority of our 250,000 teachers can do this, 
is doubtful, and the question as to how iltey 
aieUiching even the rudiments of writing 
without this ability, becomes an important as 
well as a curious one. That they can all write 
some ItoiD is to be presumed ; but an imitation 
of their example, either in manner of execu- 
tion or style of letters ' 'executed," they them- 
selves would protest against. 

This leads us to acousiderationof the "ways 
and means" which have been devised from 
time to time for promulgating the art in the 
public schools under conditions similar to the 

In the infancy of the public school system, 
before paper had become cheap and universal, 
clrisses were taught to trace the forms of let- 
ters with the forefinger in sand, and the 
"sand-board" constituted one of the prom- 
inent features in every " first-class" primary 
school; the "sand class" being taught by 
the celebrated "Laucasteriau System" which 
was once universally "adopted." 

The era of the "gi-ay goose quill" and 
"fool's cap" soon followed, when the chief 
qualification of the teacher centered in the 
ability to make and "meud my pen" to the 
saiisfnetiou of the young tyro by day. and the 
writing of wise saws for copy slips consti- 
tuted his nocturnal resentment. 

But even these, our personal reminiscences, 
have had their day and the cold and unpoetic 
steel pen and modern black-boards. chai-ts 
aud copybooks have displaced the sand-board 
of old; while the Ellfieorth, Spfiirfnan, Pai/- 
3»«, Dnnttn and Scrihner, DunU'ntan and 
other systems compete for the honors of 
adoption a? impn^vemeuts on the original 
*■ LaJua^UriaK. 

The witing master too. who then " flour- 
ished" in his primal grandeur is, I fear, des- 
tined to become on institution of the past, 

unless he bestirs himself and learns to read 
the "signs of the times" for even the ancient 
"school marm " has been transformed into the 
Teacher of to-day and multiplied like the 
grasshopper; while the 'knights of the quill" 
stand aloof, few and far between bemoaning 
their hard fate and bespattering each other 
with worse than their vilest ink; or, Sancho 
Panza like, keep up a running tilt with the 
windmill of fate. 

Now, as a profession, if the writing teach- 
ers are to be recognized in the future, they 
must imitate the philosophers and carefully 
survey the nature and relation of things as 
they are, and arc to be, and adjust themselves 
in harmoi.y therewith. They can thus fulfill 
a mission at once pleasant and honorable, if 
not profitable; for certainly no one can doubt 
from the statistics that there is yet ample 
room for the whole profession in the upper 
educational story to lead and control as well 
as supplement the work done in our public 

Already I find individuals engaged in intel- 
Ugent and appreciate^! work in the public 
schools of Cleveland, Buffalo, Pittsburg, Cin- 
cijuiati, Detroit and lesser cities ; while in the 
llffiiecity of Hartford, Conn., is a clear illustra- 
tion of the capacity for competent workers of 
the craft; four of whom are regularly em- 
ployed in the public schools, 

I have found in my exjierience as teacher 
and representative of a system of penman- 
ship, that there is generally a wide gap be- 
tween teachers of penmanship aud the lead- 
ing educators of the day, outside of business 
colleges, which to their credit and emolument 
have always extended the right haud to the 
profession, and that it is with great difficulty 
that their co-operation can be secured in the 
public schools. This appears to me to arise 
from the diversity of views of the subject ex- 
isting between them, which must be reconciled 
before they can ever harmonize. 

The penman prides himself on his attain- 
ments in the art and the application of the 
rules and principles of penmanship in its 
performance with but little regard for the 
principles of the art of teaching others to 
do the same ; while the educator, recognizing 
and appreciating the penman's personal skill 
and talent, feels that without the amplication 
of the principles of the art of teaching Httle 
progress can be made iu imparting that skill 
to others ; and that mediocrity of talent as a 
penman if combined with the true art of 
teaching is more valuable than the abihty to 
write, however well without the teaehi«ig 

Hence it seems to me, that if penmen would 
strive to become masters of the abt op teaoh- 
iNG in conjunction with that of the art of 
WTiting, their union will entitle them to rec- 
ognition as worthy of the respect and confi- 
dence of educators which is now often with- 

That pubUc sentiment, custom and demand 
in matters of penmanship are constantly 
changing there can be no doubt, aud that the 
tendency is toward simplicity and brevity of 
style to meet the multifarious requirements of 
the times, and it is the penman's highest duty 
to himself and the public to not only keep 
abreast of the times, but anticipate theinevit- 
able march of events : so that he may antici- 
pate and even welcome the improved writing 
machine and hear with composure the phono- 
graphic telephone sounding the death knell 
to our entire profession I 

But in the interval let u 
the current methods of i 
in the public school 
must suffice for tbiG 

In most schools the use of head-line copy 
books has now superseded all other means of 
furnishing models for imitation and convey- 
ing a correct impression of the forms aud 
proportions of writing, although in many 
country schools such a copy book is still a lux- 

Although so uniformly used, yet the meth- 
ods of their employment by different teachers 
is as varied as their ideas of teaching. In too 
many schools but httle attention is paid to the 
plan of teaching laid down by the author, or 

bers of a series, each teacher and frequently 
each pupil, selecting such numbers as suits his 
taste, or the supposed capacity of the pupil, 
who is allowed to write the allotted portion 
daily without much help or hindrance by the 
teacher, at unemployed hours of the session. 
In other and better schools regular classes are 
formed, each having the same number of copy- 
books and writing at the same time and on the 
same page aud word throughout the entire 
book; the teacher illustrating and explaining 
the successive lessons upon the black-board or 
by reference to charts, iu advance of the class 

Still others follow literally the arrangement 
and nomenclature of the author letting conse- 
queneeL take care of themselves. 

As to methods of teaching, also, a great di- 
versity of plans are pursued ; some timing ob 
OOUNTiNO each movement, others allowing the 
work to proceed nd libilum, holding the pupil 
responsible for accuracy merely, without re- 
gard to time or rhythm. 

Another plan consists in an excessive use of 
pKACTicE PAPER for many lessons before writ 
iug the blank of the book, accomphshing 
scarcely a book in a term or even school year, 
with a view of producing something extra as 
specimens of proficiency. Tracing the copy 
with a dry pen as a preliminaiy exercise is 
still practiced, although latterly the use of 
tracing copy books with dotted or colored let- 
tei-s to be traced with pen aud ink, are largely 
used, especially for beginuers. In short, it 
will be observed, that the variety of methods 
is only limited by the ingenuity and enterprise 
of the author or teacher ; each method having 
for its object tbe application of some principle 
of instriiction by which certain desired results 
are to bo attained iu developing the handwrit- 
ing of the pupils. 

In general, the writing exercise is under 
the direction of each class teacher, hut iu the 
beat schools the plan of assigning a single 
teacher, proficient in the art, to direct the 
writing of all the classes of the school is in 
vogue. The principal of the school some- 
times assumes the oversight of the writing 
exercises. Both methods point to the pro- 
fessional writing teacher as the proper person 
to supervise and direct instruction in this ex- 
ceptional branch of teaching ; and if such 
teachers as have skill and aptnes.i in this 
direction would urge the adoption of such a 
method in all schools it could be soon brought 
about. Ktleast one sixth of the public money 
should be claimed for teaching this essential 
branch. The best part of this money is di- 
verted from its legitimate application for sup- 
porting other so-called " higher" branches 
not specified in the school lawe, and writing 

'S J^JJ^ 

IB quietly ignored or reduced to the mmi- 

ET*-ry Hiith teacher in the public Bcbools 
Hhould be a writing teacher bj profesBion, ho 
that, as A rule, wherever there are kix organ- 
ized classes in any school the writing teacher 
■hotitd lufscri bis cUiiin to bis share of the 
Hchool money. Wore thin done, and proper 
unity and organization effected among mem- 
berx of the craft ko that their claims could 
not be ignored an now, or crowled aside by 
profewionat jealouny of other ctasH teachers, 
who, I regret to find, not infrequently, look 
with jealously upon so-called tfpecial teachers 
aH diverting juxt no much money from their 
own wilarieH, and, conBctiuently. secretly op- 
pofle them, the duwn of the writing leacheni' 
millenium would bo at band, and one of Ihtr 
legitimate reuults of this vpry convention 
would be acconiph'flhed. 

Vagaries of Writing. 

The pen, in di0crent bands, gives such 
ioflnit« variety to tbe representative signs of 
thought, that it is difficult to understand how 
one implement devoted to a single use— that 
of making ideas visible can produce the 
same characters in such n variety of forms. 
When wo all made our own pens, and, conse- 
quently, no two were exactly ahke, remark- 
able differcnccK in rhirography were inevita- 
ble ; Iml now, when iu a thousand gross there 
is but the Hliglitcht vikriution in sbnpe, size or 
flexibility, one would suppose that something 
like an approach to uniformity in hiindwriting 
might prevail. It is not so, however; the 
world writes as many hands with the stereo* 
typed styh'K of the cutler as it did formerly 
with the product of the goose. 

Some people, we ore told, consider it vulgar 
to write a plain clerkly hand. The English 
ariatooraey are said to entertain this absurd 
idea; and certainly many of tbeur ^'how a 
sovoroigu contempt for the graces of penman- 
ship. The autograph of the nobleman whose 
genealogy diitcH back to the Norman Conquest 
is not unfrequently as iUegible as that of the 
iron-clad warrior whose title and stolen lands 
be inherits, ojid whoso sole literary aocora- 
phshment was the ability to make certain 
hieroglyphics, which he called his signature, 
with the point of his dagger— uning his bared 
arm as an ink stand when he wanted "writing 
fluid." Sovereigns, with few exceptions, 
make it a point to write villainous hands. 
Queen Victoria is one of the exceptions. Her 
autograph is remarkably good for a sceptre- 
swaying hand. Her majesty's German rela- 
tions, however, and iu fact the heads of 
nearly all the royal houses in Germany, are 
slovenly chirograpbers. A teu-yeiir old pupil 
in one of our common schools would be 
ashamed to father the scrawls of most of their 
■ serene" and "royal highnesses, " 
Lord Cheatei-field, who, with all his affecta- 
tion, was a man of sense, was the only Eng- 
lish peer we remember to have heard of who 
iunisted that every gentleman should "hold 
the pen of a ready writer." In his K-ttera to 
his son he scolds that yoimg scapegrace 
roundly for not taking more pains with his 
manuscript. " Your hand," he writes "is an 
illiberal one ; it is neither a hand of business 
nor of 11 gentleman ; but the hand of a school- 
boy writing bis exercises, which he hopes 
will never he read. Upon my word," he adds, 
" the writing of a genteel, plain hand is of 
more importance than you think." DeQuin- 
oey. in his "Opium Eater," says the French 
aristocracy at the close of the last century 
considtred it crediUible to write as "with the 
Venerable skewer or a paii- of snuffers." 

Whether handwriting affoi-ds a true indica- 
tion of menUl character is a quesition upon 
which " doolore disagree," We know ladies 
without a single mental characteristic in com- 
mon whose penmanship is almost identical. 
But then this is the result of mechanical 
teaching, Thesanie " lady'shand " istaught 
iu almost all our faKhiouable boarding-schools, 
and A very uiouotouous, meaningless hand it 
is. We are inchned to think that most people 
who have not been drilled to write in accord- 
ance with a particular Rystem, rto, to some ex- 
tent, betray their habits of thought in their 
handwriting. If their idtvis are vague and 
confused, so. iu most cases, is their penman- 
ship. If. on the other hand, tboy think 
clearly, they generally write methodically. 
The man who has a dear conception of his 
subject, and whose thoughts flow freely, con- 

nectedly and in their proper order, generally , 
writes legibly and often gracefully. In some , 
cases, however, the hand seems to have no ' 
sympathy with the bead, aud disguises logical ] 
argument and even brilliant metaphor in 
shapes most monstrous. Horace Greeley, of | 
the Tribune, was certainly a clear-headed 
man. and expressed bis views- iu print— with 
perspicuity and force ; yet his cliirograpby, 
if one maybe allowed so to say, was extra- 
diabolical. Admiral Collingwood -Nelson's 
distinguished pupil and friend — insisted that 
the obarncter of a lady might be deciphered 
in her handwriting. He says the "dashers 
are all :mpudent. however they may conceal 
it from themselves and others: and the scrib- 
blers flatter themselves with the vain hope 
that as tbeir letters caunot be read, they may 
be mistaken for sense." In a very sensible 
family " yarn," published in his " Memoirs," 
he cautions one of the Misses Collingwood 
against writing with " crooked lines and great 
flourishing dashes," lest she write away her 
good name as her father's daughter. The 
fashionable zig-zag taught in our day at "fin- 
ishing iicademies." is lit once inartistic and 
illegible, and more detestable, we think, than 
the scribbling and dashing of which the ad- 
miral complained. 

That handwriting in many iiistancps affords 
a key to character, we verily believe, but the 
cases in point are perhaps not sufficiently nu- 
merous to warrant us iu saying that such is 
the rule. For example, the manuscript of 
Louis Napoleon was of a kind that would be 
held to indicate indecision, nervousness, want 
of energy and a geueral fogginess of intel- 
lect. These certainly were not traits of a 
mind that for a time controlled the policy of 

The handwriting question is one in which 
editors have a direct interest, for they are 
subjected to many trials by correspondents 
with uneducated aud nml-educated right 
bauds. We, therefore, earnestly recommeud 
all who write for the press to lori'tf and not 
»e.ribhU. Charlotte Bronte thus describes the 
kind of peum-msbip which finds most favor 
in the editorial sanctum: "No pointsharahly 
picking the optic uei"ve, but a clean, meUow, 
pleasant manuscript, that soothes you ns you 

The Writing Class. 

Editor PtHmiin-.-, Art Jouiu-il : 

Deab SiB— Permit a junior member of our 
' ' glorious profession " to say a word on Broth" 
er Faysou's method of imparting enthusiasm. 
Perhaps I don't understand him exactly, at 
least, I think he is writing beneath himself, 
or under some kind of a shadf, because the 
kind of enthusiasm he depicts is as easily 
aroused as firing off a lonJed pistol. Children 
are always ready for noise and fun and every 
teacher know-* that enough of the former will 
come of itself and that by Mr. P's method 
children may be amused till the teacher is ex- 
hausted and noise enough made to cause the 
passer by to think the umsquerade ball which 
Taui O'Shauter saw. was in progress and if 
on horseback would lake care to keep his 
" Maggie" from being decaudleated. 5Iy 
reader is thinking by this time it is easy 
enough to tear down, but not so easy to build 
up— granted. The first step in teaching any 
thing, writing not excepted, is for the teacher 
himself to be thoroughly taught — a complete 
master of his subject. And the next step is to 
thoroughly understand the machine he pro- 
poses to manipulate. 

If the organist or the mechanical engineer 
were as ignorant of the mechanism and pow. 
ers of their respective machines as many teach- 
ers are of the mental and physical structure of 
their pupile, they would very soou be discharg- 
ed Knowingyour subjectandiw^ywt^thenthe 
next step is to get the complete confidence of 
your pupils. If the soldier is doubtful of his 
geueral. be will not fight well, but if be thinks 
the "ohl man" is completely " up to snuff." 
he does bis "le%'el best" at all times. So 
with the pupil, if be thinks you know all 
about vrriting from the marks young Cain and 
Abel made with their marble shooters in the 
sand of the Euphrates down to the '" round 
writing " of our German brother, he will take 
your orders and obey them as a matter of 
course. Then if your " oombinatiou " is right, 
success is the inevitable consequence. And 
the man who makes lawyers, doctors, preach- 
ers, poets, merchants, generals and every one 

else that is anybody, must be a general aud 
somebody himself, and lay out his work with 
skill. As a hint I will give my plan of Brother 
P's. lesson IV, January Journal.l would begin 
something like this: Children, ice are all go- 
ing to learu to write, not merely to write so 

it can be read and so we can write to our i 
friends, and copy nice stories, iind poems and ■ 
all sucb things as we may want to copy; but 
elegant writing like this, (showing some 
of tbe very best) aud this (show some nice , 

specimens from telling whose and ' 

what I may know of bim). Now wouldn't | 
your mother be glait to see you bring home 
some writing like this and know that you 
wrote it. Well now you all hii\e hands and 
fingers, arms aud eyes just like tbe men of 
whom I told you jind they were once little boys 
in school just like you, and you will soon 
be men aud good writers ns they are now, 
and I have been over all tbe road that you 
will have to pass over and I've rolled all the 
stones away that I could aud I'll show you 
how to bop over the others. Well let's begin 
(stationery being distributed, I would put 
small children on slates, larger ones on pen 
and paper) I'll draw two lines on tbe board 
here to represent the ruled lines on your pa- 
per (and slates). You will begin on tbe top 
line so, and come down to the lower line so. 
Don't go above the upper line nor below tbe 
lower line. Have you all made one yet? Is 
it straight like mine? No, but its nearly so. It 
should be quite straight, perfectly straight. 
You can all stop now. (Children stop and 
wonder what's up.) Did you ever see a letter 
that looked like this? No. Well it is no let- 
ter but we call it the first principle (I 
swear by Spencer), and it is found iu 
twenty-three out of the twenty. six let- 
ters of our alphabet, and we can make 
uoue of those letters correctly till we cau make 
this "slanting straight line." Now it is not 
going to take a week to make this little line, is 
it? No. Nor half a week, is it? No. I be- 
lieve wp can make it in half an hour. Tbey 
think so. Hold on James don't take the start 
of us : (here tbe teacher must be all eyes to 
prevent '' scribbling." Make it a heinou>i 
crime. I'll repeat it in caps HEINOUS 
CRIME for I regard it as the cause of poor 
writing). Now watch me (be sure every one 
does it) make the first principal — make it cor- 
rectly on the board and in groups of about 4 lines 
equidistant. Groups ditto; but double distance. 
Now make them just as I have. Teacher 
now leaves the board and goes to each pupil aud 
where there is a group made wrong maki^s one 
right along side, but giving personal attentiou 
to the poorest writer only if pressed for time, 
and praising effort only, but being cheerful and 
jovial with all. A few personal rounds will 
get the first principle pretty well. Now tbe 
right curve in tbe same way. Next right curve 
aud straight line joined iu angle. Never 
leave a hne till tbey all make it approximately 
correct. Now the straight line aud right 
curve joined in turn. The advantage of all this 
is practice, movement aud criticism and anal- 
ysis. Now let them begin and join these 
three lines and lo, the small (' stands before 
them abnost perfect. They have built it up 
line by line and are astonished, debghted, cn- 
thuned, aud all the time tbey have been quiet- 
ly working at high tenswn. You have worked 
them instead of their working you. Each 
lesson iu penmanship must be given ou the 
same general plan, aud, like the novehst. keep 
tbem interested to tbe end aud entirely ignor- 
ant of tbe dtrumerpent. Be careful not to 
overshoot tbe work nor to deceive lliem in 
any way, Tbeir parents Ue to them enough. 
Let them always fiud things just as you repre- 
sent tbem. When you come to a hard letter 
say so, divide it aud conquer. Notice the 
size I have made these principles and the i, 
and the amount of "practice " I got before I 
got the (■ built up. Follow up this Uue of at- 
tack and by the time you get through with u 
aud tt you can bid farewell to practice ou tbe 
first two principles. Children soon tire on 
one or two letters or any one copy, and it is 
next to impossible to get enough faithful prac- 
tice out of them to master any one letter un- 
less you give it to them in broken doses. 
Then thej work like beavers to find out tbe 
object, Cbildibh curiosity is a powerful ally 
uuder the management of the skillful teacher. 
Nothiiig has been said, above, of movement, 
pen-holding, position, &c. They are treated 
in tbe "manuals." I have been uniformly 

successful in making all the letters of large 
size first. Dou't know whether the idea is 
original with me or not. Of course every 
teacher should have the ** manuals " aud keys 
of the leading systems. 

Hoping the above remarks "scattering*' 
though they are, may be footprints 
in the saud to some youug brother, 
I am respectfully and fraternally yours, Ac. 
Geo. T. Btla™. 
Hillsboro, O.. Jan. 20, 187!!. 


It seems to us thftt we can see a perpetual 
conflict between free movement and exact- 
ness of form. Most teachers claim to teach 
and use the fore-arm, or the combiued move- 
ment, but the copies being, in most cases, 
engraved or written with the fiuger move- 
ment, they are geuerally so exact that no 
one could imitate them while using a free 
movement, and the scholars, in some cases, 
are permitted to write with the finger move- 
meut, in order that they, too, may produce 

A close observer tells us that, being in a 
class-room where a well-known penman was 
conducting a writing exercise, he noticed 
that all the scholars were writing with the 
finger movement, while the teacher was talk- 
u" fore-arm movement, aud the latter seemed 
displeased wheu the matter was alluded to by 
the visitor. We have seen writing done by 
pupils of the penman refen-ed to, which was 
very well executed, but with tbe finger 
movement. In most of tbe specimens that 
have come under our observation, the small 
letters seem to have been made in the same 
way. A friend of ours, who was a pupil of 
Father Spencer, tells us that be used a good 
deal of fiuger movement. We would like to 
know w'at the " orthodox" opinion is among 
penmen in regard to this subject. Can ex- 
act forms be produced with the fore-arm 
movement? We confess that we see more 
practical merit and beauty in the rapid, easy, 
flOR^lig, cyrespoudiug band of some of our 
penmen than in their slow, labored writing. 
Which style ought to be taught ? 

In regard to methods of teaching, it is our 
opinion thut we cannot dwell too frequently 
ou the principles. Unless tbe curves, straight 
line, turns aud angles can be well made, 
there is no use in tryiug to form accurate let- 
ters. Some of our pupils whe have a good 
eye for form will analyze letters for them- 
selves, but with the great majority it requires 
" line upon line, and precept upon precept." 
Our eyes must see for tbem. We are con- 
stantly ill danger, too, of thinking that 
things which are perfectly plain to us must 
be equally so to our pupils, and, thus thinking, 
we are apt to ascribe their failures to dullness, 
and show impatience in many cases where we 
ought to see good reason for commendation. 

The tracing method is certainly a good one 
for young pupiL*. and we are inclined to 
believe that it will be used much more exten- 
sively in tbe future than it is now. With 
proper oversight ou tbe part of the teacher, 
the pupil is compelled not only to see the 
exact lines, but to make them. There is, 
however, a strong tendency to trace with the 

All tbe written work of pupils, even their 
figuring ou slate and black-board, should be 
constantly subjected to inteUigent criticism 
as to the penmanship, and every teacher owes 
it to his pupils to set a good example in this 
respect, — to show that, while he asks them 
to take pains with their writing, he himself 
practices what he preaches. In too many 
schools the efforts of the writing-master are, 
to a great extent, neutralized by the bad ex- 
ample and indifference to penmanship shown 
by tbe other teachers. But let ua not de- 
spair. Tbe idea that it is a mark of genius 
to write an illegible scrawl is passing away. 
Tbe Queit will hasten its exit.— i/^/n* Gue«t. 

Now is the Time 

to subscribe for the Jouknal and begin with 
the ^ew year and a new volume. Back 
numbers may be had at the regular sub- 
scription rates, from aud including Septem- 
ber, 187T. in all sixteen numbers, back from 
.January 1. 1879. The whole sixteen num- 
bers will be hcut. post-paid, on receipt of $1. 

Now is the time to send in your clubs, 
et them begin with the new volume. 

\.K I JOl KNAI. 

Due<t electric germ— life of pure trntb 
ONpriDg In soul-fomiBof ct«ri3Blliglit; 
aood tlin loul of Juatios. atroug vltb zet 
o triumph's bltftaoit peoka our way to 1)| 

uorgy of boly ti 

bod by «artb'« laflt, 
I'loil, iiaiigbt can bini 

Tlio giiUi' of iio[U|i Aud b 
iVo De«d tbo nilitht of mini 

VroiigUt luto Ufu 

witb B 



iiood hlgU rcasu 
ro loako iiB 0(11111 
□nod respect fo 


d biitll.. 


ua ecir- 
oucb for I 

iiuod pr .phDllc 

foruBldht for i 


>UB to live for rlRlit, 
I u dying prftlae. 

Story of a Noted Counterfeiter. 

In the i-ect-'iit eraminfttiou of Jacob Ott, au 
alleged counterfeiter, before n United States 
Commissioner in this city ; his ftssooiate 
Chnrles Ulrioh, who did the very akillfiil en. 
graving upon the counterfeit-plates, gave the 
following interentiug history of his remftrkable 

"I was horn," said Ulrich, " in Dantzic, 
(Jermauy, forty-throe yi-ai-s ago, and there 
learned the engraver's trade, I went to Ber- 
lin, then to London, and iu I8.'>3 came to Kew 
York. I wont abroad again as a volunteer 
during the Crimean War. I have hved in se- 
veral cities of the United Stiites; eight years 
were passed in the Peuiteutiary at Columbus, 
Ohio, for counterfeiting. When I was dis- 
charged iu 187«, Iwent into the lithographing 
business at Columbus with the warden of the 
prifiOH. I advertised for a lithographic priu- 
rer, and engaged Ott at Cincinnati. In the 
latUT port of 1S7G our business failed. I told 
Ott I was going to Philadelphia to engage in 
the counterfeiting business again, and he 
wanted to go with me. My first wort was 
the engraving of the ?oO notes ou the Ctutral 
National Uank of New York and the Third 
National Bank of Buffalo. I recognize these 
counterfeit bank bUls before me as ooming 

.(ino i 

fash and his living for about two 



Ou the c 

)t shrink from answering any questions that 
iposed the crimes of his life. He was sen- 
tenced to Sing Sing Prison in, he ac. 
knowledged, for copying in New York the 
vignette from a State bank bill. " I didn't do 
it," hesaid, "for counterfeiting purposes, but 
only to show what I could do in the line of vig- 
nette engraving. No bank bill could have been 
printed from it, for it was only two inches 
square. In 1861 Governor Morgan pardoned 
me. In 1867 I was sentenced to the Cohim- 
bus Penitentiary for twelve years for counter- 
feiting a f 100 Natioual bank bill. Between 
18G1 and 1807 I bad a business place iit Nas- 
sau Street and Maiden Lane, New York. In 
1876 I was pardoned out of prison. I never 
was arrested except these three times for 
counterfeiting. They say I counterfeited the 
Bank of England notes, but that is not true. 
These are said to be very gocd counterfeits, 
but I don't think them so," 

Judge Dittenhoefer — " Now let vis get a ht- 
tie at the inside of this counterfeiting busi- 
ness. Why don't you make all your counter, 
feits in large denominiitions?" 

The witness— "I was working for another 
man, and obeyed orders. But the reason was 
because the wholesale dealers made more mo- 
ney out of the small bills. When a large bill 
is issued it is deadiu a short time, but a small 
bill may be changed from one bank to another 
and be used for many years. ' ' 

" Have you received any promise of favor 
from the Goverament for this testimony I*" 

"No, sir; I expect to get the full punish- 
ment I deserve, and if it isn't heavy I shall be 
much surprised. When the case comes on 
trial I may plead guilty and save lawyer fees." 

" Have you considerable money?" 
"A little." 

" Did you make it by counterfeiting ?" 
"That question I don't propose to answer." 
The examination is not yet finished. A 
practical engi-avei-.who was formerly in the em- 
ploy of the Continental Bank Note Company. 
was present. He said it was marvellous that 
any one man should have been able to execute 
so finely all the different parts of the plates. 
Iu any bunk note eompany. he said, such 
notes would be executed by no less than twelve 
engravers, aided by the most perfect and cost- 
ly machinery 

from those plates in the same way that you I there we printed the $.5 and $50 notes that 

would recognize your handwriting. Wheu I were sent to Europe. At Oak Lane we prin- 

the plates were nearly finished we moved to ted 12,000 pieces of the $50 notes and 8,000 

Oak Lane, about wx miles from Philadelphia, pieces of the $r> notes : at Charon HiU, 2.000 

There I made the S.i counterfeit on the Na- j of the $50 notes and from lH.noo to 2O.0OO of „ , f fl ■ h ,\ o ..'1 

tional Bank of Tamaqua. Penn. I did the ' the S^ ootes. In April, 1^78, we gave up the ; was km'dW loaned f^ use in 

engraving and Ott did the printing. In Oc- business. Ott went to New York and I stoyed . by ProfciUor L S. Preston. 

tober. 1877, wc moved to Charon Hill, and iu Philadelphia. Ott received for his work ! original, 22x48 inches. 

Mrs, Partiugton says of education : — 
For my part I can't deceive what on airth ed- 
icatiou is coming to. When I was young, if 
a gal only understood the rules of distraction, 
provision, multiplying and replenishing, and 
the common denominator, and knew all 
about the rivers and their obituaries, the cov- 
enants and their dormitories, the provinces 
and the umpire.s, they had edication enough. 
But now they had to study bottomy, algebay, 
and have to demonstrate suppositions about 
the sycophants or circustangents and diag- 
nosis of parallelgraras. to say nothing of ox- 
hides, asheads, cowsticks and obstruse trian- 
gles. (And here the old lady was so confused 
with the technical names that she was forced 

The highest salary ever paid in Boston was 
that of J. Wiley Edmonds, who, at the time 
of his deatL, was receiving ijo0,000, per 
annum as treasurer of the Pacific mills. The 
highest salary paid to a bank president in 
Boston at present is -$10,000; the highest to a 
cashier is i|i3,500. The range of salaries of 
dry goods salesmen is from 8'', 000 to $500 a 
year. In the wholesale boot and shoe trade, 
the highest salary is not over $4,000, A few 
women, the heads of departments in the dress 
or suit-making business, receive about $1,000 
per year. Most salaries have been much re, 
duced since the advent of the hard times. 

An autograph-collector, desirious of pro- 
curing some specimens of OUver Wendell 
Holmes' writing, and knowing his intended 
victim's antipathy in this particular mono- 
mania, asked him by letter "Which do you 
think the best dictionary — Webster's or 
Worcester's?" To which the doctor cun- 
ningly responded by cutting out the word 
*• Webster's" and pasting it neatly on a sheet 
of note paper, which was duly mailed. 

on this page 

be JOL-KN.^L 

Size of the 

Ii>bed Monibly at Sl.OOper Vcur. 

, T. AUES, EoiTOB *HD tmorKTXTon, 

coptM of JoDiiXAi- aent or receljrt of 1 
i|p»clmpii copiM fnniHiljed to AgenU rrec. 


o-opnratlon as corrMpondonlB and micnla, 

Ihe Boodcr, a copy of pitber of the followliig publl 
•tlona, each of which nro nmong tho finost epeclmoni 

For three Dameii and $3 we will for» 
Oenteunlal Plclure, alro WxtO Incbe*, re 

Por all namoa and |8 wo will fornn 
WiUlMna ft Packard'a Guide, retolla for 

For twelve aubecrlbora and $13, wo Wl 
of Ames' OompoDdlum of OrnarooQtAl 
prlw tS. Tho aame bound In gilt wll 
alffhteeu aubaorlbDra and $18, prloo $7.S' 

I $12, 

of Williams * Packard's OBiua of Peninftn6 

All oommunloatlona deelgnod for Tbk 
Art Jooomai. abould be addrrNai'd to t 
publlraUon, 90& Broadway, Now York. 

Tho JOUBHAI. win bolBBUed IXB noOTly 08 

the flnt of each month. Matter dORlgn^c 
tlon muat be received on or before tho twe 

Money I 


> Broadway, New York. 

BB very distinctly. 


The Journal and Business Colleges. 

From the oulavl the JouiiNAi, Las liiUcn 
stroug ground in favor of business colleges 
ftmi pnielical educiilion, wbicli has been ap- 
preciated and is now being nobly rccipro- 
calod by the representatives of most of those 
inslltutions. Having been ourselves for 
more than ten years engaged as teacher and 
proprietor in a business college, it is quite 
natural that we should not only Jiave a 
sympathy with, but a knowledge of, these 
institutions and their representatives, not 
possessed by must writers upon business edu- 
cation. We also know, as we have felt by 
experience, the bitter hostility they have 
during the past encountered from the 
friends, teachers and graduates of other 
educational institutions, and have witnessed 
with satisfaction their gradual advance in 
popular estimation and support in spite of 
that opposition, until tliey are now generally 
recognised as a necessity and accorded an 
honorable place In our present system of 
education. Of this there can be no doubt, 
when we see. as we have recently in this 
city, present at the graduating exercises of 
a businefu* college, and warmly advocating 
its course of inslructinn. such able and dis- 
cerning representatives of popular educa- 
tion as Prof. Henry Kiddle. Superintendent 
of Xew York city schools, and Thomas 
Hunter. President of the New York Nor- 
miil college. Not alone in this city, but all 
ovvT the country where business collpgos 
an' being conducted by thoroughly compe- 
tent men, they are beginning to command 
the respect and patronage of our very best 
and most discerning citizens ; and. perhaps 
the Blnnigest recognition of Iheir nu-rit and 
cliiims for patronage is found in the fact 
I literary colleges, seminaries 

ad iiuiduiiiic;. which a few years since 
ould have scouted the very idea of busi- 
fss college education, now make conspicu- 
iis announcements of their "special busi- 

This feeling of confidence and respect 
for business colleges, next to thorough, hon- 
est and skillful teaching can be strength- 
ened and extended by no other means so 
effectually as by a widely circulated and 
disinterested periodical such as tlie Joch- 
NAL. It commends and builds up their 
cause without incurring the danger of in- 
jury hy a reflex influence that ofttimcs re- 
sults from claims too zealously set forth in 
college papers, which arc recognized by the 
discriminating public simply as an adver- 
tisenirnt. through which the party most in- 
tinstrdhlowv his own horn. If all really mer- 
itorinus hii^iiicsscolleges, asmost do. would 
fully rec();,'nizc Ibis fact and recipnxriitc by 
locking bands in a grand efl'ort with Iheir 
pens and influence to build up and extend 
the circulation of a strong and powerful 
class paper devdled, as it would be. almost 
wholly to branches in which they are viliilly 
interesled, the Journal might very soon 
become the most potent means for impart- 
ing new dignity, honor and enlarged suc- 
cess to a profession and a class of institu- 
tions, which are so rapidly and deservedly 
gaining in jtublic estimation mid patronage. 

Stick to Your Copy- 

having, t 

We remember of having, some yeai-s 
since, heard a young man who had just re- 
turned to the cenlnil part of this State from 
(ienc'va. O., where he had been to acquire 
tlie fiuisbing touches as a penman from 
Futlier Spencer, relate a bit of his experi- 
ence under tlie tuition of that venerable au- 
thor, which, while it made upon our minds 
a deep impression, revealed at once one of 
the secrets of Prof. Spencer's remarkable 
success as a teacher of writing. Said the 
young man: "The morning after my ar- 
rival I entered the famous log-cabin, 'Jer- 
icho,' with as much of awe and veneration 
as was compatible with my own conceit, 
I had, already attained to noto- 
%y own section as a quUUat. I 
thought myself but little short of perfection, 
and that little I expected to promptly over- 
come under the skillful instruction of my 
new master. Prof. Spencer assigned me a 
seat, and. after explaining the proper posi- 
tion and the mu.scular movement, gave me a 
simple exercise in movement, telling me to 
practice that, while he went to attend to 
some matters about the farm. Being enthu- 
siastic and full of the spirit of writing, I en- 
tered vigorously upon the practice which I 
continued hour after hour, covering sheet 
after sheet of fool's-cap, until at length 
growing tired of practicing a single exercise 
I struck off, led by my own fancy, and cov- 
ered whole quires of paper with birds.quills. 
eagles, dragons and every conceivable form 
of letters, fltnu'ishes and thoughtless scrib- 
bling, the manifest skill of which would. I 
thought, astonish and win praise from even 
Spencer; but judge of my surprise when he 
came to my table, late in the afternoon, and 
scanning the pile of paper covered with the 
numerous profusions which I had evolved, 
he simply reminded me that that wai* not 
practicing after his copy. Disappointed and 
my pride wounded. 1 indignantly asked him 
if hei-x|"* I, i I,,, i,.|,, M tier on one thing all 
day. It. , iivit in a manner 

that r;iiiii : th'it when a pupil 

placed him-. 11 iiiPh 1 lit- mition he expected 
him to follow jiis direction, and practice 
upon one copy until he gave another, if it 
was a week; and proceeded to criticise my 
po.sition, movement and work in a manner 
thai at once taught mc that I had considera- 
ble to learn, where I suppo.»ied I knew it all. 
From that time forward I did not venture to 
waste time scribbling, or to question his 
methods, but practiced after his copy tind 
followed his directions to the best of mv 
ability to the end of my course of instruc- 
tion. Although I profiled largely by his 
instruction and left the ' log cabin ' a much 
more skillful writer than when I entered, 
my conceit had been so lessened that I 
actually left with a much less exalted 
opinion of my own accomplishments than 
when I conunenced. " 

Many good writers fail to secure the best 
results from their teaching, from the fact 
that the attention and practice of their 
pupils is not rigidly confined to their 
copy until it has been mastered, their 
impatience at practicing a long time 
upon one short copy, and desire for 
something new, leads the teacher to make 
the copy too long and vary it too frequently 
to admit of the thorough understanding Of 
the faults, and theircorrection by the pupil. 
For this purpose a copv containing a few 
letters is much better than a sentence, since 
the faults in its practice can be more readily 
pointed out, more fully remembered, while 
from the short intervals between the numer- 
ous repetitions of the copy, the faults are 
more certainly and effectually corrected. 

A Worthy Example 

is S('t to subscribers, and especially to stu- 
dents in business colleges, who desire good 
workson penmanship, by LeDoit E.Kimball, 
a studentin the Lowell (Mass.) Business Col- 
lege. On December 13, he forwarded a club 
of twelve subscribers to the Journal, for 
which he received, as a premium, "Ames" 
Compendium of Practical and Ornamental 
Penmanship;" on January 7, he forwarded 
another club of twelve, for which he re- 
ceived "Williams and Packard's Gems." 
He promises another club of twelve the first 
of February. Force of habit may lead him 
to keep up his monthly club the year round 
—and, by the way, many younir men hnvr 
worse habits. Like clubs nii^lii li' ',i-ii\ 
secured not only in every bn^im-^ i,.|i, ^'^ 
in the country, but in most of Mn |)ii\;iir 
schools, academies and colleges. The books 
sent are of inestimable value to every young 
man who desires to become a skillful writer, 
and will abundantly repay the slight effort 
necessary to secure them. Try it, please. 

Send a Specimen of Your Writing. 

To enable us to accomplish a certain plan 
we have in view for the interest and benefit 
of the readers of the Journal, we hereby 
invite every reader not a professional pen- 
man to write on a slip of paper 2^x7 inches 
in size in their very best style the following 
words, viz. : 

"Written for the Penman's Art Jour- 
nal as a specimen of my handwriting," 

Date Name 

P. 0. address 

and forward the same to the editor of the 
Penman's Art Journal. Our object in 
calling for these specimens and plan for 
using them will be fully explained in tlie 
March number, after which no specimens 
can be received, in accordance with our 
plan. No one interested in penmanship 
should fail to send a specimen. 

Monuments of Folly. 

One of the most noted and astoniching 
works of man and one of the seven wonders 
of the world, is the great pyramids of Egypt, 
upon the construction of which 100,000 men 
were employed thirty years, and all this 
simply as a tomb of a king. Thus the labor 
and revenues of a nation for nearly a gener- 
ation was employed to gratify the ambition 
and glory of one man. Had the labor and 
treasure thus and otherwise wasted, been 
judiciously expended upon free schools and 
libraries for the dissemination of knowledge 
among the masses, and for internal improve 
menis, bow changed might have been the 
subsequent history of the " Cradle of Sci- 
ence " and its "lost arts." 

College Currency. 

We are now filling, at low figures, orders 
for college currency, from a large number 
of business and commercial colleges. Par- 
ties wishing currency, diplomas, business 
cards, letter or bill heads, or display cuts of 
any kind, are requested to send for estimates 
and specimens. 

Good Pens. 

If you want a good business or school 
pen. send ten cents for one dozen, or thirty 
cents for a { grois box of " Ame's Penman's 
Favorite Pens," they arc highly commend- 
ed by those who havp ust,d them . 

Ellsworth's Key to Correct Fen- 

This is a ni-w lioely executed lithographed 
chart. 28x40 inches, mounted on rollers, 
representing the hand, pen and arm, with 
the essential points of correct pen-holding 
numbered thereon to correspond with a key 
of instruction at the bottom. This is a val- 
uable addition to the apparatus of the school- 
room, and in the hands of a teacher, will 
accomplish more towards securing correct 
pen-holding than any or all other means 
combined. It attacks the subject of pen- 
manship at the very roots, and renders 
pupils as sensitive to the shape of their 
hands when writing as to the forms of let- 
ters written. Price $1 ; muslin. $1.50. We 
will forward by express at these prices. 

Vick's Floral Guide. 

for January, 1879, published by James 
Vick. florist, Rochester, N. T., has been re- 
ceived. It is seldom that a work displaying 
so much of real artistic, taste and skill comes 
into our hands. It is to be highly prized as 
a work of art aside from the invaluable in- 
formation conveyed to all florists and horti- 
culturists. It contains 500 illu'^trations, and 
is sent to any address on receipt of a five 
cent stamp. 

Specimen Copies 

Of the exercises for flourishing in the Jan- 
uary No. of the Journal have been re- 
r rived from a large number of persons, 
iJKiny of which are highly creditable. The 
lust with modifications, is by S. C- Malone, 
Bridgepoi't. West Va. ; the second best is 
by Miss Philetla Rockwell, Mount Vernon, 
N. Y". ; the third best is by G- A. Conrad, 
Roanoke, West Va. 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

New Yoek Life Insuranoe Co., 

March 2. 1871. 



Dear Sib : We take pleasure in commend- 
ing your Treasury Pen, as for superior, to all 
others that we have used, particulariy for fine 
writing, in this they are absolutely perfect. 

Yours truly. Theo. M, Banta, Cashier. 

The above pen is in perfect order at the 
present time. 

The Teacher's Guide, 
published by J. D. Holcomb, Mallett Creek, 
Ohio, is an interesting eight page paper. 
It is Mr. Holcomb's intention to devote 
quite a portion of each issue to practical and 
artistic penmanship. Send for a specimen 

What has become of the Peoman's Help? 

We have not seen a copy in nearly two 
mouths. Several complaints have been re- 
ceived from others who have subscribed for 
it that it has not been received. It is al- 
ways a welcome visitor, and we are sorry to 

Our Teachers' Agency. 
Teachers wishing situations and prin- 
cipals wishing good teachers of writing or 
any of the commercial branches, should 
bear in mind that they can probably secure 
the same through our agency. Send in 
your applications, with $2, and we will 
render you all the service possible. 

The Attention 

Of persons who desire special instruction 
for teaching writing or designing and ex- 
ecuting artistic penmanship, is invited to 
our advertisement on the seventh page of 
the Journal. 

During the past six years there has been 
47,175 business failures, with liabilities for 
$1,201,059,207, of which failures 10,478 oc- 
urred in 1878, a greater number by 1,400 
than ever occurred in the United States in 
any other year. 

y^^Ml 4i-,^feSti^^^ 

The Straight Line. 

In nearly nil tL^ tiio(]em Bjettms of pen- 
mannhip tbo HtraiKbt Hue in the first ffiven for 
imitation, adcI is tiKiinll; fintt in the list of 
principleB. wlit-re it raanifefltly belongs, a« the 
child Btt-mpting for the first time to repro- 
duc« A copy Bet before him, will doubtless, 
notwithstanding his iuark«d depfirture from 
the correct form, npproxiroate more nearly 
to it thsn if he were rcquirt-d to make either 
of the two remaining forms. I 60y either of 
the two remaining forms, because the straight 
line, the right curve and the left curve in 
their various combinations and inclinations 
constitute all perfection of form iu ppnman- 
ship. Indeed we may go further and con- 
fidently assert that nrtifit«, sculptors and arti- 
sans make no other lines and bare no con- 
ception of other lines. 

Neither is there in all nature, animate or 
inanimate, an object whoso bonudnrieB are 
not marked by one or more of these lints 
and only these. I do not, however, in this 
article propose to discuss the iidvantngi'H, or 
disadvantages of an analysis of writing by 
these three simple lines instead of forming 
other principles by their combinations, as my 
object is to show the importance of the 
straight lino in writing, as well as to point out 
a few curious facts, not generally known, in 
relation to it. 

The straight line is an important factor in 
modern practical writing because it appears 
in all the smuU letters, except e, o and s. And 
the fact that with one exception these straight 
lines are all made at the same angle, goes far 
towards determining the slant of all parts of 
the writing, and preserving the important 
element of beauty — uniformity. 

In writing there are short turns uniting the 
straight lines with right or left curves, or 
right and left curves with each other. The 
jength of the turn is one-sixth of a space, the 
height of I without the dot being considered a 
unit, and is equally divided between the two 
lines it uounects. 

Disregarding the distance traversed by the 
turn, the straight lines may be numbered and 
measured as follows : c has one straight line 
one-fourth space in length, a, b, /, g, i. j, I, 
r, t, 2 have one straight line each, one space 
long; h, k, 7^, w. w, x, y, each, two straight 
lines one space long; m, three, one space 
long; fi, t, one, each, two spaces long ; j, 
one, two and one-half spaces long ; p, one, 
three and one-half spaces long, anil one, one 
space. These lines nre elevated 6'J» from a 
horizontal line, and are made downward, 
with the one exception the crossing of a;, 
which is produced with upward movement 
upon a slant of 40*. 

Upon no out' thing will a pupil's progress de- 
pend more than on a careful observance and 
imitation of the straight line made with prop- 

Itut it is not child's play to acquire the abil- 
ii> til .xecute these lines, and it may be iuter- 
iif; to some of my readers to know that 
t!i iiimio of a man is handed down to us 
thrungh tweuty.flvB c.-ntnries for having suc- 
ceeded in making, by free hand drawing, a 
perfectly straight line. This line was for 
ages preserved, but iu the time of Augustus 
was destroyed in a groat conflagration. 

To-day all that the most of us know of Ap- 
pcUes is that he performed this fcot. Such 
prrfeotiou, or such fame need not, however, 
'- V' !i-d upon by even the most earnest pupil 
Ml i" tuiirtuship at the present time. 

N'T is the straight lino confined to script as can be seen by the following. 


<'niii]iii'»iiig l\fti'eu letters; and the remaining 

' I' \' u uiiiy be made with straight Unes, thus 

1 nnliliiig us to express any idea we may de- 

Mio without having recourse to curved lines. 

Itit.'ivstuig exorcises, combining a certain 

'' r of straight lines to form an almost 

'■■ variety of geometrical and artistic 

> might be given, did space admit, but 

I :ii close with bat one further iUustration 

of the use of straight lines. 

In the earUor Roman notation ] was as 
now one; ||, two; |||, three; but in- 
' iJ of IV the I was repeated four 
and for five, repeatrd five times, and 
tip to and including nine. These num- 
'■ y- iLs you see. were composed of single 
simight lines, forming units of the first order. 
A unit of the second order was then formed 

by iwo RtraiL'iit liu.-»s in iLc li-ftu koORii us 
St. Andrew's Cross, which character was re- 
peated for twenty, thirty, forty. Ac, up to 
ninety, inclusive, in the same manner as the 
single lines. Then followed a unit of the 
third order consisting of three straight lines 
in this form E- which was for several cen- 
turies the form of the letter 0- Tl»>^ 
character was repeated, as the others had 
been, to indicate two hundred, three hundred, 
Ac. When a unit of the fourth order was re- 
quired, four straight lines bke the letter 
was used. The value of f\/| was 
also expressed in this form, CIO- 
For a long time these characters and their 
uses remained unchanged, until at last the 
drudgery of repetitions created a desire to 
abbreviate which was accomplished in the 
manner which follows : 

As X 8too<i foi" ^en, one-half of it. V 
was made to s-tand for five; C standing for 
one hundred, by an equal division formed 
L which stood for fifty ; and one-half of 
CIO, 10 represented five hundred. 

Artistic Workmanship. 

A photo-lithographic and fac-nimile copy of 
engrossed resolutions, adopted by the Com- 
mon Council of this city regarding the victory 
of the Columbia College Crew on the Thames, 
30x3G inches in size, and executed by Dan- 
iel T. Ames, SOfi Broadway, has been receiv 
ed atihis office. The design isartistic, and the 
execution of the workmanship superbly fine. 
-The Union. 

Mr. J. H. Barlow, who has long been re- 
cognized as a most thorough and accomplished 
student of art. and alike skillful in the use of 
the pen. pencil or brush, will hereafter occupy 
a place in our rooms, and will be prepared to 
give instruction in free hand and mechanical 
drawing in perspective, and also to execute all 
orders for designing, drawing, etc. 

Mr. Hiram Dixon, who is one of the vete- 
ran and somewhat noted knights o' the quill 
in New York, is now and has been for thirty- 
one years past the chief accountant of the 
Adams Express Company at -"la Broadway. 
Although now in his sixty-eighth year, he 
swings a nimble pen. We saw a few days since 
an engrossed copy of the Lord's Prayer which 
he had just executed in a very tasteful man- 
ner, as a donation to the St. Mary's Catholic 
Church fair, now being held at Hunter, N. Y. 

A- C. Cooper has recently returned to his 
old post as principal of the commercial Depart- 
ment of Cooper Institute at Daleville, Lau- 
derdale Co.. Miss-, after having 
months under the tuition of Prof. P. R. 
Spencer at Cleveland. Ohio, during which 
time he has made marked improvement in his 
hand writing, as evinced by the very fine spe- 
cimens which he incloses. Mr. Cooper is an 
enthusiastic and promising young penman, 
and was the only representative of the South- 
em States at the Penman's Convention held in 
this city last August. 

F. N. Horton. Brattleboro. Vt., writes a 
graceful letter, in wbich he incloses several 
specimens of card writing. 

Jos. Foeller, Jr.. Ashland, Pa., sends a 
Phot^cmplnc copy 8x10 inches in size of an 
■ nuTo-i-H-d rnpy of "he "Lords Prayer" iu the 
W. Kii Itiiii^iifige. The original is 20x24 inches 
iiiil 1-^ nrti^tii- in design and very skillfully ex- 
.ciii.ii It has a tasteful border entangled 
with smilax. In the border at the right is a 
picture of Christ among the Doctors, a bible 
and a cross wreathed with flowers: on the left 
is a picture of the birth of Christ and a rustic 
cro.sK enfolded by a serpent. Over the top. in 
clouding, are represented upon either side 
groups of angels, while iu tbe centre are rays 
of light in which is the picture of a descend 
ing dove, under this is the following lettering 
" Wele yr wyf fi yu myut-gi chwi newyddion- 
da o lawenydd mawr," translated. " Behold I 
bring you good tidinps of gri>at joy." Tbe 
lettering, scroll work, Ac. is done in good 
style and reflects great credit on Mr. Foeller. 
The prayer is worded as follows : Ein Tad, 
yr hwn wyt yn y Nefoedd i Saue- 
teiddier dy Euw. Deued dy De^-mas. Byd- 
ded dy Ewyllys ar y Ddaear. Megys y mae yn 
y Nefoedd, Dyro i ni heddyw ein Barabeuny- 
ddiol. A madden i ni ein Dyledion. Fely 
maddeuwn ni i'n dyledwyr Ac nac orwain ni i 
Brofcdigaeth; Eithr gwared ni rhag Drwg. 

Parents who desire to awakpu an interest 
in writiDR on the part of their children, and 
teachers wlio wish to continne, to sustain 
tlip interest awakened by them in their 
pupils should certainly cnmmend them to 
subscribe for the Jo 

I which lazy folks 

at Mooies Busmesa University, 
1 of the country He is a popular 
? among the best and most graceful of ready off-hand writing that come to the 

As a Special Inducement 
For present subscribers to renew the r sub 
scriptions and to induce others to s bscr I e 
to begin with the volume of 1879 (Jnnu rj 
number), we make the following, 1 be al 
offer of premiums worth $2. Poi each r 
ntwal or new subscriber enclosing $1 and 
20c. extra in stamps for postage on pr 
miums, we will, until further notice send 
with the first nunber of the Jou^^A a 
copy of the Centennial Picture of An er can 
Progress, 20x28. and a copy of tl c Lo d & 
Prayer, 22x28 inches ; each of w h ch s 
alone worth the price of the subscription. 
RcTnemher this offer extends only to Febru- 
ary 1. 1879. The regular premiums offered 
for clubs will be given additional to the 
premiums herein named. 

Prof. J. C. Miller. Icksbnrg, Pa., says "I 
am in receipt of the ' Lord's Prayer.' It is 
elaborate and beautiful; excellent alike in 
design and execution ; it is dazzling to the 
eye and mind of even an expert penman." 

W. J. Todd, Wallingford, Conn., says "It 
is a real beauty, a gem of pen art." 

G. A. Buesing, New Orleans, La., writes, 
■•The 'Lord's Prayer' is most beautiful 
My frtcnds are all delighted with it." 

D. S. Porter. Lawrenceville. Ohio, says 
■■Both premiums are received. They are 
beautiful and elegant in design and execu- 
tion. ' A thing of beauty is a joy forever.' " 

The above are among the multitude of 
similar compliments from those who have 
received these preraiumR. Rem<^raher that 


J W P son Mec a O nc oses a very 
gracefully xecuted spec men of flo nshing 

A E Dewherst New Hartford sends an 
attract ve specmien of fio r shmg and card 

R T *?hepherd Hugl es Stat on Oh o 
writes a fin letter and ncloseb a gem of off 
hand flourishing. 

B. F. Jiidd. River Falls, Wis., sends speci- 
mens of card writing which are very good, 
but too larye a hand to be popular for card 

W. E. Dennis, Wright's B>isiness College. 
Brooklyn, N. Y., sends specimens of busi- 
ness and off-hand writing, done up in his 
usual excellent style. 

F. B. Davis, a student at Soule's B. A S- 
Business College, Phila., writes a handsome 
letter in which is inclosed several very fine 
specimens of card writing. 

A very skillfully executed specimen of let- 
tering and flourishing, in form for a letter 
heading, to be photo-engi-aved for the use of 
the Wyomin-r Commercial College. Kingston, 
Pa. has been received from W L. Dean, by 
whom it was designed and executed, 

A Photo-lithographic copy of an engrossed 
copy of the '• Lords Prayer " 8x10 inches in 
size has been received from, J. B. Farrell, i 
Brooklyn. N. Y., which is a very creditable 
specimen of artistic pen work. The lettering ' 
is good and well arranged, and inclosed in a 
graceful rustic border. j 

S. B., Ai, Ohio. Any common writing ink 
can be made glossy by adding a httle gum 
arable, or white sugar. 

L. H. D., Maryaville, Ohio. You write a 
fine hand, your chief fault is in the very great 
disproportion of your letters. 

E. A, G., Elgin, Bl, Your specimens of 
flourishing although attractive, are greatly 
wanting in ease and grace of line and com- 
bination. You need much careful practice, 

E. A. G., Elgin, III. Sliould fine pen draw- 
ing be executed with india ink ? Yes, no 
other will do for really first-class work. It 
flows smoother and gives a sharper, and when 
desired, a blacker line than any other ink. 

N. E. W, Where do you look while writ- 
ing directly above, below, to the right or 
left, of the pen point? We are in the opin- 
ion that the sight is focused, very nearly 
upon the point of the pen while one is 
writing. You write a very easy and graceful 
hand. More and careful practice "will im- 
prove it. It lacks uniformity in spacing and 
beighth of letters, and is wavering upon the 

A. B. C, AogosU, Me. Your writing is 
rather Iarg«. jou crom yonr loopi* too high, 
making them too slim— your spacing w ud- 
equal, your writing doen not follow the lines, [ 
many of your letter* being half a space away | 
from it, you do not give miffiuient ottention to i 
ane of the proper curveu in your eonnecting 

J. H. K.. ManthaU, Mich. WiU eterciaog I 
with dumb b>.-lh» or indiao clubs cause the | 
hand to become uoKtcady. and do yon ap- 
proTc or diwipprove of their U!«e ■• We by no | 
means diwapprovr «.f a niodenite use of dumb I 
bcllt*. or any otfur cxercitw which tends to 
dfcv< lope and Ktnngtben the muscleB. The I 
Mtronuer and ninr*^ exc<rciB«d, if not overtaxed | 
or "traintd, tht- muscleif arc. the better will be 
their condition for writing; exercise whould 
not immediately precede the practi 

The Writine Class. The rhythm of writing depends upon these 

" What letters, children, have I written ou 
theboatd?" "Small land w." "Iwillnow 

_ 1 write a v*ry good baud, and 

oviiioiiTly have the geniiiB requisite for hecom- 
ing a very HkiUful writer. 

8. E. H., CheI«ea,Vt. By the tenu engrOBS- 
inff ia meant dinnlayed reHoIutiouR, tefltimo- 
„ml.. o. rlif,™l.... <li,.l....ia., .Vo., cDUsisflDgof 



'^SS Coj^ 




, thi. 

Iho Meth(.(IiHt Coll.r^ .,' I ■■ \- [ilJ.. 

would h<fr<-nfter be kii''.si. ■ ;■>■ ■; ■ .1..1 IUim- 
nessCoIU'go-wbichshi.^l.lL.u^ b.LU Mau- 
moo BiieiucsB College." 

The Fort Wayne Commercial College began 
it« seventh year January 0th, 1879, under the 
management of Prof. Thomsis Powers, Prin- 
cipal and proprietor. Twenty-eight students 
aril in attoudHiice. Three hundred and nine- 
ty-six have bcnn enrolled, and fifty-six have 
graduated since it has been etalUished. 

7'A4) Daily lit^Ur. Rockford, Ul., of Jan- 
uary 11 conlains a column descriptive of the 
Forrest City Business College, and the course 
of iuBtruotion practiced therein, and pays a 
very flatti'ring compliment to tJie proprietor, 
H. ('. (;iark. which we believe to be well mer- 
ited. It f loses by saying : " We cannot leave 
tliio Miibjcot without calUug the attention of 
tht^ Uockford people to the elegant penman- 
ship of ProfesKor Clark. Hie specimens be- 
tokiii the highest degree of skill, and the best 
judges pronounce his pen sketcbi 

nllcge is ofFering facilities to the 
until «f Uockford for becoming familiar with 
xisiiii'ss theories and practice which arc iu- 
■fthmbK'. Ho is deserving of the utmost en- 
ourngi ineiit and patronage, and the manly 
UHuner iu which he obtains it predictH u pros, 
for him in his euterprioe." 

Schuylkill Scraps. 

Aehlahd, Pa., Jan. 25. 1879. 
Editor Penman's Art Journal: 

Recently I hud occAsiou to visit Pottsville 
and while there I dropped into the Potsvil'e 
BusiuoBs College, and had the pleasure of 
making the acquaintance of M. J. Goldsmith. 
I found him to be a very courteous gentleman 
and an accomplished teacher and pL^uman. 
He has removed from the old stand to the 
Miner's Journal Building, which is one of the 
aiOHt beautiful in thu State. Mr. Goldsmith 
in a graduate of Prof. A. H. Hiumau, who 
first opened a Business C/ollege at Pottsville. 
The College is doing well considering the 

Our friend E. M. Huutzinger, also a grad- 
uate of Prof. Hinnian, now engaged as teach- 
er in Warrou's Business College, Providence, 
K, I., quietlj" slipped off duty during the 
Christmas holidays and entered into the Holy 
bonds of matrimony. The lurky one is a 
Poltsvillian, of course. We wibh both much 
happiness. Tours hastily, 

J. F., Jr. 

The five elements of the letters are the 
groundwork of Writing — the same as the four 
simple rules are the foundation of Arithme- 
tic. When the straight-line element, and 
the four elements of the oval are at once 
known by the pupil, he has the material 
with which 10 construct the whole alphabet. 
The elements are the simplest integral parts 
of the letter. 

7'7>ey are e»-<rrdinatf, being of equal order, 
— e g., no one section of the oval is a sub- 
ordinate part ; every part is eciuolly impor- 
tant to the oval ; the straight-line and the 
four oval elements are equally important to 
the letters. 

Tlity are txehtsive of taeh other, — e.g., the 
HRht-curve is not the left-curve ; the top and 
bnsr- of til-' ov;i) lire nit its sides; the straight- 
].!:■ I- ]M' I' ii "(" III' 'Ulier elements. 

I':. i„nt..i,. xi'i.i to the whole, — e. g-y no 
].;,rls of ll]. I. It. rs ,ir.' ftropped out of the an- 
alysis ; true analysis must include and deter- 
mine every part of every letter : the five ele- 
ments are the basis of nnalysis and criticism ; 
the term f/rtHC/j to aptly expresses the character 
of these primary parts. 

In examining the script-alphabet, we find 
certain marked combinations of elements com- 
mon to entire groups. These standard form? 
1 11 rmiue the style of the letters, and are the 
: j.njicwork upon which the alphabet is built ; 
Lhcy are in all instances main parts, and are 
the basis of classification. Hence they are 
optly termed principles. Simplicity and logic 
both require simple and compound parts to 
1.. iltvssed separately, and in order. Thus- 
M -.I . ilt'ments. or simplest parts ; second, prin- 
/■''■'<, or compound parts ; third, letters. 

The First, Second, and Third Principles oc- 
<^ur in nine short and seven extended letters. 

rectors forcibly expelled from the school. 
The Court held that the directors and teacher, 
were all liable in an action of trespass, the 
directors having no power to prescribe such a 
rule or to authorize the teacher to enforce it. 


The Pointed Oval enters into 
ion of rt. rf, g, and g ; the Upper Looped 
'i, fe, I, b, and /; the 

Lower Looped Stem to J, 17, ,f/, and z. The 
three principles of the capitals are, the Capital 
Stem, and the Direct, and Inverse Capital 


Oval, each having its dependent group of let- 

The importance of the oval turns cannot be 
over-estimated, since the grace and beauty of 
writing depends so largely upon their proper 
execution. If a letter is wrong, it is some 
elementary part that is wrong. Suppose a 
pupil writes small r'. Here are three different 
elements. The right-curves and straight-line 
are written correctly, but he makes a wide, 
ungainly turn, aud thereby spoils the symme- 
try of the letter. How are you going to cor- 
rect the failure : by referring to the straight- 
line or connecting curves, neither of which in- 
cludes the turn, and both of which are cor. 

If you instruct the pupil to carry the straight- 
line clear to base, aud then direct him to 
tvim short, be must, at this point, either form 
on angle or make the turn below the base line. 
The short, symmetrical turns at base of near- 
ly all the straight lines which make onr En- 
glish script so beautiful, under such teaching, 
will give place to sliarp heels, hybridizing the 
letters, since the style is neither pure English 
nor German. It ineviubly foUows that we 
must teach the pupils what the turn is, where 
begun, and when ended. 

The turns, except iu the loops, are always 
parts of main line, and hence cannot be parts 
of connecting line. .\nd again, iu all cases, 
except the oval, the turns are tAken from a 
smaller oval than the connecting curves. 
Hence, they cannot be parts of these curves. 
If the ttirn was a part of the connecting-cun*e. 
then the upper turn of small o woidd have to 
be considered a part of the first connecting- 
curve, instead of a part of the pure oval, 
which would be the reductio ad atnurdutn. 

write the parts of these letters separately, un- 
derneath. Have I given the right parts to 
these letttrs?" A concert of " Yes. '• 
■ ■ Where did I divide these letters ? " " .\t the 
points at top. " "Correct; I will now write 
two more small letters, which look so much 
like the same Roman letters that I think you 
can readly name them ;" n and m are pro- 
nounced all over the room. "Now I will 
write the parts of these letters separately, un- 
derneath. How many parts have I given to 
each letter?" "Two to H.aud three to wi." 
"Right; where did I divide n and w ?" "At 
the points." "You see then, children, thati 
and u are divided into parts at the base-points. 
Let ufi look at these parts. Are either of the 
parts of /( or m like the first principle in land 
uT" "No." "I will now, children, make 
the first principle upside down, reversing it 
this way. Can you find this part in n or m f 
"Yes: once in n, and twice in in." "Have 
you the same elements in this part as in the 
first principle ? " "The straight-line is the 
same." "Right, Mabel. What other ele. 
ments are there in it? " " The left-curveand 
upper-turn are seen and described." " We calj 
this the second principle. Let us now com- 
bine the first and second priciples. like this, 
— having only one straight line for both. Does 
this look like any part of n or m f " " Yes : 
it is like the lost part of both letters." " Well, 
this is called the third principle. It is used 
to finish n and m, aud to make, iu part, three 
other short letters besides. I will write two 
of these, and see if you can tell what iloman 
letters are the same; " — v and w are faintly 
spoken by a few. "That is right. Can you 
see the third principle in these letters?" All 
eagerly say they can. " Where does it end in 
vf" "At the dot," "Where in jo ?" "At 
the point sit top." " \Vhat principle is used 
in last part of i/>.'" "The first principle." 
"How are « and w finished?" " With a light 
dot and curve. " * ' This curve lies iu the direc- 
tion of the lines on which we write. These 
lines are horizontal, and the curve is the hori- 
zontal-curve. If now I make the third princi- 
ple, and cross it upward at centre with the 
straight-line, in this way, what Roman letter is 
itlike?"The children all delightedly recognize 
small 3;. — Primary Teacher. 

Authority of Parents Over Tlieir Child- 
ren's School Studies. 

In the case, says the Albany Law Journal, 
of Trustees of Schools vs Van Allen, the ques- 
tion as to what right a parent has to direct the 
studies pursued by his child who attends a pub- 
lic school is considered. It is held that the 
trustees of a school district may prescribe 
what studies shall be pursued, and may reg. 
ulate the classification of the pupils, but that 
a parent may select from the branches 
pursued those which the child shall study, so 
long as the exercise of such selection does 
not interfere with the system prescribed for the 
school and the child cannot be excluded from 
one study simply because he is deficient in 
another. In this case the pupil was denied 
admission to a public high school because of 
his deficiency iu a knowledge of grammar. He 
had asked to be admitted to pursue only those 
studies in which he was sufficiently proficient 
to entitle him to admission to the high school. 
The Court held that a rule requiring his ex- 
clusion was unreasonable and could not be en- 
forced. In Morrow against Wood, in Wis- 
consin, a father directed his child, who atten. 
ded a public school, to study only certain 
branches among those taught in the school. 
The teacher, with notice of such direction, 
required the child to study other subjects 
and upon his refusal to do so, whipped him. 
This was held to be an unlawful assault. In 
Ruleson vs. Post, in Illinois, a girl sixteen 
years of age was in attendance upon a public 
school to the benefit of which she was entitled, 
and was in a class which, by the course of 
study prescribed by the directors of the school, 
was required to study book-keeping. Under 
the direction of her parents she refused to 
pursue this study, and for that reason was by 
the teacher, acting under the order of the dl- 

ir iiigbt nor day. 

ly lo hold 
, lest it get com. 


The Dangerous Schoolmaster. 

The man who teaches men to think for 
themselves is jiu incendiary and revolutionist. 
He overturns governments, revolutionizes 
churches, rean-anges the work of the world, 
breaks up old and establi^hed boundai'y lines, 
inspires self-confidence, and leads men every- 
where to assert their manhood. Through 
his influence slaves refuse to work for their 
masters, and trample their shackles under 
their feet ; the forbidden book is openly read, 
and mm everywhere are self- asserting and 
self-respecting. He brings to light a race of 
thinkers who laugh at the idea that others 
are paid to do their thinking. He says : 
"Man! think for yourself! Call no man 
master ! The world is yours ! Use it 1 Read, 
write and cipher for yourself I" 

His enemies say, you are a revolutionist. 
Our fathers did not teach thus. He answers : 
" I care not how your fathers taught. My 
work is to teach people how they can think 
for themselves." His motto is, "The num- 
ber of facts a pupil learns is by no means the 
measure of bis success," and " That method 
of teaching is by far the best that leads the 
pupil to investigate for himself " Long Hve 
the "Dangerous Schoolmaster." — Bame^ 
EdxLcadonal MonthUj. 

Facts to Remember. 

1. Writing is one of the earliest acqui- 
sitions of childhood. 

2. All children naturally love to write as 
well as draw, until spoiled by injudicious prac- 

3. Writing is learned by imitation, study 
aud practice. 

4. The method of writing acquired in 
youth generally becomes a fixed habit for life. 

.5. Habits are formed by a repetition of 

11. Pupils will form habits good, bad, or 
indifferent, if allowed to write. 

7. Habits are very difficult to change 
wnen once contracted and become more con- 
firmed by age. 

'6. A graceful style of penmanship is as 
readily acquired as auy. — Writing Teacher. 


The art of Writing is called Vhirography; 
fine Penmanship is sometimes termed CaUi~ 
graphy. Shorthand, Bmrhygraphy or Sten- 
ography, Miniature Writing, Micography, aud 
Secret Writing, Ci-yptograpky. 

The Frecions Hetalj. 


Apropos of tbif) goldeo epoch and age of 
BiWer bonanzas, we learn from the most re- 
liable sources of information that from the 
earliest times to the commencement of the 
ObriNtinn era the amount of Ihe precious 
metals obtained from the surface and mines 
of the earth is estimated to be four thousand 
millions of dollars; from the lattii-r epoch to 
the diacovery of America, another sum of 
four thouHand millions was obtained ; from 
the date of the latter event to those of 18.12, 
an addition of nine thousand millioDB was 
made ; the exteORivc working of Russian 
gold mines in 1943, added to the close of 
1B42 one thousand millions more; the double 
discovery of the California gold ssines in 
1848. and those of Australia iu 1951. added, 
to the close of last year, five thousand mil- 
lions, making a grand total at the present 
time of twenty-three thousand millions of 
dollars. The average loss by abrasion of 
coins is estimated to be a tenth of one per 
cent per annum ; and the average loss by 
consumption in the arts and destruction by 
fire and shipwreck at from two to eight mil- 
lions per annum. The amount of the pre- 
cious metals now in existence is estimated to 
be thirteen thousand millions of dollars, of 
which gold furnishes seven thousand mil- 
lions, and silver the remainder. Of the 
amount now in existence, ei^ht thousand 
millions ore estimated to be in coin and bul- 
lion, three thousand million^ iu watches, and 
the remainder in plate, jewelrj' and ornaments. 
Of the amount now in existence, seven thou- 
Band milions are estimated to have been ob- 
tained from America, three thousand millions 
from Asia (including Australia and New Zea- 
land), two thousand millions from Europe 
and the remainder from Africa. Prior to 
the commencement of the Christian era, the 
annual product of the precious metals was 
about two millions of dollars; from the com- 
mencement of the Christian eru to the dis- 
covery of America it was three millions: three 
hundred and fifty years it attained to twenty, 
five millions; during the decade immediately 
Bucceeding. 1842 to 18r.2, it was one hundred 
millions, and since the double discovery of 
the California and Australia mines. IS'<3 to 
1872, it has averaged two hundred and fifty- 
six millions of dollars. The annual product 
of the precious metals attained its acme in 
18r»!l, when it was two hundred and eighty- 
five million dollars. The incrt-ase in the 
amount of the precious metals in existence 
has been greater during the last twenty-five 
years than during the previous one hundred 
and forty. With such magnificent results 
before us. is it not singular that California 
and the Pacific Slope do not cut a more im- 
posing figure iu the world of commerce.— 
San FranciMo Era. 

A Good Riddle and Answer. 

The following riddh' is attributed to Mr. 
Macaulay. the estuiyist : 

Cut off lay head — and singular I am: 
Cut off my tail — and plural I appear ; 

Cut off both head and tail, and strange 

Although my middle's left, there's nothing 

What is my head, cut off ? A sounding 

What is uiy tail, cut off ? A roaring rivi-r, 
Within whose eddying deep I ])eaceftd- 
ly play. 
A parent of soft sounds, though mute for- 

Shortly after the publication of the above 
a con-espottdeot furnished the following ans- 

Ecod ! Tve guessed it ! 'Tis a cod ; 
Cut off his head, he's very on, 
Cut off his tail, and you have a Co., 
And that is "plural" all men know. 
Cut off his head and tad, you leave 
A middle nothing (O) you perceive, 

\\'liat is bis head ? A sounding C. 

What is his tail ? The river D. (Dee) 

And Where's the Epicure, hut cries: '"Odd 

I know the Cod produces most sweet 


Owe no man anything. 
Temptations are instructions. 
Money earned is money valued. 
Fortunes are made by savings. 
Money easily gotten is soon spent. 
God promises notbing to idleness. 
Never make a loan on importunity. 
Eunui is the gbost of murdered time- 
It is bad to lean against a falling wall. 
He is rich who is poor enough to be gen- 
Slight small injuries and they will become 
none at all. 

Idleness is many gathered miseries in a 

Life is a pendulum Bwingiug between a 
smile and a tear. 

Idleness is hunger's mother, and of theft 
its full brother. 

If laughter is the daylight of the soul a 
smile is its twilight. 

Judge not from appearance lest you might 
eiT in your judgment. 

Haste trips up its own heels, fetters and 
stops itaelf. — Seneca. 

No man can be provident as to time who is 
not careful as to company. 

One bell serves a parish, and one helpful 
baud serves many a cause. 

Applause is the spur of noble minds, the 
end and aim of weak ones. 

I have been everything and it amounts to 
nothing. — Srptt'mm Srrenn(. 

Knowledge and timber should uot be much 
used until they are seasoned. 

Bashf ulness is an ornament to youth, but 
a reproach to old age. — AriaMU. 

Motives are like harlequins, there is al- 
ways a second di'ess beneath the first. 

If thou faint iu the day of adversity thy 
Btrength is small. — Proverbs axnv., 10. 

True happiness costs little; if it be dear it 
is not of good quality. — Vacation Days. 

Iu this theatre of man's life it is reserved 
only for God and angels to be lookers ou. 

To be in a passion is to punish one's self 
for the faults and impertinences of another. 

Kind words are better than gold, and the 
voice of a friend has saved many a mau from 

How immensely would our conversation be 
abridged if all mankind would speak only the 

Trust him little who praises all; him less 
who censures all ; and him least who is in- 
different to all. 

The superiority of some men is merely 
local. They are great because their associ- 
ates are little. 

Politeness is money, which enriches not 
him who receives it, bnt him who dispenses 
■xi.-VataUon Days. 

No life can be pure in its purpose and 
strong in its strife and all life not be purer 
and stronger thereby.— Owifn Meredith. 

Ames' Compendium 

of Practical and Ornamental Penman- 
ship is designed especially for the use of 
prafeasional peumeu and artists. It gives 
an unttsual number of alphabets, a well 
graded series of practical exercises, and 
specimens for oflF-baud flourisbiug, and a 
great number of specimen sheets of en- 
grossed title pages, resolutions, certifi- 
cates, memorial.1, &c. It is the most com- 
prebenBive, practical, usefiil, and popular 
work to all classes of professioual penmen 
ever publislied. Sent, post-paid, to any 
address on receipt of 85 00; or for a pre- 
mium for a club of 12 subscribers to the 

The followiug are a few of the many 
flatterine: notices from the press and 
patrnns ; 

which justly pxUiblt- cot ouly iLo untlior's talent. 

mined.-Z'ro/. Thm. 

nSoTd. to be witlDUt ii.—Prof. L. Aeire, Red I 

It conUiaa on olmoBt (-ndleas collection of dp 
adapted to the practical department of oroaT^ 
peumniiship.— Pro/. J. U, Hinnfi-' 

em, San FraneUeo, Cat. 

Sandy, Tivp, N. J'. * ^^^' aeen.— o/. 

B->ohtt!Ur^ " " "^ '"'*''^ **" '* * •—-*"" 

It is certaliUy the book of all books u on the . 

penman8bip.-iV(/. G. C. StoekueU, Sewark, X« 

Hilts-— Pro/ C. C. CuTtU, m^niapciis!mnn. 

aometbiog excelleiit.— O, C Cannon. Boaton. 

The art of penmauBhip is triumph&nt in 
Amea a boot,— ..>eto i'ork Evening Poit. 


20 KcDiblc » 

WHITING soUclled. Ch 


Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 


O ehip Bhon 


Chora of 


of lesBoDB, by r 

aall, in a sew ayate 

lege, New Wilni 

Ington, Pa. 



New York. 



ONS having Phntograpbs, Speoim 
arings of pen work, anoieot or mo 
h to sell, plsaae addretis, stating i 
Charlotte Seminary, W. Charlotte, \ 



TED.— A man capable of taking eli 
usincfls college— a teacher and a 
e. E E POST, Beading. Pn 



college. A practical book-keeper and 
>rgy required. Address, 

id ."l-Arinnyinous Writing 

.^ <;ird9. as plain for 30c. Samples 10c. By J. N. 
r^Kuml with me, and new 3 the public, ISc— unique 


Ornamental and Artistic 

Practical. Artistic and On 
ntihip. Every department of Pe 
at thoroughly tangbt. 

cial InfltnicUou in Deslgoiog and 

advantage*, and rapvcially bo to those who wish t 
acquire the power to 8ucc««i<f iilly execute work fo 
roprodaotlon by tho Photo- Engraving or Photo-Lithe 
graphic proceuea. Kat«a of tuition will be special. 




Practical Penmanship. 

ipjUIs M HTANDABD atidbual- 
PAPER d«vi>t«d to pcDtnanBhlp 
irlM TBACINO In copy-boolw 

itbcmatlcall;, the TBU£ 


■ ur CURRENT •lylf* 

F I. S M ' S 

Business College. 

HcleDtlflC Bi 


FOLSOH & CARHART, Proprietors. 

I>i«tinctiv€? Fontixi**-** 


Model Copy-Books 

licrs !• greatly Btuplifiod 
tiiuuht BB obJoot-lesaouB . 

10. The oipt^s aro dWoiled of all auperfluoua orua> 

0^ Tlio HBO of tlie Model Copy-BnokacAUiiot full 
> Boouro UTtni auouMB lu tenclitiiK peiiiuanBLlp, and 
loiiu ytho have brou wedded to tlie old luttliodB &r*) 
ssuootfully lovUcd to examtu* tbla bitIm. 

A full sot of llie Model Copy-BookB. Sli Numbera- 
III bP Boiit. poat-pold, to TeaohorB or Scbool omcorB. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Publishers, 



I> ^V C K .A. K r> ' s 


Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 

QI'E!!iT10>S IN COiaiEHflAI. I.AW, 

S. S. PACKARD. Publisher, 


Every Variety of Pen Woik Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner 
Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Accounts 

DISPLAY Tuts for advertising. 


I Eleci 

f Plal<?i 

sen. by ■> 



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■(ij j.-IH:l:1:M.I!4g ). 

n Series of 


iTwo Teachers Wanted. 


o blKlK'.t tonu. b; tbo bn.t I 

N ot a Revision, but an Entirely 

NEW S E R I L!. t^ 


d liryaut*! Prliitluii a 

rte refer, by penuUslon, to S. 8. Packard, D, T. 
Amee, L. P. Spencer, H. C. Spuuoer, T. J. Btesvurt, 

Sarapies with your name aad price list, with 

7-*t Port Kemie di.Montg. Co.,Pa. 


DittoriiiiineatheV and giit!!!! !!!'.','.. .!!'.;i^ 7 oO 
Ames' Copy-Slips for iiiBtruotlon aud practice m 
practical writiiig, per sheet, contaliilng iO ex- 

SO Bbeeta ( 60 full nets of coplea) 3 00 

VVbutB. drawg.impei, Lut-treflB. 16x2u In., $ 19 $1 20 

Blank Unetol Board Garde, per IHU 25 

'* l.'ooO.'byexpMM 1 511 
Fancy c«rdB, birde and scrolls, 18 diflerent dc- 
BlgoH, very popular, po? pack of 26 cards, 20c. ; 

1 doz. H oz' bottles fancy colored Inlt sent by 

WMte Ink, porbottlei by Mp'reea'.'.!.* !!.!!! I'V.'.; 60 

Oold •' 1 00 

David a Japan Ink, per pint bottle, by expresi.. 1 00 

Prepared ludia Ink, per bottle, by express 60 

Olllotl-a 03 Sleei Pens, per groRs.- l 60 

The'gueen.very'aue ^. . .^f .'.'.','.'. .'.'.'.'. 1 60 

RugrassluR Pene for letteiing, per doz 26 

Crow QiilU Pen, very Que. for drawing, per di.z,, 76 
Dixon's American Orapbite Lead PcdcIIs, very 
eupenor, per doz ^ 26 

Mcl^e'a Alphsbetfl..... ".!'.";.!!."! 2 60 

Cougdon'B Normal System of Flourishing 60 

" of Lettering 50 

These are good works for the money. 

Key to Speucerian PoumanBblii l 60 

Paysou, Duiiton aud Scrlbuer'G Man al 126 

Spen^erUn Compondiuiu a OO 

Sponge Rubber, 2x3 in., very Bupcrlor, per piece. 50 
bght - , youwi e- 

TblB popular work, which for tbe lat 



tloD «y S. 8 
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Iviflon, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

I3S and 140 <irnnd Hi.. New Vo 


P^?S ."vi? 

^'oU^dSeT' our'^uame' 

otly 30 ce 

Die; pen-tlour 



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Die cnaracter, an.pie prooib oi u^mt-gond diaciplfuo 
rians. No person need apply who la not a firBt-olaHfl 
tearher of both Book-keeping and Writing. To I 

echoolBaturdaj-B. Vacatfou July a 

mptly paid. 

H. E. UIBBAltD, 

, Mass 

What l;.verybody Wanta. 

d wuib Liiart.— .V«r York Trade Jt 
luiul Chart illUBtratlug the CourBe 
•Ooo. John A. jyix, 

Fi Fiah, Ex-Seerflarp of SlaU, Waehi 
Bubjeot I 

great ablUty and 

Viie/Jiutict n. S. Sup\ 

'U, mnUter to Englai 

It IB very interesting. -//on. Alot 

t. nf War, Washington, l>. C. 

■.-Seo. U. S. Treasury, WOMbingtoi 
tt presents InanillUBtratid man 
■rmany, Washington, D. C. 

■Hon. Edwards Iterrt- 

IMbllc or Utcmry Scbool for iSOO i 
Addr«u A. C. SUIThJ Burg Hill, Q 



, by 


au Sio^wu, Haw Tork lt»andl*0 Orani ist.,ll.t. L. 


I?ul>IiKli.-<l Moiitlilv, at ^<>i-> Bi-o«ai 

!^ 1 .00 por Yt 

ti* utid Proprlotoi 

>TET\' YORK, MARCH, 1879. 

VOL. III. NO. ■!,. 

('KAR»>»4 ntlNINEMS CO\,\MKi\ 

20s Br 





Uroadwuy oud Fourlli 



1>. T. A.IIE 

Counnel glveu n* Kx|.ert uu 








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lUwllb sliding ca]>lva.) 




WooQBOCket. R. I. 



IR, PublUIier, 


% Penmumtilp, plaiu 

10 Broadway, N. Y. 




Haudwritmg of Aiitlio 

II Millr 


who \ 

imi)ossiUU- to n-nd liis luuuu- 
Swiubume is auoUier. I have h 
' lipt poem of liis thai I Lave iievor 
I'ttnloroad outirwty. Some vt-rees will 
li'ug iiuito fluontly. but otlieK are im- 
II'. 1 thiuk be wi'ites with n <iiiill pen. 
I'.iloiie At that, llis lett^>rs have no 
I,:, auil ho is not pttrticuhir about dot- 
iiis i'fi or oroasiug his t's. Wall \Vlut- 
A Titos n very chamcteristic hand. Big. 
tormi'd letten, cai'elesij, but very din- 
He aUo uses a quill. 1 have a letter 
kill's bt'f ore me. It lookj* as though 
;lil havo written it witli the poiut of a 

I ut it 18 very easy to read- The words 
I 'I good distouco apart, occasionally 

i by the crossing of a t. I cauuot re- 
,- 1 . .mi (luoting a paragraph that occurs 
Ills letter, it 8triki>a out- as sto very amus- 
.uid so Uuskinish. Hu is speaking of a 
■li ofeugnwingBthftt were sent him for 
iM.i. and adds : ■• I uui afraid there is a 
: 'iiy iu America which is adverse to the 

I I v.. faculty, but assuredly the sublim- 
lii^- scenery would give a uoble color to 

"u once excited." I had thought that 
■■ s .utivtf faculty was thv one we possess- 

ilie greatest degree. J. R. LoweU 
» a lady-like, ruuuiug hand, all very 

plain until it comes to the signature ; there 
the J looks as much like a D as anything 
else. The letter of bis I have is a cbarmiug 
one. It is in answer to one from a friend 
who has thanked bim for some literary work 
given gratuitously. " I hope you will say no 
more about anything I may send you," he 
writes. "The pleasantest thii u the world 
is to throw one's self away, anu "e next to 
that to give one's self away to oi i friends." 
Here is a specimen of Tom Hugh, s's penman- 
ship. It is a jolly letter to a friend who gave 
it to me. '■ Aren't you a rum old cove!" it 
begins in the ueatfstof English hands. There 
are four closely-written pages, and there is no 
faUing off from the first word to the last. J. 
Anthony Froude writesa distinct, fhough line 
baud, with the words very far apa) , " Yours 
in haste, (just going to beiir Fee 
Field," written in a square, bold 
characteristic and recognizable 
circumstances. I don't think thi 
could form a proper idea of Julia lA 
from ber handwriting. It looks as t 
pen barely touched the paper, auc' 

Postal Absurdities. 

irj Kate 

marks of baste, 
however, except ii 
might us well be a 

It is not hai-d tc decipher, 
1 the Howe signature, that 
uy thing else. 

3 the worst writing I ever 
saw. It is a jiage of the uiauuscript of one of 
Mrs. Obphaut's stories. If she had written 
with the point of a hair, the strokes of her 
pen could not be any finer. I remember when 



, Ne' 

York, some six years ago. the printers refused 
to set it up. They declared they could not 
read it, so a friend and I set to work to re- 
write the whole story. He being good at 
deciphering bad writing, read aloud, and I 
wrote down bis words. You would not won- 
der that the compositors rebelled if you eoidd 
see the manuscript covering a large sheet of 
blue paper, and runningdiagonally across the 

George MacDouald writes a large, manly 
hand, with bold, bkck strokes, and au unmis- 
takable signature, llobert Buchanan writes 
an easily read, affectedly hterary hand, as 
though he was trying to be unintelligible, but 
did not like to be altogether so. He puts 
little curly qurnm on his lettere that are rather 
boyish. William Winter writes the most re- 
markable hand of any man I ever saw. The 
j letters look like forked lightning. His direc- 
tions on an envelope look very plain, and you 
I begin the letter swimmingly, but before you 
I know It, you are brought to a standstill. I 
my possession that 
decipher but half 

havo a letter of his ii 

I have never been able t_ 

of. Horace Greeley and ex-Gov. Bross ha 
long had the palm for writing the r 

readable "copy" that printers 

I believe that there is a specimen of 
ery printing 


Gov. Bross' writing in almost 

office in the country preserved 

'- ed» 


in-»ir%uii, iL 
army of fad 
ing, arranging i 

"t,' up 


'' ',V .' * ' We believe 
ilv what the word 
■>ut of aUthufac- 
iKit instruction — 
setting in order au 
It is not tabulat- 

learning set lessons and fiUing the iniud 

with useful knowledge. It is leading the mind 
to think atM. judge estimate and reflect for 
Itself. Aga&siz suid that the poorest service 
a teacher could render a pupil was to give 
him a ready-made answer. We believe be 
was right. If the Chinese system of schooU 
IS to be perpetuated m our country we might 
as well abandon all normal schools, teaebere' 
institutes and examiners, and simply kno« 
that teachers have the power of keepine or- 
der and hearing recitations." 

I An author, residiiif. 
by uiaii to his fri.ii- 
his book, on the fly-1. 

something like this : ■ \Wir^jii^i Wmkulried 
Brown, with the comphiuents of Washiugti 
Potts." The New York Post Office clerks des- 
cried this nefarious inscription, and "charged 
up " the book at letter- postage rates. Deduct- 
ing the 28 cents paid by the sender, there re- 
mained $2.25 which was due from Wolfgang 
Wiukelried Bro\vn. A person in Osiris, Ohio, 
desiring that bis favorite weekly paper, pub- 
lished iu New York, should print certain fa- 
miliar verses, wrote on a postal card a retjuest 
to that effect, and, to make all sure, pasted 
the poem on the back of the card. The re- 
cipient of this valuable communication, for 
which will appear further on, was compelled 
to pay 5 cents postage thereupon. A New 
York citizen, having noticed in The Tiiii;san 
editorial article which he thought would inter- 
est bis friend in Boston, went to a window in 
the New York Post Oflice and asked for " a 
newspaper wrapper," for which he paid one 
cent. Putting this about the copy of The 

Times,' il? dropped it into the box. The weight 

of that copy of the paper happened to be two 

ounces and one-sixteenth. Being weighed, it 
was thrown into the waste basket as insuffi- 
ciently paid, and before the sender left the 

building it was on the way to the furnace. 

Subsequently, the expectant Boston man wrote 

to his New York friend : " There is a thief in 

your Poet Office." 

In each one of these instances the postal 

authorities proceeded aonording to law as ex- 
pounded by the rulings of the Post Office De- 
partment. The statutes of the United States 

provide that the sender of a book may write 

on the tiy-leaf " Wolfgang Winkelried Brown, 

from Washington Potts." Slore than this 

tends to mischief. Therefore, Mr. Brown 

paid $2 2r> for " the compliments of " Mr. 

Potts. The gentlemau in Osiris might have 

put bis printed poem iu au unsealed envelope, 

which, being sent to the New York publisher, 

would have been charged as a printed circular 

— one cent. The law says that nothing shall 

be "attached" to a postal card. The poor 

iittle verses were pasted on with a thick com. 

position, and the whole thing then weighed 

more tlian a half ounce. It was unelassifled, 

the "'attached" uewspaper clipping being un- 
lawful. Therefore, as unclassified matter, it 

was chargeable with letterpostjige- It weighed 

more than a half ounce, and it required six 

cents postage. But one cent having been 

paid for the postal curd, only five cents were 

duL-. And this was collected. In the case of 

tb<* 11' A (I i|- I \\ In. li WHS confiscated, with its 

'Jill - i' ' ' : 1.' Muder only knew that a 

u>-" I . '■'■ \\ •■ >-osting one cent) was a 

UL-\\sp.ijni wKij.jj. 1. He never dreamed that 
was required to weigh his 
as not prepaid at the rate ' copies of those ph 

of one cent for every two ounces and fraction 

thereof, to throw it into tbe waste basket- 
Generally spiftking, it is safe to say that 
the postal service of the country is admiuis- 

We all travel, sooner or later. And nil the 
Custom-bouses on the face of the earth, with 
all their objectionable features combined, are 
not so vexatious, frivolous, insolent, and ex- 
haustive of patience and Christian Charity as 
the American Custom-house, wherever found. 
Next to this comes the American Post Office 
with its intricate rulings, its cumbrous sys- 
tem, and its wire-drawn clasi>ifications. The 
Post Office people merely administer tbt laws. 
The Post Office department is a court of 
iinal appeal, and its rulings are law to all sub- 
ordinate officials. These ruUngs are based 
upon the laws of Congres-J. And the laws of 
Congress are the work of men who know ns 
much about the details of Post Office busi- 
ness as a monkey knows about trigonometiy. 
Congress, by its burdensome statutes, seems 
to be anxious to worry tbe people who have 
transactions with the Post Offices. In this 
endeavor Congress is ably seconded by the 
Post Office Department with its capricious 

Of these rulings let us give a few examples : 
There was no classification of mail matter 
until 1825. On the statutes of years pre- 
ceding that date all present classifications are 
made. The type-writer is a modern inven- 
tion, and matter from that machine is un- 
known to Post Office law. Next came the 
papyrograph, aud then the electric pen. 
These machines produce matter which is 
merely writing by machinery, whether in 
single copies or duplicate. Confronted with 
a new problem, the Post Office authorities at 
Washington flew to the statutes. These 
were silent on the subject of machine-writing. 
Therefore, matter produced by the type- 
writer, i>apyrogroph, or electric pen was 
"unclassified." As we have seen in the case 
of the pasted postid card, uiiclassilied mail 
matter is chargeable with letter postage. 
The agents of these machines moved upon 
Washington. Reinforced by >:)euators and 
Congressmen, they coerced the department 
into revei'iting its decision, and matter pro- 
duced by the papyrograph and the electric 
(vas admitted to the mails as third-class 
matter, the type-writer being " left out in the 
cold." Then, the 


Uie departniLLj 

■ iL-ii.i nil,. 

ihii( even this 

concession w<.ii 

I.I ! • 1 ...],- 

! -M.Mvli 4, 187',l. 

So, unless < < 

hi tbe rescue. 

type-writer, \<^n.|.|, 

rill .-lectric pell 

will produce 

DQatUr i)Ubjt;L 

1. to letter rotes 

after March ' 

. Tbie Heem 

8 frivolous. Iu 

like mannf ,■ a 

I'mtf-d prici'-L 

urrent, in which 

■•S)l :." ,.. , . 

-..1 to •■$14 ■::, 

I of ; 

ik-r ii ii. . i-iMLi .it il,. W- \ ( ttlice Depart- 

jnt to this effect. "A prices- current, partly 

writing, is subject to letter rates of postage 

ten sent in the mails." In like manner 

o, an architect's plans, drawn with a pen, 

harged letter rates, but photographic 

■barged third class 

rates as "photographic proof, &c." Authors' 

corrected proofs are third class matter, but 

au author having marked on bis proof "run 

up. solid," made his entire package h'able to 

tered on tbe theory that the people served letter postage, under a ruling of the Post 
must be put to i-very possible inconvenience. I Office Department to the effect that "any 
Indeed, this is true of almost every branch of notations made on corrected proofs by which 
our Government- With War, Navy, Interior. , information is asked or conveyed, or any iu- 
uud Law affairs, the people have very httle : structions given in writing, subjects thti 
to do. We come immediately iu contact with | sheets to letter postage." 
tbe Post Office aud Trt'osi ry Departments. | Examples like these might be indefinitely 
Of the hist named branch of the public sur- 1 multiphed. We have said enough to show 
vice, tho Customs touch u^ moat nearly, the necessity of having tbe entire postal codo 


-.l urg' jj.iit tw^'^t^;''^:-- 

modified and fiiiiiiilifi«.-d tnr compptent men. 
(JoDBrenMionBl lawyom flcd bair.spjitt*n( are 
not fit for such n work. If the Postmiurt^'r- 
OeneAl, and oni> or two oflSc-»nt of tlio aliility 
and eipurionce of Portnuwl^r .Ta»bh of New 
York, were to prepare u poital code, one 
might reasonably expect to receive an intel- 
ligent KyMtem in place of the present intricate 
oonfanion. To nee how differently practical 
pottt offici' people do thftir work, one haw only 
to look nt tlie proviHiouM of the Int4>niatioDaI 
PoKtal tn-nty, dniwn up by nif n vertpd in postal 
affoini. Instead of the rubbiBh in our utatuteH 
relating to aiithom' proofa, &c., that con- 
vention provide* " Proofa of printing or of 
music mny bear correctiona made with the 
pen, relating excluxively to the text, or to the 
execution of the work." That ift clear enough 
and in not burdeiied with verbiage. That 
convention aUo fuiys: " Itook^i may bear n 
manuKcript dedication or a complinientnry in* 
Mcription from the author." No nonsense 
here about" fromSo-Hrid-«o to ThuK-and-so " 
ThiM troaty also says that prices-current, Ac, 
may Imvu the pricoH odditd in writing or by 
any impression whuttivcr." We do not allow 
n merehant to cbango a Mingle figure of his 
price list in writing, unless it be a typograph- 
ical error, under penalty of payiug letter 
postage, Whoa practical comnion-sensG is 
applied to a revision of our postal laws and 
rogidations, the biirdenH of the people will be 
ligbt(;iied and the revonuea of the Govern- 
ment will not Iw reduced. - A^ r. Timr/i. 


That ponniansliip \k a most useful acquisi- 
tion is an indixputjtble fact l-Vom the earliest 
timcfl we find traces of it, when the lloman 
maid uned to send her missives to her lover 
traced on the waxen tnblets with the steel 
Htyhm, to now, when the prevailing style 
among the fair Hex secmH to hv nu angular, 
jerky formation of the letters, denominated 

In a certain sense that hand-writing of a 
man betrays what he ia, for when we sue the 
manly, gi-aeeful formation of the letters, wi.- 
think of the writer iu a-tiyuonymus manner, 
while the Kmall cramped hand with occasional 
blotfl. leads us to believe the person is old, or 
slovenly, or oaroloiut. 

A great many consider that to have their 
work redundant with gi'aceful flourishes is 
the proper way, hut while this beautifies it, 
a plain chirography goes farther iu the eyes 
of a liusiuess man. who has learned that fine 
feathers do not always make fine birds. 

Those who are but indifferent penmen can 
bo comforted, perhaps, by the reflection that 
some of the great men, on whom fortune has 
showered her laurels, were miserable writers. 
Napoleon's— to cito au example— it was al- 
most impossible to read, and Uufus Choate's 
was once mist4iken by a carpenter to be the 
plan of a fence he wished constructed around 
his land. In fact, somebody has suggested 
that to be a poor penman is a certain mark 
of future success. 

In some coses this is excusable, for a per- 
son. espi<oiaUy if he be one who lives by his 
pen. although hu may have been at first an 
excellent writer, owing, perhaps to the hurry 
or the actiumulation of ideas which he hastens 
to note down ere he may forget them, or the 
fatigue brought ou by writing several con- 
secutive hours, causes bis writing iu time to 
degenerate into a miserable scribble. Thus 
it is that all our authors and poets are, as a 
cla**, sueh poor penman. Of Victor Hugo, 
it is said, that mauuscript ^vTitteu by him in- 
tended for the press is almost as legible as 
print, while his private letters are a perfect 
puKzle to make out 

Many a poor boy has found good penman- 
ship a priceless boon, by which he has been 
enabled to attain afilueuoe and eminence. 
But then, of course, that must come after 
yearw of work nud constant application, and 
not all at ouce. 

TfHly a gooil penmanship is a thiug not to 
bo scoffed at, and when a person is blessed 
with it, he should do his best to keep it up, 
while those who write poorly should not be 
discouraged, but strive and practise, and tht- n 
succcM will ere long reward their efforts. 

Ilcmcmbi'r. eighteen back numbers of the 
JouuNAL. including all numbers from and 
jucluhivc of the September number. 1S7S. 
will be scnl for *1. 


Many persons write their signatures so il- 
legibly that to a straugor. they are little bet- 
ter tlian Egyption hieroglyphics. We have 
frecjui-ntly been annoyed at receiving letters 
in which everything except the signature was 
legible, but that very important part it was 
impossible to decpiber with certainty. Some- 
time one IB compelled to resort to the expe- 
dient of cuttinK out the signature, such as it 
is. and pasting it on the envelope containing 
the reply, tnisliug that the postr-office clerks 
at the office of delivery may be able to hit 
upon tho right party. Persons should always 
remember that names have no relation to the 
other words, from which their identity can be 
inferred, and as names are so various, and 
the same one is often spelled in three or four 
different ways, names of persons, places, &c.. 
should be written with unusual care,— each 
letter formed in the regular standard manner. 

Some persons are under the impression that 
writing sigoatures in an odd style guards 
against counterfeiting. We do not think this 
is the ease. Any signature can be counter- 
feited, but the more beautiful and absolutely 
plain it is. the greater the difficulty in suc- 
cessful imitation. It would task a cmmter- 
fciter far more to imitate the beautiful signa- 
ture of P. R. Spencer than the sign manual 
of F. i:. Spinner. There was hut one Napo- 
leon. He wrote a wretched signature, and 
perlmiiH could afford to do so. Wo are not 
Napoleons, but Smiths; therefore let us write 
our names modestly and plainly, and all sen- 
ble people will think the more of us for it. — 


■ (hifai. 

Facts versus Theory. 

I'lfHUtr Pniman'n Art Jonnml. 

Deah Sin: — Permit me to enter a protest 
against the oft-repeated statement that "any 
one can become a good penman." During 
the last seven years, in which my whole time 
has been devoted to writing, I have tried 
every means, except personal instruction from 
a first-class teacher, which I could not obtain, 
to improve my penmanship, my object being 
to keep my books neat and to acquire a hand 
at which it would be a pleasure for me to 
look, and have failed, t comiuentfe^-by sub. 
scribing for the Western Pcnmnn, taking 
other publications along down to your Jooa- 
NAL. From these papers I learned the ad- 
dress of the beet penmen in tho country to 
whom I wrote for copies and iustruotioos. My 
letters were of a scrip-\nva\ nature, nud did 
not often fail to elicit kindly and helpful re- 
plies, whose smooth shades, graceful curves 
and fairy-like hair lines made me feel like 
closing my accouubi and hiring out to embel- 
lish tea chests for Ah Sin. Preston, Soule, 
Wortbingtou, rii.l^i.^rr th- Spencer broth- 
ers, MusseliiKr,, K.uiMI. W-.Tst, Sbaylor, 
Hinnmn and liili' i-^ -. nt im the wisdom of 
long cxperii'uii <x[.r,--. ,] in diseouragingly 
inimitable copy. For years I Itept two copies 
of tho capitals, one by Worthington and the 
other by Musselman, framed together, hang- 
ing opposite my face above the desk. Muuy 
times, daily, yepir in and year out, would I 
look at these beautiful specimens, then dis- 
figure the journal, cash-book or ledger and 
feel the mantle of Job gathering about my 
shoulders as it fell on bis back about the time 
he 80 longed to dust his beard in the ash-biu. 

My experience in learuing to write reminds 
me of a similar one in trying to learn to sing, 
there being, however, a slight difference iu 
the method pursued. Instead of writing to 
Soukey or Stebbins for instniction, I put my- 
self uuderthe tuition of the best local teacher, 
who. to flud out how much stock in trade 1 
had to start with, asked ue to rise the scale, 
which I did, drawing from him the remark 
that the first thiug essential for me to learn 
was "that noise wasn't music." I went 
through twelve lessons and the lessons 
through me ; tho last note died melodiously 
down the silence of a calm May evening and 
I proceeded to interview my instructor iu re- 
gard to my talent, improvement, prospects, 
Ac.; solemnly pointing to u picture of the 
four-footed Nathan rebuking Baalim, he 
musingly soid : "Hod Providence given you 
an ear I could offer some eocoutngement, but, 
as it is," — and ho shook his head like a doc- 
tor over a patient who has faithfully taken 
the prescribed medicine and for whom there 
is no hope. In conclusion, the pleasure of 
heariug me sing a solo will be the exclusive 
reward of any one who can teach me the art 
of penmanship. L. D. Perkins. 

The Debt of the World. 

The aggregate bonded intlebtedness of tho 
world in lfir8 is stated at $a2.9;t7,fio:i.780— 
nearly *2.S billion dollars. How much gold 
there is in the world we have not the means 
at hand of detemiiniug. but it is much less 
than the ag^,'TeBnte indebtedness of the na- 
tions. The total gold product of the world 
from 184'.i to 1870— the most productive peri- 
od in history— was $:J.'_'H,li*.iO,745, and it 
would not be out of the way, perhaps, to esti- 
mate the entire amount of gold coin in the 
world, at three times this or, say. ten thou- 
sand million dollars. This would not be 
enough to i)rty the world's indebtedness, if it 
should fall due on one day. IJut the nations 
and individuals in contracting debts are not 
accustomed to gunge them by the amount of 
money iu the world or iu any country iu the 
world. The total iudebtcduess, public, cor- 
porate and private, is probably three times 
the twenty three thousand millions represent- 
ing the mere bouded debt of the nation. It 
is well enough to remember, however, that 
there never is in any country, at oue time, 
enough money, gold, silver, and paper alto- 
gether, to pay its debts. It is expected that 
the same lot of money will pay a great many 
obligations. Debts are so intermingled, not 
only between individuals, but between nations 
and individuals, that the same $20 gold piece 
or $ino bank note may. iu the course of a 
single month, pny debts to the amount of 
thousands of dollars. Besides, a great many 
of the national debts in the world are not ex- 
l>eeted to be paid — those of Great Britaiu aud 
France being particular examples. The worhl 
will probably owe more money the day it 
comes to an end than it doesuow.— S(. I^uin 

A Creditable Contrast. 

We bfivp under one govermnent and one 
Hag a temtory larger than that i-uled by n 
dozen governments iu Europe, and thediffer- 
■'ueo in the salaries paid to kings aud royalty 
and those paid the serA-imls of the people 
in our Ilepublic is striking. The Czar of 
llussia gotfi $8,l>.-jn,000 per year, or $2.\000 a 
day ; the Sultan of Turkey geft? annually 

$i;.ont),ooo, or $ls,uon ].. . ■^^■■. v.) i .^n 

in. .bad a salary of :!?."•, fnin , ,,r 

$14,000 each day: Fran, i- i ' \ n 

receives $4,000,000 a yifir ■>■ - ;n iinn : ,h, ; 
King William of Prussia is paid ^;j,IK)(l,UiH) 
per year, and Victor Emanuel $2,400,000, 
and good Queeu Victoria manages to live ou 
$2,200,000. Now, iu addition to these sala- 
ries, each sovereign is furnished with a dozen 
or more first-class residences free of cost. 
In this country onr President gets only $50, 
OnO a year — just as much as the Czar of 
Russia gets in two days. General Shernmn 
receives iu all some $18,000 per year— only 
a fraction more than the Sultan of 1'nrkey 
gets each day. The whole expense of an 
American Congress for a session of six 
months will not exceed — incidentals and all — 
$I,00i),U0O. The people in this country com- 
plain of hard times. Let them study the 
pauperism of England, and, our word for it, 
they will deem the condition of our poorer 
classes a comparatively happy one. —PhrFiw- 
hgical Journal. 

of a wool dealer. Horace of a sbopkeeper. 
Lucian of a stationer. Hogarth an appren- 
tice to an engraver. Dean I'ueker. son of t 
small farmer, and came to Oxford on foot. 
Bishop Prideaux worked in the kitchen al 
Exeter College. Edmund Halley 
son of a soap boiler. 


Origin of Oenins. 

Columbus was the son of a weaver, aud a 
weaver himself. Claude LoiTaine was 1 u-ougbt 
up a pastrj' cook. Moliere, the groat French 
comic writer, was the sou of u tapestry 
maker. Cervantes served as a common soldier. 
Homer was a beggar. Hesiod was the son of 
a small farmer ; Demosthenes, of a cutler. 
Terence, the Latin comic writer, wa.s a slave. 
Oliver Cromwell was the son of a brewer. 
Howard, the philautbrophist. was an appren- 
tice to a grocer. Benjiiniin Franklin the son 
of a tallow chandler. Dr. Bishop, of Worces- 
ter, son of a linen dr'iper. DeFoe, the great 
English political writer, wns tho son of a 
butcher. Whitefield was the sou of aa inn- 
keeper ot Gloucester. Cardinal Wolsey, the 
son of a butcher. Ferguson was a shepherd. 
Virgil was the son of a porter. Shakespenre 

The Attention 

Of persons who desire special instruction 
for teaching writing or designing and cx- 
eciiliiig artistic penmanship, is invited to 
our advcrlisenienl ou the seventh page of 

Arthur Bravo, from South America, an 
appreciative, and, we dare say. a successful 
graduate at Packard's Btisiness College, re- 
cently presented^ to Prof. William Allen 
Miller a clock set in a highly polished and 
ornate black marble case. The same gen- 
tleman presented Miss Lottie Hill, the ac- 
complished teacher of phouogi'apby at 
Packard's, with an elegant inkstand set in 
a golden tray— fine presents worthily be- 


, by mail. 

the a 

companicd with the full amount of cosh. If 
ordered to he scut by express, at least one 
half of the amount should he remitted, the 
Inilnnce C. O . D. 

What Our Coins Weigh. 

One million dollars in gold weighs ^,MT^ fi-T 
pounds avoiodupois ; l.omi.onO trode dollars 
weigh GO.OOO: $1,000,000 of 412J grains 
weighs r>S,!t2S 4-7; $1,000,000 in fractional 
coins weighs r..''., 114 2-7 ; $1,000,000 in five 
centniekels weighs 230,4.^7 1-7; $1.000 000 
in three cent nickels weighs 142,8fi7 1-7; 
$1,000,000 in one cent pieces weighs 68r.,- 
714 2-7. A coinage of 4,000.000 of the new 
silver dollars per month would amount in a 
year to 3,828,571 3-7 pounds, or over 1.414^ 
tone, and if the pieces were laid side by side 
they would form a continuous string l.l^tGj 
miles in length. 


The art of exalting lowliness aud giving 
gi-eatness to little things is one of the no- 
blest functions of genius. —I'alyvavf. 

Of a truth. I perceive that God is no re- 
specter of persons, but to every nation be 
that fearetb him aud worketh rlgbteousnesa 
is accepted with him. — Sinum Peter. 

Carlyle says that one cannot move a step 
without meeting a duty, and the fact of mu- 
tual helplessness is proved by the very fact of 
one's existence. No man liveth to himself, 
and no man dieth to himself. 

It concerns all persons to see that they do 
their utmost to fiud the truth ; aud if they 
do, it is certain that. let tho error be ever bo 
damuable, they shall escape the misery of 
being damned for it. — Ja-imij 7'ayior. 

"If any one speaks ill of thee," said 
Epictetus, "consider whether he hath truth 
on his side, and, if so. i-eform thyself, that 
his censures may not affect thee." When 
Anaxiniandor was told that the very boys 
laughed at his singing, " Ah ! " said he, 
"then I must learn to sing better." 

Truth from goodness is soft aud gentle ; 
falsehood from evil is hard and fierce ; hence 
the origin of hard and bitter speeches. 
Goodness of disposition manifesto itself by 
gentleness, iu that it is afraid to do hurt, and 
by sweetness, iu that it loves to do good. — 

They who are jguorautly devoted to tho 
mere ceremonies of reUgion aro falleu into 
thick darkness , but they are in still thicker 
gloom who are solely attached to fruitless 
speculations. — Veda. 

The sold may be compared to a field of 
battle, where the armies are ready at every 
moment to oneouuter. Not a single vice but 
hufi a more powerful opponent, aud not ono 
virtue but may be overborne by a combina- 
tion of vices.— (JoUUimVi. 

The love of glory, the feor of shame, tho 
design of making a fortune, the desire of 
rendering hfe easy and agreeable, and the 
humor of pidliug down other people, are of- 
ten the causes of that valor so celebrated 
among men. — Iloc/tefoucaulU. 



If lift wore 

ore •tronge 

If plcaaar© would Wd 
If «Kh wcr 
To all other 

« brother^ 
would be 1 

And ([»ln d*. 


Ancient Honey. 

Vc-ry ■ 

1.1 (li» 


Iiwvc IjL'i-n niiido to serve lljo innpcmcs (if 
money ainojig the (lifferoiit jicople of llu; 
world. Of thf ahori^iniit money of lliis 
ronlment in lliu inoiituU of tlie West niu) 
South, spceimcMis Imve been found com- 
posed of lignite, coal, hontr, sliell. term 
cottn. iiiicii, penrl, Cflrneliim. ohnlredony. 
tifl'lU'. jnsppr, niitivc roM -ilvrr, mppii, 
Ifitd ami iron. Wlmt oIIjm uI.--i:iiim . -pI ;, 
more porlslmhle imlurc \\<>< u-iil ;- uf 
course, unknown. In iln umiinjn ;i,i<l 
enslfrn portion of lliu ennlintiit llii- iintives 
used dried ihh, skins, m well as strings of 
wumpuin nmde from various kinds of slidls 



Before Uie invasion of Julius Ciusnr the 
mitiveH of Engliiud Inul tin plates, iron 
pliil<'.s. and rings, wliicli were received nn 
money. On lliu aiitliurity of Seneca a curi- 
ous account is given, where leather appro- 
prijitoly Httimped to irive it ii cprtain leirjtl 

Chantclcf, AVriv 111.- ntitvrllTTcllI inniirv At 


occurred In England during the great wars 
of the liarons. The Carthaginians also made 

the I 


was punishable with death. The t 
Queen Philippa, which had been pi 
Criloguo for £3,300. wn-^ rr.hdiirrl 
ing over three hundred ;nnl iliiii\ 
a half sacks of wool. In iIm ...m,, 
King.lohn. for the ninsxin ..t lij. i 
>"i>. I' ii-.H iM |,:.\ K.lwardlll. 

the I 

6 of . 

'1 ,,,.iM.| hoiK.inf boyhood eallcd— 
Ii luiUcr medal. The imposing 
: ;m' inumpunying a presentation 
,,,.«. lu'A i..\ce. dignity and value to a 
Ivuther jewel, which noblemen were prob- 
ably proud and grateful to receive at the 
hands of majesty. 

The invention of coinage is ascribed by 
Herodotus to the Lydians. to whom also, 
by some authors, is given iho credit of the 
" invention of uiarcbandise." By other 
wriler.s the honor of the invention of coin- 
age is given to the i£ginans, who were 
among the flrst Greeks that applied them- 
selves to commerce and navigation. It 
would ai)pear, however, that to the Asiatics 
[he world i& indebted for coinage as an 

As late as 1574 there was an immense 
issue of nioney in Holland stamped on small 
sheets of pasteboard. But further back in 
the vista of years, Numa Pompilius, the 
second king of Rome, who reigned six hun- 
dred and twcnly-two years before the Chris- 
liiui era, made money out of wood as well 
as leather. Both gold and silver appear to 
have been in extensive cireulation in Egypt 
soon ufter their potency was understood in 
Asia. Thence they were iutrwduced into 
Carthage and Greece, and tinally traveling 
farther and farther in a Westerly direction. 
Homo discovered the importance of leguliz- 
iug their circulation a.^ money. 
Weight Uavius always been of iho first 

importance iti early times, the shiipe of 
money appears to have been a matter of per- 
fect indiffcreace for a scries of years. When 
the small pieces or portions of metal re- 
ceived us precious were extensively circu- 
lated, it is quite probable that each person 
shaped them to suit liis own convenience as 
is practised, t.) some extent, at this time in 
remote portions of the Eiist Indies. There 
the payer cuts off parts with shears till he 
obtains by exact weight the stipulated 
l)rice. It was thus that men traveled with 
the evidence of their possessions in a sack. 
Hut great inconvenience must have resulted 
from Ibis often tedious process, and as na- 
tions advanced in civilization and the econ- 
omic artM. a cerUtin mark or impression on 
pieces of a certain size caused them to be 
acknowledged each as the rei>resentntive of 
a certain sum of luoney. This facilitated 
negotiations an<l led to further improve-- 
nicnls liolii in the fornj. weight and beauty 
of the drvirrvsi;i,n|„.,| iliereon. The cus- 

past in ;iii :li' ihiihii- il Kiirope of stamp- 
)Ugtheme.luiii..ii likrri. s. o{ ihc n-iirnin;,' 

us to read the hi-iMt_\ ..f ihrir -u.r<v-j\r 
dynasties in the fmis i.n the imlioiiiil riir- 
rency, so that Iheir "stamped metal" nii- 
swers a two-fold purpose. The "guinea's 
stamp" becomes a history in itself, which, 
as Ilood sings — 

Both Wisconsin nud Illinois have re- 
corded legal decisions as to the choosing of 
studies by parents or lenehere. The Wiscon- 
sin court says: "It is unreasonable to sup- 
pose that any scholar who attends schools 
can or will study all the branches taught in 
them. From the nature of the case some 
olioice njiist be made, and some discretion 
exercised, as to the studies which the differ- 
ent pupils shall pursue. The parent is quite 
as likely to make a wise and judicious selec- 
tion OS the teacher. " 

The Boai'<l of Education of Springfield, 111., 
have adopted a spelling reform resolution as 
follows: /;*w>;c^rf. That irregular spelling of 
the English language is a serious hindrance in 
learning to read and write, and is one cause of 
thi- alanuiiig illitevaey in our coimtry ; that it 
u<('>i|>irv mill 11 tiiiiG in our schools which is 
III < ill >l t'M' Mill' I liiMuehes of study ; and that 
iti-.|. i[,i].|. [.. 1. .nHstour Legislatures. State 
niiil X;iti(iijii!, lo ^ippoint commissioners to in- 
vestigate this matter and report what meae- 
lu-es, if any, cau be taken tosimplify our spell- 

At Uie recent meeting of the NorthtaBtem 
Ohio Teachers' Association one of the mem 
bers read a paper on political education in the 
rjublic scliools. He recommended that these 
schools should teach a knowledge of our gov- 
ernment, it« history and its institutions, and 
complained that tbree-fourthe of the high 
school graduates go forth without one lesson 
on the science of government, aud without 
definite knowledge of municipal, county, 
Stiifc or feder:d govcrnnieut. Cousidcring 

wiintfd to see illustrations by the teachers, 
and also wanted them to exercise as much 
freedom as possible from the books, while 
clinging to the subject matter. Another fault 
was that teachers were not prepared for the 
lesson when they went to their classes, and 
hardly knew as uuich of the text as do the 
seholare, A great fault is that teachers are 
in the habit of hearing rather than teaching 
lessons. Another member said that a great 
faidt in the present system of teaching was 
an over- crowding and an attempt to teach too 
much. He believed in making the student, 
rather tJian the teacher, do the work, aud 
thought such a plan could not but result in 
good to the scholar. 

Severeal very wise and uncommon sugges- 
tions arc made in the report of a standing 
committee on Industrial Education to the 
(California Teachers' Association. They spec- 
ially recommend that in all scho.;ls more atten- 
tion shoidd be given to "thoroughness" in 
reading, writing and spelling the English lan- 
guage—a recommendation which is far from 
being unnecessary. Arithmetic should also 
be taught, in the opinion of the committee, in 
such a way as to secure readiness and accu- 
racy in the four rules, the tables, common 
aud decimal fractions, and interest — again a 
not imnccBsary suggestion. Specific instruc- 
tion in the principles of morality for ot least 
an hour every week : the instruction of girls 
in the general principles of domestic economy ; 
the talking to boys concerning the necessity 
and nohihly of labor, whethermauual or men- 
tal, andinstriK-tioii in tlif l.nvs of hrnltb. are 

Educational Items. 

Texas will shortly hold its first State Con- 
vention of teachers. 

The schools of Muncio, Ind., have added 
phntography to their course of study. 

It is probable that book-keeping and com- 
mercial arithmetic will bo taught in the regu- 
lar high school course in Memphis. . 

The total endowment of the pubhe schools 
of the United States is $8,00u,0()0, ond it is 
estimated tliat the average daily attendance 
is 4, 501). 000 

A memorial asking Congress to appoint a 1 
commission to consider what can be done to ' 
amend our orthography is now going about 
seeking signer)*. i 

Apparatus for teaching the metric system I 
has been distributed to the Boston grammar ' 
schools, and the primary schools will soon be , 
similarly supplied. I 

The colored schools of Washington are said ( 
to be the best schools of the sort in the coun- ! 
try. They ore taught almost exclusively by ' 
colored ti5achers. ] 

The largest sum expended in this country 1 
for each enrolled scholar is to be credited to [ 
the Cherokees of Indian Territory. Each 
pupil in their schools is educated at an annual i 
cost of $35.76. The smallest sum per capita 
— eighty.uina c«nt6 — is paid by Alabama. i 

the question of time necessary for such study 
the speaker suggestively said: "Here iu 
Cleveland we spend, before entering the high 
school, time equaltoone school year in draw- 
ing, and what is the result? Among the grad- 
uates not more than five per cent cau make a 
simple sketch of a tree." 

There is excellent good sense in this para- 
graph from rA.- PhUadelpIiia PrevK: "The 
great end of edueatiou is not information, but 
personal vigor and character. What makes 
the practical man is uot the well-informed 
man, but alert, disciplined, self-couimanded 
man. There have been highly trained and 
accomphshed men in days when a knowledge 
of geography hardly went beyond the islands 
and mainland of the Levant. Tnere were 
powerful English writers long before Lindley 
Murray wrote his Latinized English grammar. 
What should be understood thoroughly is that 
cramming is uot education. It is a mistake 
to cover too much ground, and to seek to 
make youth conversant simply with the largest 
number of studies. Let them learn a few 
things and learn them well. Let the person- 
al influence of the teacher be relied upon 
rather than books and elaborated methods." 

At the recent meeting of the New Haven 
Teachers' Association, one of its members 
very sensibly said he did not beUeve in a teach- 
er who merely followed a text-hook. Ho 

reconuuendstions as excellent as unusual in 
addressing teachers. "In all schools," the 
committee say further, ''pupils should be 
trained by ' language lessons, ' to express their 
thoughts correctly in speaking, and to write 
Enghshwith sufficient accuracy and readiness 
to be able to write, spell, punctuate and ex- 
press in grammatical sentences a letter of bus- 
iness or frieudship. If necessary to do so, 
sacrifice a part of the book on grammar in 
favor of the above recommendation." The 
establishment in the State University of a 
professorship of tlie Science of Education, 
and the payment of money by school trustees 
"only on condition of first-class work by pro- 
fessionally-trained teachers, " are suggestions 
of particular value. In short, there has been 
seen for a long time no educational report 
surpassing this in good sense and practical 

Our Teachers' Agency. 

Teiichers wishing situations and prin- 
cipals wishing pood teachers of writing or 
any of the commercial branches, should 
bear in mind that they can probably secure 
the same through our agency. Send in 
your applications, with 82, and we will 
render you all the service possible. 

3i)S Itrosdnj, New York. 
RlDill* rnplm of Joctbxjil ■••nt on rrcrtpt o 
ttat: R|«clin«u copin fnnilihwl to AgcoU fri 


|iii"oo f3s oo' jes 00 fiaofl 


> Loril"« Prayer, 

ForlUroMiinnr- r.n.l f.-) «.- xvlll forwardtbe 

For aeven tiaiOM ind «7 we will forward b col 
WllMun* A PackDrd** Outdo, retalli for $3.00. 

For twelve tiiibRcrlbora Aiid tl3. we will aend a 
nf Amen' OoiDpoudinm of OrnameoUl Pouman 
price IB. TUe aamo bound lu gilt will be aoi 
«tfflit«en Robitorlborii and $ia, price t7.S0. 

I »1-J, 

r WlllUini 

^htp, 1 

>r. Mouey luolaaed In IcUer It 
, Addrcas 


Reminiscences of John D. Williams. 

II will \n- iiiiuii.bertiIl>.voiiiri-mifrsthatin 
Iho SepU>iiibt'r iiiimlier of the Joi'BNAi, was 
]nibliKlted an nddrees delivered at the Peu- 
nmn'h Couveutiou by Prof. Pftckurd upou the 
■■ Life ftiid Wort of Joliu D. WiUianiR." 

A( the elost- of that address louiarks were 
iiiudc by Messrs. Williftiii H. Duff of Pitts- 
bur;rb and Williiuu Allen Miller of New York, 
wlio were both very intimate friends and asso- 
riatoKof Mr. Williams. Mr. Diifl said: 

■•My recollection of Mr. Williams dates 
buck to childhood. He was one of 
the very first pcrsous I remember, and up to 
the tiiiio of his leaving our institution iu IsryH, 
I fairly worshiped him. At that time, like 
every young penman, I was in love with my 
art. and with every od# eminent in it, so much 
so that I have often tbonght tlmt al that time 
1 WHS ai'tually irriting criay. Being associa- 
toil with Mr. Williams every day, everything 
1r> wild or did interested me, and I came to 
look upon him. not only as a groat WTit«r, but 
as a genius in every way, and I began to copy 
and imitftto. not only his work, but his whole 
manner and style. 

Mr. Packard has spoken particuUrly about 
bis oruamontiil ponmauship which, no doubt, 
tiri'w to be a specialty witli him after leaving 
Puff's Oollcge. but at that timo wc regarded 
him as pre-eminent, not only as a plain and 
ornament*! penman, but aUo as a teacher: 
iudoed. his lecture:* at the black-board were of 
such a nature, that I regarded them as fin- 
ished orations ; he seemed to have everything 
so well prepared, although he never seemed 
to give any time to the preparation of his 
ilbislratvd lectures. Whenever he spoke in 
the College it was sure to be thronged with 
s of Pitt«but^h. 

the beat c 

ment of the College, sereral years aft^r his 
departure, nothing gave me more sinciT*- 
pleaiiure than the fact that in a lecture which 
he dclivi-red in the different towns of Ohio 
and western Pennsylvania, he mentioned me 
as one of his favorite pupils. I never bad 
anything more gralifying, for I was indeed 
proud to be elassed among them. 

ThiTe is an anecdote thai I remember in 
reference to his first start in penmanship that 
may interest you. I don't know how I got it, 
but it is one of the legends of our college, 
and is to this effect : My father was once 
buying a pair of i>aut6 at a tAilor's shop in 
Pittsburg and while Snips was meai^uring him 
for the garment he suddenly stopped, picked 
up a yard stick and delivered several resound- 
ing whacks upon the back of a boy who had 
just appeared from around the corner. The 
youngster went off, nibbing; hts back, and my 
father had the curiowty to ' what did yon 
do that for." "Oh!" said the tailor, "that 
young scamp has used up nearly all my 
[■'rench chalk, writing and drawing alt over 
my fences and front door step, and if he can't 
get any of my chalk he will take a piece of 
charcoal and mark up every smooth surface 
he ran 6nil, and I'm not going to have him 
around here if I can keep him away." As he 
left the shop, my father took occasion to look 
at some of the specimens of the boy's "hand- 
writing on the wall." and at once saw that it 
was good. A few steps farther on he met the 
boy, and said to him: "I have a writing 
school, and as you are so fond of writing 1 
want you to comn around and write with me 
and I will show you how to write." 

That boy was John I). Williams, and that 
evening, from my father, he took his lirst les- 
son in pnumanship. After he left Pittsburg 
he took lessons from Mr. Rice in Buffalo, and he 
often discussed the subject with Father Spen- 
cer. I have some old letters in my possession 
that show that he had some ideas that clashed 
very radically with those of Mr. Spencer. 

His connection with our college was fre- 
quently interrupted. On one occasion, I re- 
member, he left ub to take a position as clerk 
on one of the fine passenger steamers plying 
between Pittsburg and Cincinnati, and on 
several occasions he st-u-ted out for himself as 
a "Penman tramp" but always eventually 
drifting back to our College, being with us, as 
near as I can remember, some twelve or thir- 
teen years. Every time he came back he 
would speak of pereons who had seen his 
work, and said " if I could write like that I 
never would stay in such a place as a steam- 
boat office," then he would say " now I am 
going to Htkk aud make some money" and sure 
enough he would do splendidly for a while, 
but before long he would be drifting off again. 
On one of his trips to the East he met Sir. 
Packard, fell into good hands and remained 
with him most of the time, until his death. 

It was here he executed his most elaborate 
and finished work. As penmen, we can all 
learn something from the monuments of his 
skill which he has left behind him. J arn 
very glad to add my words of praise to what 
Mr. Packard has so obly said about him. 

Mr. Miller said, ! knew Mr. Williams at 
DulT's College in Pittsburg. It was there 
I made his acquaintance, and from that time 
forward our intimacy was complete. I am 
awai-e that all the traits of character which 
have been attributed to him, and the es- 
timates of chamcter which have been made 
here to-day are accurate, aud therefore need 
no ('onfirmation from me. 

1 was associated with Mr. Williams in Pitts- 
burg, in Cincinnati, and in this city ; and I 
knew him so well, that whenever I think of 
him I fancy he stands before me. I hav(? in 
my mind so perfect a picture of Mr. Williams, 
that I can almost realize that the man is here 
in person. I feel that in one direction, all 
the credit that is due has not been given him. 
I believe he did more lo overcome, to break 
down aud disperse the bitter, petty jealousies 
that so often spring up between penmen and 
teachers, than any other man that ever lived. 
and for this, more than anything else, I hon- 
or and respect him. 

Phonographicttlly reported for the Jouhsal 
by J. T. Gbander 

Look out for the next number of the Jodr- 
SAi, -it will be worth twice the entire price 
of subscription to any pupil, teacher or ad- 
mirer of penmanship. 

Standard Text-Books on Fenmanship. 

Almost daily inqniry is made of us re- 
garding the iK'Culiarity and relative merits 
of the various publicALious upon penman- 
ship. With the view of answering at once 
all these questions, and for the information 
of all our renders, wc give the following 
brief description of each, with our opinion 
n-narding their utility; first giving ournt- 
tention to those treating exclusively of plain 
or practical writing. 

consists of one hundred and scvcnty-six oc- 
tavo pages, illustrative of the theory and 
practice of practical writing. Its introduc- 
tion is a brief sketch of the founder of the 
system. Piatt R. Speurer, and a brief synop- 
sis of the most nlliiiclive features of the 
system; thin t..lluu cbuptcrs upon : "The- 
oVy of Peniniiii-liip."' ■ Miiterials and Imple- 
ineiils," ■■ P<isiliijn." •' Movements," " Clas- 
silication of Letters and Figures." their 
formation and analysis, giving examples of 
the most common or natural faults in mak- 
ing them, with sui^gestions for their correc- 
tion ; also giving definite instruction for 
spactinir. shading, slope, proportions of 
wriliii'^, At a chMptf-r i^ devoted f o ejifh of 

's^ Wr 

W ] 

nmiy Srbonl.-..- 'In Common Schools .iml 
Seminaries," and "Business Colleges." 
These clmplcrs arc followed by several 
others, giving much valuable ond interest- 
iiiir information for all pupils or teachers of 

The work is appropriately and profusely 
illustrated, showing positions, movements, 
principles, letters, analysis, and the various 
styles of writing. It is. without doubt, the 
most complete nud valuable guide to purely 
plain writing extant. 

11 will be mailed to any address on re- 
ceipt of $1.50. or free for a club of four 
subscribers to the JofKNAi.. 


This is an octavo pamphlet of o8 pages, in 
whicli the theory of Spencerian Penmanship, 
ufcording to the latest revision, is developed 
by iiuestions and answers, with pi-actical il- 
lustrations. It embraces most that is prac- 
tical in the key. while its cheapness places 
it within the reach of every teacher and pu- 
pil of writing. 

It certainly is a most valuable aid, and we 
enrnesily i-eenmmend every teacher and pu- 
)iil <>f wriliriL'^ whnhus not a copy, to procure 
I'll' ,ii 'iir, it will be a good investment. 
Sfiii ii> iiiiil 111] ;ii) cents, or mailed free for 

is one of the earliest publications of Spen- 
cerian penmanship. It consists of speci- 
mens of plain and practical writing, and 
some lettering, with very little practical in- 
struction. It is engraved on stone in an 
inferior m;iTinrr. ttif stylo nf tlir wiitim: i. 

This is an octavo book of 120 pages and 
treats of the P., D. tfe S. system of writing 
in a manner similar to the treatment of the 
Spencerian, by the key: and, in addition, 
has fourteen differeut alphabets of Roman. 
Gothic, and Text letters. It is an eminently 
practical and valuable work for the use of 
cither teacher or pupil. Sent to any address 
on receipt of f LS.*), or sent free as a pre- 
mium for a club of three subscribers to the 

This work consists of 100 quarto pages, 
m'-rtu of letter press, which are devoted to the 
theory and practice of practical writing, in 
which the entire subject of teaching and 
practicing writing ifi presented in an ingeni- 
ous and effective nmnncr. both by way of 
explanations, with numeious and striking 
illustrations, and criticisms of good and bad 
writing; thirty pages are printed from su- 
perbly engraved stone or copper plates; 
eletm plates are devoted to plain copies, 

in single lines und pnicticnl tuisinc.^s 
forms; wrm pages give ten plain and 
fancy alphabets ; tyfhe pages are de- 
voted to the principles and examples for 
off-liand flourishing, among the latter nrc 
several of the most graceful and masterly 
specimens ever executed by that prince of 
flonrishers. John D. Williams, who was the 
genius of this work, as also the "Gems." 
The work thus combines the pnictical with 
ornamental to a greater extent than any 
other hand-hook of pcnninnsht]> now in use. 
No penman's library is complete without it. 
Sent by mail on receipt of $a.OO. or free for 
a club of seven subscribers to the Jouiinal. 

This work, although devoting consider- 
able space and attention to plain writing, is 
essentially a text-hook for ornamental pen- 
manship. It consists of fif(}/-onr large 
quarto pages, which are engraved in a supe- 
rior manner upon stone ; xuUtit pages are 
devoted to copies for plain. Italian and 
round handwriting ; tAirttvn pages are de- 
voted to the principles and exercises for 
flourishing ; of the latter are several large 
and complicated specimens, among which 
.IIP tlinr designs for "eagles." "a bird in a 
II' ^1 '■ " swim with quills, and surrounding 
l^.lltl^lM -■ making a most elegant design; 
■ ;i linuiuliiii: stag," and various bird de- 
sigTis; ninrtfrii pages are devoted to alpha- 
bets and lettering. There are in all twenty- 
four alphabets, ranging from the iMainesl to 

the most ornate. l'| lit. l-i-i p,.|n,. i,„t 

one is a beautiful speciiiMfi nt ikm ili.iwinr;'. 
entitled "Home. swe<i h n jn-i niing 

roundings. Upon the last page nre two fine 
specimens of lettering ormiuiented with 
flourishing; also the figures, white, set in 
clouding. The whole work is executed in 
an almost faultless manner, and is of un- 
questioned excellence hs a guide, author 
ity and standard of correct taste and mo- 
dels for flourishing and lettering. No stu- 
dent aspiring to excellence in ornamental or 
artistic penmanship can afford to be without 
a copy of this work. Sent to any address 
on receipt of $5.00, or free as a premium for 
a club of twelve subscribers to the Journal. 

ambb' compendium of practical and 

This work is printed \xpon forty-nine 11x14 
pages, and is by far the largest and most 
comprehensive work upon ornamental and 
artistic penmanship that has ever been pub- 
lished. But a very limited portion of it is 
devoted to plain writing. 

It is designed especially a.s a hand-book 
and guide for ornamental and professional 



devoted to 

plain and practical writing; fouvtfcn pages 
are devoted to alphabets, of which there are 
twenty-three, embracing Roman, Gothic. 
Egyptian. Scroll. Old English. German and 
Church Text, and many others, in plain and 
the most nniate style: tm p.ijre.s nre devoted 

In pniK'ipIr.y ,Arn Im- ,.,,„! .\..<\,^ns for 

devf)ted to complicated designs for engrossed 
testimonials, memoriBis, resolutions, certlfi' 
cates, diplomas, &c. Ac. altogether pre- 
senting an amount and variety of practical 
and artistic designing, lettering and orna- 
mentation unapproached by any other work 
ever published. The original pen-and-ink 
specimens of which these pages mafac-dmiU 
reproductions were all executed with great 
care and labor, most of them being copies 
of works executed to order; sums as high 
as $.500 has been paid for the execution of 
what represents a single page of this hook. 

A peculiar and valuable feature of tiiis 
work is, that, unlike others which have been 
engraved thereby changing the character by 
perfecting the original pen-work, its pages 
being transferred by photography direct 
from the original pen-work to the stone, for 
printing, no line or mark of the original 
could be rhanged, m form, upon the print; 
therefore the observer of this work perceives 
the penman's art and skill alone, unaided by 
the engraver, while the pupil or imitator 
will feel that what others have done with a 
pen he may <in, and will strive with greater 
confidence, knowing it to be attainable, 
ban it is possible for him to do while coi^- 

(kcious of vaioly Atriving for the impossible 
(to the pen) perfirciion of the engnivcr. 

In this work arc pratticul designs and ex- 
nmptc-s for ntiarly every form nnd slyle of 
work that a profewtional penman will he 
(ytllcd upon to execute. It h sent to any 
Kdilffw* for fr'i.OO. or free for n club of 
iwclvi; mibflcrihcrs to the JoritNAr,. 

tire each of 21 quarto pages, in paper cov- 
ers. The book of lettering gives the prin- 
cipUrH of the OhI Knglirih and (icrman Text, 
with tlic alphabets ; aUo Roman alphnbets 
and HCVLTuI pagcM of t«'Xt and oniatx- Koman 
lettering tantcfiilly floiirislied and orna- 
nienled. Tlie book of nourishing gives a 
variety of exi'reincjt for flouri«liiug. embrac- 
ing tht; principles— birds, quills, Ac. They 
are good works for the money. Sent, post- 
paid, on ri-ccipt of .Vt eentJi each, or ns a 
premium for Mvo stibsrnbers tnthr-.Inrn 

Business Education. 



approlmtioii Imvr .n. niinm'p.l mid 
pro]>ii;,'iii''i ilii^dt p^riiiHiit of idiiciirinn, mil 

inaJiiHt ai:kn<iwli>dgm(-rit of a discerning and 
intelliKcni public— that n practical educa- 
tion stands lirst in Ihc mdcr of rcfpiisites lo 

cducjttion liavr :i' Im m <l -ii< < <-'^ li;.^ alnmsl 
partsed out of mcm-.ti \l..i> i h m pvci- lic- 
fore is the m-(i.»ii_\ u « ut-ml. tiiat the 
young athlete should bu i^kilU'd iu the prin- 
ciples of that conflict in which he is about 
to engage, He imist be t-diiciitrd with a 
alrict and Clpfciiil ivfi-r.-nrp' to l.iiNtin-.'-iiiir'- 
MUitM if he illlrnrl- 1m In-, ..,,,< ., Ini-iiir.^ 
num. IliH a L'n:,! ,M,M.<kr h> ^M|>]n..' tl,:,t 

the "learned pr'«fv-Mn]|,, ' ^„ r;iiic,i ^ic i!ic 
only ones that ruquiic a thorougli juid .-iys 
Icmatie course of training. The idea that 

rcs.-;jirilybf exrcedinL'lymca;:cr.and his suc- 
cess naturally a lamentalde failure. Hence, 
what ia so univermlly felt and acknowledged, 
must beudminedas an indispensable nccess- 
ily, and it is such facts as this that has render- 
ed the facilities now offered for obtaining a 
practical education so justly commendable. 
and enabled one of our popular American 
writers to remark, that "the commercial 
colleges of our land were the most valuable 
institutions of our country." 

We have neither space nordesire to estab- 
lish aconfulJition to the argument daily urged 
by those whose opinions are radically pre- 
mature : or, perhaps, whose interests arc 
jeopardized, that "nothing can be learned 
without experience." Xor do we make the 
bare assertion without the most conclusive 
and positive evidence — evidence deduced 
from hundreds now in actual service — that 
it, like any other science, ran be leariud. 


1(1 f<ii 

iliy to plrt<e hi 
iile of eivili/iit 

hi-h.rlrvH iu th 
the development of an esthetic sense. 1 
would not be diltlcuU to demonstrate that i 
such culture may be found one of the mnj 
important developments of national resourf 
cs. finimriallv a,'* well as intcllerluallv iin 

ment will be found in anot 
From our long and intimate awiuaintancc 
with Mr. Barlow, we know him to be among 
perceive that efficient individual effort is 
being made in many eases lo satisfy this de- 

Among the most encouraging of these we 
may mention that of Mr. Barlow, now 
opened at 305 Broadway, whose advertise- 
tbe most skillful and experienced artists and 
teachers of our country. Among his nume- 
rous patrons and pupils are some of the nu)st 
wealthy and refined citizens of New York. 
And we feel assured that the facilities which 
he now offers lo aspirants for genuine art 
study and culture, are not excelled in the 
country, while his terms will be very reason- 

Send a Specimen of Your Writing. 

To enable us to.acconiplish a certain jilan 
we have in view for the inteiest and benefit 
of the readers of the JornsAi,, we hereby in- 
vite every reader not a professional penman 
to write on a sbp of paper 2^x7 inches in 
size, in their very best style, the following 
words, viz.; 

"Written for the Penman's Abt Joubsal 
as a specimen of my handwriting." 

Date Name 

P. O. address 

and forward the same to the editor of the 

young man of his word, for the names for 
the club came as promised; fifteen Ibis time, 
three better than his promise. This is the 
largest number of subscriptions forwarded 
bj* any person during the same period of 

Mr. Kimball has received as compensa- 
tion prtimiums to the cnsli value of SlO.riO. 
Will not some enterprising young man do 
the sanic that Mr. ICimball has done in 
each of the other numerous Business Col- 
leges, some of which have very few repre 
sontatives upon our subscription lists, 
whereas every student of not only writing, 
but of any business branch, should bo a 
subscriber to the Joubnai,, and all who are 
really enterprising, would become so were 
they properly solicited. Who will do it ? 


Wc HI* deeply pained to record the death 
(if onc'of the most worthy, accomplished and 
prouiisiup young penman and artist.*; — Wal- 
ter L, fiarlhwaitp, of Elizabeth. N. .1., who 
died from hemorrhage of the lungs on the 
ISlb (if February, at St. Paul. Minn., where 
ho had gone in the hopes that a change of 
climate might afford relief from the dread 
nudady, consumption, with which he was 
afflicted Yoimg (Jarlbwaitc was not only 
a skillfiil writer, but was skillful at skcteli- 
ing and portnut drawing in crayon. Nor 
were hii' talents alone displayed in Ihisdircc- 


lid the 

point-- lii'Mi auti 
that the physiciiu 
of anatomy by 

muyobtaln his knuw I^iIl' 

eof > 


to their futurr 'ui^r-- -... i,„, -ih.uiii iIm- 
school-room of ihr Iiiisiurv. miui, lir;miiji 
lomo of that larger schuol-ruom, the bus^', 
bustling world, where he maybe versed at 
once in the m-iftu^-tipn-'indi of his bu.sini'.ss, 
and fii>ni Iii> Mipriii.r 'diu-al ion for actual 
busines- 111- Iu III, l„ III I littedto rope with 



: and 

avoidlh.,1 rirni- Am ignorant merchant 
may h-ipf>t-i, to succeed. " says Freeman 
I Innt, even in our day, but any one must see 
iluiiitisthe most improbable peradventurc. 
Their ;- -iti ], ;, iiuni: ;is a business educa- 
tion. .1- a.-iii,-iM-h,.i tiom the education 
doled niii Ml Mill , 1 i-,jc„| seminaries" and 

""'""''■' Il'.-i- ■ -nil education whicli 

shall aeipiuitit the farmer and the mechanic 
—teach the artisan the theory of his art, 
and open up to the a.spirant for nurciuitile 
honors, nil the ways and ii\ ».i\- \\}:,rU lie 
must explore in order t<> i. ,, i, i,,. .,,] 
Nor is it of modern ilnti \ |,,,,i,,.,i 
education in his special l>t:iiH ii ,.\ Imimh. ... 
oilhcr in the form of a regular ;i|i|ii. m,, , 

ship or some other way. has evft in ,, 

sidered quite arj essential to the mei. hmt ,,. 
to the imrlimie .ir pmfesslonal ni«n ; but 
prcvion- 1,1 ih, iiiii,.,|ii,-tion of commercial 

code-.. M, ..III ]:,tu\ ii counting house" 

was Ml' iiii-Ki, -s til in xdilege and not until 
i 'lilii;. lU apprenticeship had 
-' >-\r.\, w!is he prepared to 
cope ^Mii. Im.i,ii,.vv- hi tiieir strife for gain, 
and. IU M.iiu- iiuuis, even is customary 
lo pay a stipulated fee of from five hundred 
lo tlfteeu hundred dollars for the privilege 
of servingasan api)rentice in any parlicidar 
branch of the mercantile profession. 

Bui (he counting house, csi>ecially in our 
biml. has cejwed to become a school-room. 
If "the carrying trade of the globe must 
shortly be in our hands." ihc wheels of com- 
ertc canool slay, nor the rush of business 
permit the cimdidate for mercantile honors 
to learn bis profession there ; and were there 
no other aliernaiive. his education mustne- 

The original cony from which the above < 
Business College. The excellence of the origi 
Prof. Kkauss is a master of his profession. 

been I 

II" -l:il'-in:in. Tl .l;Ii wer;ni ijuiely allude 

to it.s imponance in Uie space at our com- 

We arc happy to perceive that although 
the public mind is not sufflciently informed 
to warrant our government in taking active 
measures for the elevation of the standard 
of national taste, inasmuch as a government 
like ours can never be expected in its legis 
lalion and appropriations to rise far above 
the level of the national sentiment. But 
though it may be a long time before govern- 
ment action cuuld be looked for in this di- 
rection, it is somewhat consoling lopenniive 
that knowledge on this subject is extending, 
and that there is an increasing demand for 
light in this direction, and an urgent cry. as 
from the "panting hart." comes «p from 
many, saying help us to perceive, to appre- 
ciate, and to produce the beautiful. In re- 
sponse to this appeal it is very, gratifying to 

Penman's Art Journal. Our object in call- 
ing for theee specimens and plan for using 
them will be fully explained in the April 
number, after which no specimens can be re- 
ceived, in accordance with om* plan. No one 
interested in penmanship should fail to send 
a speeimen. 

Although a very large number of speoimens 
of writing have been received in response to 
the above request, yet the number is very far 
short, of what we desire and what it should 
be. We, therefore, hereby extend the time 
for receiving specimens another month. Let 
no reader fait to respond. 

Better Than His Promise. 

In the February number we mentioned 
that Mr. Le Doit Kimball, a student at the 
Lowell (Mass.) Business College, sent clubs 
of twelve subscribers to the Journal in 
each of the months of December and .Janu- 
ary, and had promised another club of 
February. He is evidently a 


tion, he composed iuu-h "irii . ..n-nii mhic 

success, and wiis jm n | i i i -u-rT. 

being tiie regular li;ii|. ' ,, mj jn 

the Sablmth school. 11 < v. .. ., im <,iimii run- 
tributor to the column-. '4 iln- .|<m unm,. 
His artioles were al\v:iy- i l. ;n |>niiii.,i arid 
interesting. The Kli/;il.eiii />„,/>/ .i..„riud 
closes a long and iiiteresliug notice of bin 
death, with the following very appropriate 
and truthful remarks: 

"In many respects Walter Garthwaite was 
a young man of unusual character. Those 
who were most intimately acquainted with 
him will recall the purity of his thoughts, 
the chaau-ness of his senliment-s. and the 
depth of his religious feelings. The strength 
of his moral character far exceeded his phy- 
sical strength, and his religion was to him 
all absorbing. His early death will be 
mourned by all who knew him. and those 
who have merely oc(iuainted themselves 
with such of his labors as have lieen made 
known to the public, will regret that his 
' ■'"— permitted to develop, while 

friends and relatives wilt feet 

-r' Zj:L;jSl:r-r 

^ srj ; Ju2ixi~t.\ i^: ^'^*'h,i--.-^ 

withUri;|>L-»t M>rrr)W llic luad of 
they couM not liilp liul luvc." 



tu ftiiiiiriii til Jill lie 


1 lOIlh > 

il of ti kind L.i-iilk 

und )>itiLiil 

(IIHI. .Ill 

tn Itmt iiiiliitr A In 

to till liLr 



to the fo 

are n-h-pi 

iiimmof thr JouiiNAL, 

tiiy brniii'li of pmclk' 
tfuUy «oltriU-.l. 

pRftrclinK finy 
c'mn writiiift, 
uI cdiicattOD, 

"S^iMMsr'h :^i'i{i>«Js.l5<)rM> iUo.;D!i:vAS.V 

N tcauliiiiK dnmcR at Wliooliiig, 

Williitin n. K|imf{iio, t)'iiclior of puiiiiinDKbip 
in Norwiilk, ()., Iiak pntontod Homvtliing now 
in tliQ fiirni of n pen- holder, which rii)p(nirs to 
Imvi! connidi'mblu merit. It ix idl wood, nnd 
iH 8o cotuttnic.ttjd n»i to ho lit'ld in tho propvr 
poKitioo wliilu writiuK. with uiuoli greater 
eiiKO than tho ordinary holder. 

A. II. Hinniim Iri toachiiiK ponnuuiKhip in 
Ilihhnrd'N School of DiiHinrsK, lIoHton. Moks. 
Wtt L'onifrfitiilKtu both, Mr. llihhard for having 
Hocnred tht- Hi-rvicoH of one of thu nioKt nhl.-, 
pnrnoHt anil RiirpeuHfid of tuachttrs. and Mr. 
Hiunmu for holding i\ poHitiou in ouu of the 
mofit popular and proHpurous businea^ HchooU 
in th<! country. 

K. O. H,, Waitsburg, W. T.- Wo can pive 
)ii no information regarding the Prn- 
fitH Help: we have not Been a ropy iu se- 
Tal months, and we faoow of several siib- 
rihcre who have not received a copy during 

Answers to 

K toat it has 

in, b, 

and top of i, i 

A. II, T.. Grand Valley, Pa.— Your writing 
in vi-ry creditable; it is too ujiieh shaded, loops 
are too Bmall, round turns where tlioro should 
be angles, connecting lines too straight, and 
many of your letters como below the line, 
while others are clear above it, cnnsiug it to 
ajipear ver; iiTegular. You havu a good 
movement, and, wiih propwr care to correet 
the above-named faults, will beoome a good 

H. W., South Kutiand, N. Y.— Judging 
from the appearance of your writing, its great 
irrua^ularity, disproportionK. and i nfiTinii [fi- 
ling of shaky with BUiooth lin. V mII. ■■\, 

the finger and whole arm m i ■ ' i i . 
mistaking tho hill 

or muscular 


ent 1. :■ 

eukr movemfut voii 

shoiiM ,. -1 :l . 

y upon its 


•-1 jiiirl in-.t 

r 1 

;he elbow, n 

ot nil 

IIk' <I!m.\s 

flMIII II, ,■ 

;ab!e, resting 

he- ha 

ll Ij-llllv lltM.I 

,],,, i)ii|-,i 


the table. Y 

)u nhould 

■ ■ . ! ■ . ■„ ii;, 

■ITIll. C, 

arc, doing youi 

very best 

jorrect forms. 


,1., yo 

1 no Rood. You should 

h- Ictl.'rs. ■ 

siiiiiy forms and tho n 

ualysie of 

C. W. Rice, student of the Spencerian Col- 
lege. Cleveland, Ohio, sends a well-written 
letter, in which, he incloses some good speci- 
mens of card- writing. 

A photographic copy of resolutions en- 
grossed by J. K. Farrel of Brooklyn, has been 
received. From the copy we should judge 
the original to have been a very creditable 
piece of work. 

W. Heron. Jr., Schenectady, N. Y.. who 
has just completed a course of writing and 
flourishing under the tuition of M. E. Ben- 
nett, forwards very creditable specimens of 
let ter-wi'i ting and flourishing. 

F. H. Hall is teaching writing at Rome, 
N. Y. He was a jmpil of Father Spencer. 
Is a fine writer; energetic and succesaful 
teacher. His speeimens of flourishing and 
writing are among the best we have received 
during the past month. 

TI. W. Fli.-kingf'i-. Soule'B Business College, 
Diiladelphia. has favored us with aPhuto-Iitho- 
gm|)liic copynf an elegant specimen of engross- 
ing, IVrsous wishing to see a copy of work 
from the pim of this famed knight o' the quill 
can now do so. For full information, see 
Mr. Flickinger's advertisement in another 

William H. Perkins.a fanner aged IU years, 
uf Barnard, Vt., writes a letter to the Jomt- 
\A?„ wbifli is a ninst remarkable specimen of 
Ills nc' :inrl oceupa- 


T. T. L,. Macomb. Ill, 
very corri'ct In form, hut t 
in ease and grace of 

A. (}. C. C.roenflold, Ill.-Vou write a 
good hand : you shadu too inuoh; what ii 
in this column to C. H. W. roganiing 

B. M. L.. Mansfield. Texas.— You arc ovi- 
di-ntly right in thinking you use thu finger 
movomont too much whilo writing. You 
nmk» your turns at the bottom of your letters 

J. L. M., 

oelleut ham 

and Hat, o 

C. H. W., 
too largt*. wautM i 

Iowa.— Your writing 

W. II. <;rLir,,M i;.nl,, N. Y. sendsvery 
ereditid)k' of card writing. 

C. W. Waterman, teacher of writing. Fox- 
craft, Me., writes a letter in elegant style. 

C. F. Hamilton. New Richmond, Wis., in- 
closes several handsomely written copy slips. 

A. W. Dakiu, TuUy, N. Y., sonds several 
creditable bpecimens of plain and flourished 

J. F. Spaidding. Principal Spaulding's Com- 
mercial College, Kansas City, Mo., writes an 
elegant letter. 

T. J. Collms, Hespler, Ont,. incloses in a 
well-writton letter a very creditable specimen 
of flourishing. 

Several fine speeimens of card-writing and 
copy-slips have been received from J. H. 
Grouse, Memphis, N. Y. 

C. N. HamUton. New Augusta, lud.. in- 
closes a very graceful specimen of nourishing 
and creditable specimens of copy-writing. 

J. W. Pearson, teaolier of writing in the 
imbhc schools of Mecca. O., sends some very 
skillfully executed flourishing and copy wriU 

L. P. Ray, teacher of writiue at Gilles- 
pievillo, O., writes a stylish letter, in which 
he incloses several fine Bpecimens of car<l- 

L L. Tucker, Principal, Commercial I)e- 

*- - ■ of Troy Conference Academy, 

attractive specimen 

your letters are above or below the lim.; 
blUe care in correcting the faulttt named 
make you a good writur. 

J. C. Miller. Ickshurg, Pa., sends a very 
D. H. H., Illiaititlowa. — Tho propor height ! attractive specimen of flourishing Wo shall 
of a table for an avemgu adult while writing pnwont a copy of it very soon in tho columns 
)s about thirty inclu'Hi, but it ueedN to bi< varied **' ^^'^ Joorsai,. 
for children acconlins to Ihi'ir size Yon It i. .. - 

need to g.v« considomble car^f.d attention ' ,„.^ of" fl ^■''"T'^? ""^ ''^'*""' "'*^'''- 
to vouv writii>L> «d a t...<.i..... it ; ,"',, , '"P" of flourishmg has b<-eu rece ved from 

r conutictwg liueft. 


future number of the 

1 the "Board of Trade Buildings," 
fjouersou Avenue. 

The Joliet (111, ) Min-ning News says : Our 
friend. Prof. Russell is in possession of a 
most flattering testimouiai from State Superin- 
tendent of Education, S. M. Etter. 

The Albany Business College, under the 
management of Messrs. Folsom and Carhart. 

enjoying an unusual degree of prosperity, 

ohimdred students i: 

While at Paterson, N. J. a few days since, 
we had the pleasure of visiting Latimer's 
Business College. We found him very pleas- 
nntly located, and enjoying more than the 

The next convention of the Business College 
Teachers and Penman's Convention will com- 
mence on the 7th day of August next, iu the 
rooms of the Spencerian Business Colleoe at 
Cleveland. Ohio. 

W, A.Walworth, formerly associated in tho 
Cady Wihiou and Walworth Business College, 
on Union Square, this city, has again entered 
into partnership with Mr. Cody, in the firm 
name of Cady & Walworth. 

The Writing Class. 

erestiug analogy between 

id rapid writing. In the 

lie, and in the latter the 

unconsciously blended. 

There is an i 
fluent speaking 
former the phoi 
graphic, elements a 
When we study the structure of words, and 
analyze them by spelhng, we consider each 
letter separately. But in spoken language. 
tho processes of word-buUding become al- 

ost involuntary. 

In tlio studyand analysis of script letters, 

3 not*? carefully each element, and train the 
hand to the xcqumte uovementei in produc- 

ing the same. After awhile 
this educated movement be- 
comes habitual, and is executed 
without any thought of the 
special elements composing the 
letters. If right practice is 
^tC\ given at the sttirt, and pupils ac- 
^^ ^piire the habit of making these 
imple elementary parts cor- 
ectly. and of combining them 
into letters, words, and sen- 
tences, the result will be that 
even in the most rapid writing, 
correct forms will become an 

Fine elocution requires atten- 
tion to tone, articulation, modu- 
lation, and emphasis. Fine 
penmanship demunils observance of form, 
slant, spacing, and sliadi-. Slant is one of the 
must iraportaut features, since it couti-ibutes 
so gi-eatJy to legibility, rapid execution, and 
beauty of style. By changing the slant, the 
whole character of the writing is changed. A 
condensed style comes from rf/'creasiug the 
slant of the connecting lines; a nmning hand 
is tho result of tncreosiug tho slaut of the con- 
necting lines. 

The slant of letters is subject to variations, 
which are often passed over in copy-books 
text as unimportant, or not relative to the i>rac- 
tice. A little light thrown into dark places 
dispels many dilficulties. In tho last lesson, 
wo taught the pupils to let tho first curve of 
small e droop a little and then to continue it 
upward on the main slant. This change of 
slant is the critical point in tho letter. Let 
any teacher practice it with this guide to the 
construction, aud see bow much easier it is to 
obtain a graceful letter. The form is the re- 
sult of correct movement. Small /', it, n, aud 
?n are excellent drill-letters for loaruiug the 
main and connecting slants, which should be- 
come as familiar to pupils as tuoes often suug. 
These are the standards of slaut, since every 
chonge is described by its deviation from the 
main or the connecting slant. These slants are 
definite directions, and give the benrin[,'s of 
each letter. 

Oblique linos are a valuable aid in acquir- 
ing uniform slope, but they should not be ro- 
bed upon BO exclusively that the pupil can 
nr)t without such help, obtain correct slant. 
(tl.Hque Unes ought never to be unduly mul- 
liplied on a page, as they thus eoufuse the 
I >iipii in regard to spacing. The letters being 
of unequal widths, and variously combined, 
therefore no uniform space-lines can be ac- 
commodated to them ; no 
able, for if the slaut be co 
will naturally follow. Fii 
inch are sufficient for a pra 
It would be better to dimi 
crease this onmber, sine* 
ing and intelligent aid should not be sacrificed 
to an ill-advised theory of over-helping pupils. 
If the latter were allowed some practice, un- 
assisted by even the ordinary lines of writing, 
both the eye and tlie hand would b<-eoine bet- 
ter educated to the work. Many of the schol- 
ars in our public schools arc uuable to direct 
an envelope, and keep the writing in hne. 
Our school methods need some practical tests, 
and the teacher should be more than the text- 
book to pupils. 

" You have done so well thus far. my young 
writers, I shall venture to give you a little 
more difiicult letter,— small a. Can you tell 
me why the very first letter of the alphabet 

was not taken up first!'" "Oh! it was 
too hard ; " " And besides, it belongs to the 
ovals." " Right : we begin with the simplest 
and easiest letters." I now write Roman, 
Itahc, and script a on th(; board, for the class 
to see and compare, "Are there any ele- 
ments in a which you have not already had in 
the other letters you have written?" "We 
had all the elements but the straight line in 
; •' We had them all m n." " Do you miss 
any element from a which you had in;?.'" 
" The upper turn is gone." 

"Which of the letters you have made is 
nearest Hke a?" The ebUdreii all begin cam- 
esUy now to study the n.w letter, aud find 
out its relation to the others. They quickly 
decide upon o, which I make on the board, 

is this at all desir- 
rcct, right spacing 
i or six lines to the 
tioal guide to slope, 
lish rather than in- 

cleamess of mean- 

-fa* i/tutiiix 

omiUingtlicfiamhingriirve. " What con Id we 
join to o to mafco il Htili more like a ? " "SmaU /. 
without fir«t curve oud clot." " Why, thiit 
would be first principle." I now add this 
piirt of I* 10 the oval, 80 that it touches the 
Iott«r at centre of riyht-curve. The children 
ar« nil oaK'-r for criticiHin. "Is this af" 
"It looIcHJiiHt like the Italic;" "! 
you would harn to cut off all of the first cur%'e, 
and mOKt all of the lofit. for the Italic." 
" What iK wrong about thia aT" " The top 
iHn't good;" It ithould be poiut«d. " "Is 
llmtalij'" "Theoviil is bad." What is the 
inttttor with the oval? " "It should loan over 
more;" 'And be longer." "What else eou 
you criticiKe?" One (tay.s, "The oral is too 
uoar fimt priuciple at base " ; " And not near 
enough at top," diimes in a Becond- 

"You bav4» found enough fault with this let- 
ter; let \i» now try another." and I make 
Btnall u on the board. " In any part of a like 
ut" "ThelaMt part i» the wime." "Name 
the flr«t throe clomentM in a." "Left-curve 
left^urvc, lower turn." "In «." "Right- 
curvo, Btrnight line, lower turn." "Then the 
lower turn oeoiint after the first two in either 
letter ? If now, 1 eroHe all that comes before 
the first turn in both letters, thus, what will 
you Hay of the piirts tliat iiry left y " - Oh ! 
they are just alike." 1 pn^fix to oue of these 
similar formn the light-curve iiud straight line, 
produoiug u; and to the otliLT, the two left- 
otirvoH, producing a. 

The children are delighted to find that they 
liavo already kmruod the greater part of a in 
writing M. "How miiuy elements in a?" 
"Seven." "In «.'" "Seven." "In the 
similar partu of both? "Five." I next 
write the oval* of oand a, for comparison, 
and describo to the cla«a that in the first the 
uurvoH are on the main tilaut, while in the 
second they are on connecting slant ; that in 
the o oval, the curves are connected at top 
by the turn, while in the pointed, or a oval, 
they unite in an upper angle. 

■ ' ti begins differently from every otlier short 
letter. You must not think of any letters 
commencing with the left-curve, when you 
are writing it : think of u instead. I will 
write thislast mi the bonrd, and show you bow 
cftNily you can h'arn from it to make the long 
Blauliiig curvi- of ll" I now start witb the 
leftcurvi' from the point where u begins, and 
lilauttho curve over to the second point of u. 
" Hero yftu see the first cruvo of a. Itemem- 
ber this rule: SUint first curve of a over to 
seeoud point ofu. Next, retrace part of first 
curve, iu order to return witb the left-ciu-ve, 
of oval uu connecting slant, aud you have a 
written over u." The association of these let- 
tors is always pleasing to pupils. 

** Lot us now write a by itself. The first 
two olemeutA are the only difficult parts of the 
letter. Wo must slant the first curve more, to 
cnrry it over to seeoud point of u, which is 
out- spnee farther to right. Lower the curve 
so as not to touch the head-line too soon. 
Itetrat^e just vuougb ot first curve to have the 
pointed oval run back on counoctinp slant. 
Finish from lowur turn of oval, the same as 
from first turn of u." It will be seeu that 
the slant is the critical point in a. " Give 
the parts of this letter.'' " Left-curve, point- 
ed oval, fii-sl principle." " Be sure and con- 
ui'ct all these pivrUt iu a single point at top." 
A common fault is to add au upper turn to 
first curve, oh iu c ; not to carry the first curve 
far enough over and thereby leave the oval 
open at top. 

liote. Mii.-b inl.Tcst ui.i.v Iur.> he ft.l.i.-d 


Answering Letters. 

\\\' iniikc no uxHirgcrated stutemcnt when 
wc sny that were we to answer all letters and 
posliil civnh ruccivi'd ul our office, iu accord- 
ance with the desire and expcetatious of their 
writers, we should not have oue minute of 
time left to devote Ut any other purpose. 
while the iucome iherefi-om would come 
very far short of p:»ying the postage, to say 
nothing of providing u* and oun witb that 
household necessity commonly mentioned as 
■■ bread aud butler." 

We arc therefore forced to leave all letters 
and postal cards which are of interest to the 
wrilei-3 alone, unanswered. 

Did Yon Get One? 

Jly fmt^miil frit-iid-^ of the Business Col- 
leges, did you recently get a papyrograpbed 
poHtal card like the following? If you did, 
pray tell us what you think of it. 


Mt Dear Sir:— Will you please send me 
two of your Catologiien, College Journals or 
Circulars by return mail, aud oblige, yotirs 

tndy, . 


In exchange for your opinion I give you 
mine in advance. 

The gentleman in charge of a business col- 
lege would like to inspect a couple of circu- 
lar9(why i(flM.')of all the other colleges, and 
to save expense prinltt from his papyrograph 
press one side of a bunch of postal cards, 
seudiug them broadcast over the laud, "no 
hundred cRrds will cost him one dollar, aud 
he asks iu return, fnr hi» benefit, 'Zm College 
circulars, worth from one to ten cents each, 
upon which we may pi^y our own posuige of 
from one to four cents each. This, to say 
the least, is very thoughtless ou the part of 
the po-stal-card man. and he ueeds u lesson. 
Did he inclose postage to obtain a reply? 
No. Did he send ten or fifteen cents to pay 
for the pamphlets wanted? No. Did he 
consider that he was aslciuj,- for somffhi'rif/ for 
himself audofferint; h.-IMmj in }iiiMti.'nt, for 
it? Probably not. I'il li'' i-.'-'i^-' \-v\ \\\:\.<'y 
circulars in reply? I'iiImMv ihi 

Principals of B«lsillr~s Cull-f-s nr-lv yo-.^ 

tal cards constantly from remote points, ask- 
ing for circulars, spoeimens. Ac., which they 
should pass unnoticed. If a person wants 
anything be should write a letter, iuclose 
stamps for what be asks aud to pay return 
postage, and in most cases he wilt then get a 
prompt response. 

Undoubtedly the publisher of the Pen- 
man's Art Journal would be glad if be could 
impress this view upon that large corps of 
correspondents who contribute so frequeutly, 
ou postal cards, to the depths of bis waste 
basket. J. H. Lanbl&x. 

Elizabeth, N. J.. February 1. 1S7!). 

them. Hoping and trusting the Jouhsal will 
be supported according to its merits, I remaiu 
very respectfully yours. C. W. Watkkman. 

Kdit»v PeTimtin'H Art Journal : 

I have received the Joornai. for about oue 
year, and have carefully, aud eagerly perused 
its conteuts, which has beeu of great value to 
me. The theories, suggestious, ndvicu, &c. 
together with the cheering aud encouraging 
words from the best men of the Profchsiou. 
all over the country, cannot fail to awaken a 
new interest, and inspire every Peumau witb 
renewed energy, wbo is iu possession of the 
JoUBNAi,; and it will have a great influence 
upon many who are now totally ignorant of 
penmauship as a profession, and as a ueces- 
eity. I have beeu engaged in teaching pen- 
manship for six yeare, and, until I received 
the JouUNAi., I was ignorant of the fnct thnt 
the Art was gaining ground so fast, or bad 
gained such popularity for the past few years; 
and I am extremely glad, that as one of our 
branches of education, it is rising, oud 
deifuintliiiff its proper place in our schools ; 
and, with pleasure aud intereijt, I read what 
professional men are advising iu regard to 
having penmauship taught in our Publir. 
Schools ; for surely, it is a brauch of education 
that is as much used, "if not more," than 
any other brauch taught ; aud yet there are 
thousaudB, who think any oue can learn to 
write themselves, or that it is a "natural gift," 
Jbc., or that any oue will do well enough to 
teach little scholars, iu our schools, geueroUy 
followed by the remork, that " there is time 
enough for them to learn to write," when, in 
fact, there would not be time enough iu the 
average life of man, for them to learn to 
write, if always taught the same lis 
taught in most of our schools, for thi>re is not 
one teacher in twenty, who teach iu our 
Public Schools, iu our High Schools and 
Academies, who ever devoted one itiUolr (hiy, 
to the careful study of penmanship, with a 
view to teaching it as a scieuce, or to the best 
method of iuatruction. Now if a person who 
never studied Grammar, Geography. Arith- 
metic, aud Algebra, Ac. any more than 
teachers do writing, should apply to teach 
auy Kchool district, the agent 
would not let them look at the outside of the 
Hchool-house, aud still, with 
wliatever of writing, tbey are certified 
well qualified to teaeb all branches uei 

"hese are plaiu facts, aud 
estigator will acknowledge 

Ames' Compendium 

of Practical and Onmmontal Penman- 
ship is il&signed especially for the nee of 
professional penmen and artists. It give.s 
nn unnsual number of alpbabet-s, a. well 
graded serie-s of praotical exercises, and 
specimens for off-band flourisbinp, aud a 
great number of specimen sheets of en- 
grossed title pages, resolutions, certifi- 
cates, memorials, &c. It m the rao-st com- 
preJiensive, practical, usefi'l, and popular 
w(U-k to all classes of professional penmen 
ever published. Sent, post-paid, to any 
addres.s ou receipt of S5 00; or for a pre- 
mium for a club of 12 subscribers to the 


The following are a few of tlip many 
flattering notices from tbi' press aud 
patrons : 



i« Ukolj' t 

1 merit, pecuUftrly 
any other work I 

1 1, of tlio hiuil yet 





1 oxiioctod tfl eeo s vfry vol 
ci'cJs my biKlicat expectat 

uahkvfotV. 1 
oii«._/V«tr. 3 


I am dellRhtert with it. 



iUuntrnUve gf tbis art ever publUUe.l 



It iB eoftatulr Hie book of all books uno 
poumuuBhlp — iVq/. G. C. SlockiMll, Neaa 



fiUty.— /Viy C. C. CuHU, M 

copo. vnviety 
nneapolU, an 



■onietbing excellent.— <?. C 

I anticipated 



Aini-8''-s b'ook.— Aew"ywjt £ij 

is triiiiiiplia 


JivMt\man,(iutncy, III. 

tiful thiuK.- 

Pro/ I). L. 

YyANTED.— A sitnaUon iu a flrat-cliiBa coUey^ 

iblp aud nook-keeping; espprlonco fiftctMi yeai 
Solnry, fSili upward ppr year. For api-oimene ui 

Common Sc 

Elementary >^ 

Commercial '■" 

iry, ror V.OIM I !■ 

iiml fttid Hliili s.) >-. 


T\ !•; w '- I ; I ; I ms. 

kliittbowB Utob. aud Bryunt's Prlntlug and PulillBb- 



20 Kemble Hi.. Ullrn. N. Y. 

..,...,M .,f Fioimisnmo, 

, ^yn,..-..,. 

Stimpson*s U. S TuaMiy Gold Pens. 

If purcbtiBcd before April 

to be taught, 
every candid i 


Ornamental and Artistic 




Practical Penmanship. 

■TboAnl (oinlrodaot- Ibe tiCKLB, OF TBUtDSSln 

Tbr nrvt l» clMilfr u'plUla m STANDARD anil bust- , 
DM* "r CUKRKNT mylm (IWl). 

MIllPflMa). " ' ! 

■Tbt' Urvt t'> prtblUti lif.ACK-BOARD CQARTS of 

*Tb* flnt to iwrae a PAl'Kft drvotcd ki penmBuablp 

*Tti« nmt to populkrlM THACINO Id oopr-bookn 
^ (1H67). 

Tb" nriil to (tmnouHtnto, TRalbmiiatlcally, tbe THUE 

MBDALS for Improvement lu piMi- 


- .-. .). 

by ooinp«tlog aulbors. 

ChambiTH St., New York. 

t(ittiu>lil|i (INTO), 


• Wiici' followod by cM>m)M 

AddfMM liMFO of Ihf Ainf*rlr«i 





Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


S. S. PACKARD, FnbUsher, 


VOLUME 2. NO. 3, 

TIIK I'ENMA.N-K OAZETTE In uow devoted tuni 



I . -Fae-KimiU »/ lltfltMa Wntinff, by L. Uadurasx, 

Portrait* and sk«lehu ol Ititrv>:K. 
k, 6\i\a; Davis, 'of' Jewett c 


'J — :« li 

^ M:» vii»K~|^ 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 

Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Accounts. 


! ' ■ I I . -I .'HpecJBlljr for dlaplayjug 

'Ddbilla, Circiili 
Uupllcitliia i 

. By uBlug 1 


For lliploiiioa niiii SperU 

who (tvfltre to acquire a beautiful hI 
eupervlBloD o 
'lliickliiKer, whoGB i: 

FiioblDger'a large ex'periet 

of tbo Col 

.-.^v\i^i^^\^>\vvv\\^\^^\\^>iv^ ^^^^ ^^i 

n Series of 



UfT-buud Flotirlabing, Letterlug, 
English, PoQ-Drawlug, Deslgulng, 

.—Oemnit UiMtltauv- Items rolutlng I 

ff /\ Kl-Ul'li^ lor iwdve colore of Inks (iucludtug 
rj\f gold, silver, wUllo, iiiviiillil? and ludollble), 
! Bout for Ml'. Stomps tuieu. WKLLS \V. SWIFT, 


Ou nreeliit or the iirlMtB utitiesed. we wil] forward 




Model Copy-Books 

" " 1,000, by e; 
and Hcrolln, 1y dlflen 

Bsupet (.up. tud.'iuk.'j 

<nlislilp, and ■ UlJtou's Auiwican araphltv Lead PencUe, 

Jiiit I'ubliehcd, 





Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 





rapLj. .•. Tlielnteet 

Stephen H. Tyng. 

muHhip (orig; 
liDg, peu-druwing, 

-arlety of lettering, 1 

neuN of lioLB, ^lepLm 
mme in Old English n 

What isverybody Wants. 

it PeuiuBD and Publlibei 

D. APPLETON & CO.. Publishers, ^'n,:, ' 

Ml »«u.jMiBuo.iDw.*v. NSW vouK. k'.J.^J^!.',;; 1/ ' ; / i,;,/ ' ' ' ^ ■' ;'•» 
Forged. Disguised & Anonymous Writing »i""'«e ii"i.>'"r;'iij fu^vUr»vM»"rt."K'iHV p,^^ ' » 

MeeV u ■u'eM»^V'l"V»m^ll^C,J''w°^;ll,"',,i''.'li ""'""''■''"•''"i'"""""".' i'!"e'euj"l!lr Ju? SJciuS 
l»ii."AVl'b;."uJ»';iSSlIi";d''Kri"'-ti'"l'!y rell^ „^i '^"ArJiti^' ^^ "•" "°"'' «"b"V.'b«u"r'i 

lirov.iil,''L,ud«Ui5!"Thi'JSflalIiS2!,M'S: ?f2'"'J^''', '' . °"" "" "•-^■''' "'"'^•"".'l^d 
peniu Uiooouutrf. OEOBOE STlMPliON Jr Id ,J*, "* '^"^ ™*'™*''di«e or work upon poetal 

lOlUcool D. T. A>iica. Artletl^uiiuw^), j "rd, WIU r««lte atlention. 
■"' 203 Uroadwv. Svir York. „Pi^"^ T. Ajtti. 

«*»n«ww, »,. Ior» 


Tbe Marriage C 
Tbe Family Ite 

Tho following a 

a Centfinuial Chart illiietratlug tl 
old.-iTi-aitr. Juhn A. IHx. * ' 
ugeulous uad skillful.—'f/d'. 

—Hon. llaviilUm Fiah, Ex-Seerttarn ^ i 

illustration of the subject la udni 

ington, V. C. 

groat ability aud 
r, Mini^tUr to i 

q/ War, Waxhiiigtm, D. C 
is a beautiful work of art.-Hc-n. a. H. Bti»U>w 
Sm. U, i>. TTfuiniry, WanhingUm, D. C. 

gr^at CHUutry.— //err Von Scholozmr, Minister frtm 
- "'—Mnghn, tt. C. 

Oftuptvior EHOLISB trMin. 
ufelurei U, li! Sun^brrM: suit- 
.d (o er^r,/ ,(„;r of urUiny 

r^ach of th^ IS S,„nb^r3.b„ 
lil on rtcrtpt of SS Cmts, 
iaon, Blakmian. Taylor S Co. 


PubllRhed aionthly, at ao»? Ui-oactway. foi- !S1.00 poi- Yeov. 

H. P. KKI.i.ev, A«ii.ciiilc I 


VOL. in. NO. 4. 

I Biulnes* CoUegCB, nccupylu 

I Uanilwrlliug. 



TIIK i>l.trMEIi »rsiM{S!§i rOM.EGI 



I find the followiug collateral tetstimouy ou 
this poiut in the Philadelphia Lrdgn- of re- 
fent date: '■ lu this city (Philadelphia) and 
other largf cities aud towns throughout the 
State, uine tenths aud probahly more of the- 
pupils complete their public school educa- 
tion before they get beyoud a secondary 

Ninety thousand out of a hundred thouHand 
never get the advantages of the gi-ammar 
schools. These nine tenths have to go out to 
the work of life with no more Bchooliug than 
they can get in secondary schools, und one- 
half ati a rough estimate with no more than 
they can get in the piimaries. ' It is in view 
of factM like these I think that the Commer- 
cisl Colleges of to-day tind one of their 
Htrongi-st claims to public favor, and fill an 
important place in the education of youth that 
is not provided for and cannot well be in our 
system of ])ublic school instruction. Aud 
while they till an actual want that existed 
prior to their organization, no adequate pro- 
vision has been made for proper and success- 
ful drill of pupils jusl commencing their 
efforts in penmanship. 

It ii* to endeavor to provide as succt'ssfully 
for th.'ir wants As the Business CoUeges do 
for au older i-lass, that I propose to call your 
atteuiion t« some suggestions iu this paper. 

I wish to see the small boy of the period 
when he leaves school to enter the store, the 
workshop or other employment, whereby he 
may vaxw a small pittance, provided at least 
with all Ihe elements required to develop a 
good, legible hand-writing. It is at this 
aim that the actual battle of life com- 

Siirely a model boy is he who is not 
haunted by the ghosts of lessons unleai-ued 
ir tasks evaded. I wish to present the youth 
w he leaves the public school with only the 
rudiment* of a common school education, 
already conscious of his defective knowledge 
and neglected opportunities, and too often. 1 
fear, an ever-growing consciousness of some 
unfaithful teacher who had failed to impress 
him with any just appreciation of the influ- 
ence pi his school-day tasks on his future 

t*nmary Instruction lu Writing. 

Iu speaking of primary instruction in writ- 
ing it is not my purpose to enter into the de- 
tails of class drill. I take it for granted thai 
all present are sufficiently familiar with that 
bmnoti of the subject as to require no .sug- 

I propose to take a broader view of the 
matter, and consider some of the difflcultios 
that surround the chUd in his firet efforte in 
poumnuship, and to some extent point out 
their origin and the remedy. 

So far a.s it may serve my purpose I may 
give some hints gathered from my own ex- 
perience «nd obserration. It is conceded 
that a Urge majority of the pupils of the 
pubhc schools leave to engage in some em- 
ployment before entering the grammar de- 
partmeuts. It is the testimony of school 
omcew genemUy. that while the primary- 
grat es ai-e overcrowded, the grammar and 
high schools offor ample acoommodaUons 
(or aU who choose to come w.thin their iu- 


I can picture to myself with what pleasure 
would the eouuteuance of the teacher iu our 
buKiii.s^ Schools be hghtedup as he welcomed 
th.> pupil already endeavoring to make his way 
in the world, and had already acknowledged 
Uie surest way to success was a good, thorough 
business education; and X imagine in his 
heart a cordial respect for those teuchere who 
hud impressed their pupils with the fact that 
I thn.u^-h a thorough acquaintance with busi 
iiess wtiys lays the most direct road to sue 
oess. Within the memory of most of us who 
have noted these things, commendable pro- 
gress has been made in methods of teaching 
writing in many of our pubUc schools. Chil- 
dren lire taught penmanship much earher 
than twenty years ago. Indeed, it is but few 
yean* snuv writing with pen and ink was 
allowed m the primary schools of this city. 
Now it is required iu three primary grades. 

As evidence of improvement iu our public 
schools I make two quoUitions. In an ab- 
stract of the Massachusetts school returns 
edited by Horace Mauu. and published some 
tweuty.five years ago. I tind the followiug : 
■■The fear is entertained that writing is now 
more generally neglected than any of the 
branches required to be taught in our public 
schools : while other branches not as neces- 
sary have received the attention that ought to 

have been applied to this important art, and 
it is beheved the defect may be traced chiefly, 
if not entirely, tp the deficiencies iu the quali- 
flcatious of teachers." 

In the Twenty-sixth Annual Report of the 
Board of Education of this city for the year 
1877, I find the followiug encouraging re- 
marks fi-om the assistant superiutendents: 
" The improvement iu penmanship has bceu 
very general. In some schools quite remark- 
able the past year. The new course of in- 
struction introduced some valuable reforms, 
the benefits of which are quite obvious. * • 
" * • In a majority of the schools the 
regular class copy-books exhibit work aud 
improvement highly creditable to the pupils 
and teachers. • • • . • specimens by 
some of the first-grade pupils (iu the piim- 
aries) surpass in neatness of stjle those which 
were formerly exhibited by the advanced 
classes of the grammar departments. When 
these very creditable results arc attained, 
teachers are careful to give the requisite in- 
structions to the pupils as how to sit and how 
to hold the pen, and know how to compel a 
compliance with these necessary directions. 
• ' • * As a whole the judicious course 
prescribed for penmauship has, to a very 
great extent, been faithfully and intelligently 
carried out by both principals aud class- 

I hold that the proper iustrnction of chil- 
dren in wiiting must he the work of the 
primary teachers of public schools, seconded 
by the itinerant or local writing-master who, 
I think, will find his proper position an inter- 
mediate one between the teachers of public 
schools and those of Commercial Colleges. 
The writing-master must be the outgrowth of 
some eoutiimed pres.siiig public demand, 

"0 I 


city or resting place for his wenry Iimi:_, 
neither heat or cold, sickness or poverty havt 
been able to discourage him in the pei-sisteni 
pursuit of his professiou. 

Fortunately the Business Colleges gave him 
a local habitation, and an honorable position 
to many of the craft. I think the good work 
commenced iu that direction if carried out lu 
its proper extent will elfect the recognition of 
the writing-master as a much-needed element 
in the instruction of the children of the 

If I mistake not it is one of the purposes of 
this Convention to bring into more intimate 
reUitions teachers of writing and those of 
hMsincBs branches, aud create a more friendly 
feehng and a permanent interest in each 
other. You will pardon me if I refer to a 
matter outlined sometime since in the Prjj. 
MAN^s Art Jof rnal in regard to teachers of 
writing connecting themselves with or radiat 
ing from some Commercial College as a center, 
for the purpose of making the calling a per- 
manent one, and building up a reputation and 
a business. Taking a certain number of 
towns, aud visiting them at stated inter^-als 
so the pupils could grow in penmanship under 
the instruction of the same teacher. I think 
a thorough trial of this plan, endowed by 
this Convention, would do much towards edu- 
cating public sentiment to its approval. I 
think Business CoUeges should encourage it 
means of securing a stronger hold on 
pubUc favor- 

I purpose to show thnt in this reform 
movement the writing-master has an honor- 

able work to perform. If he makes the im- 
pression he ought, he will be allowed, if not 
iuvited. on his visits to a town to give some 
hints to classes in the public schools, explain- 
ing to the teachers how to organize, how to 
interest and instruct pupils. In this way 
public school teachers will become better ac- 
quainted with and more interested in their 
work. Prieudly relations established be- 
tween them and the itinerant writing-master. 
The standard of instruction in penmauship in 
the public schools raised, a larger number 
prepared for more thorough instruction in 
special writing classes ; and lastly, what most 
present can appreciate, a first-rate prepara- 
tory drill for entrance into some good Com- 
mercial College.* 

As the matter now stands, it appeurs to me 
that primary pupils suffer fiom theappUca. 
tion of too little knowledge ou the part of 
primary teacher^ aud too gi-eat a display of it 
ou the part of the writing-master, and a pretty 
general ignorance on the part of hoth in re- 
ganl to the relation of the work of one to 
tliat of the otber. 

I would not encourage any one to beheve 
that to any great extent will special teachers 
of writing ever be employed in our pubUc 
schools. Less than a score. I think, would 
cover all cities and tow^lB in the Uuited States 
that do employ such special teachers, and the 
number is decreasing rather than increasing. 
To instruct pupils iu their first efl'orts in 
penmanship must be the work of the primary 
teachers of our public schools; aud here we 
have the application of too little knowledge 
of primary insti-ucticm iu peumanship. It is 
in feeling that good writing is a gift 
to the favored few, aud unatainable by the 
lultitude. A feehng, I think, many pubhc 
school teachei-s cherish, especially those iu 
the lower gi-ades to cover their own failures 
ill teaching it. Among many reasons for 
these failures may be named the followiug: 

Normal schools give individual instruction, 
rather than methods of class drill. Boards of 
education, superintendents aud principiils of 
schools make no special requisite necessary 
in peumauship on the part of teacher or 
pupil. Teachers are accepted without refer- 
ence to their knowledge of any of the prin- 
ciples of teaching the elements of penman- 
ship; and pupils are promoted on an examin- 
ation in arithmetic, geography or grammar, 
and the time that should he taken for writing 
ofteu encroached upon to make a better show- 
ing in other studies. 

Again if the teachere are disposed to do 
their duty mauy fail to fully couiprehend the 
subject, and frequently offer as au excuse 
their own inability to write well 

They observe that some can easily become 
good writers, and to thefie. they perhaps, un- 
consciously give their time and attention, and 
herein lies one of the causes of their failure. 

Another cause of failure in many cities and 
villttKcs is- that many priucipaU have all the 
hours of school occupied in hearing recita- 
tions, leaving them no time 
supervise and keep the work 
to the iu'ghest standard, co 
grade-teachers obsei-ve or om 
drill as their feelings incline. 

In my own experience a small amount of 
special instruction under good supervision 
has produced permanent aud remarkable re- 
sults, while the same instruction in another 
school with no such supervision the results, 
if any, have only been temporary aDd of no 
practical value. I believe the sentuaent 

> systematize, 
n all grades up 
ispqnently the 
t proper class- 


ought to bfc poflt*d iu tjTery primary «chool- 
rooiu in the land th.-it «very cliild, notphyiri- 
mlly iucapacitaU-d, ouglit to becomw a fair 
writer, and every U-acber tbat fails to aoconi* 
pIiHb tbi* much for her pupils i« herself a 
failure a»t a primary iaxtnictor. 

'ITie key to saccfM in teacbiog primary 
clawsefi in to adapt tb« inrtniction to tbe ca- 
pacity of tb« most iDoorriKible pupil, requiring 
lit flr«t only such tbiagB an ar« witbiii the cap- 
at^ity of uU. I would have prituary teachers 
liikn tbia aft a mottu : Take carv of tbe poor 
writers, tbe good odi-h will tak« car« of 

Oo tbe other baud, a long practice in 
tootibing adult piipiU by nkilled penmen to 
Home oxtent uufltHtlmm for iuHtnicting young 
children. Tbey can excite their wonder by 
tboir adiiiinible work with pen or cmyon, and 
then failinjf to bring tbcir tpocbing down to 
the capacity of the pupils, fail in everything, 
except in Khowing how widu in tbe gtilf be- 
tween tbe abiUty to exncutu and the ability to 
imttriict. Skillod pcnnion often fail iw teach- 
ertt, from the fact tbrtt, being fortuunte them- 
Melvea in being under tbe tuition of able 
teacbent in Ibcir youth, or being wbnt is 
termed natural penmen, they fail to oppre, 
oiato the diffloultieo that children of little 
natural ahilties encounter. They do not pre- 
sent to tbe pupiU any adequate n-nicdy for 
the difficiiltieR tbey meet, and herein lies tbe 
roiLHon that oftimeK poor penmen teacbere iu 
our public KchoolB show most excellent re- 
Hultti. Tbey have tliemnelveB encountered 
all tbe dilBculties tbat bonet tbu child. 

Another difficulty iu primary inotruolion is 
tbe crowding of too many things at once 
upon the notice of tbe pupil. Pou-bolding, 
poHJtion, movouieut. use of pen and ink, and 
form of lettem. 

If in any way a division could he made so 
that only a part would be i)reMeutod at one 
U-sHou, or series of lessons, and others later, 
far better results would be obtained. 

I think traciuR as a means to that end can 
bo cmployedto advantage. In Fostcr'ri copy- 
bookH. published in 1841, I And on the cover 
the following quotation from Loeke : "Tbe 
way to teach a child to write without much 
trouble ifl to engrave a plate iu large char. 
ai'liTH aud b-t scvltuI pages be printed in red, 
wbiHi b<' Ik to lio nv. r with a pen imd black 
iuk." Wbili- tuning luis been advocated by 
authors wbown works have long since gone 
out of iiee, 1 fail to llnd nuy of theui advo- 
cjitiug it on what I claim is its strongest 
point— a divisiou of labor. The following 
over a letter with pen uud iuk will not make 
good writers, except so far as it gives the 
proper muscular nioveuieut, while tbe mind, 
relieved of any thought of form, can couuon- 
trato on other things. Ouly as a first step iu 
writing, or in uxeeptional coses, I do not 
attach much value to it tut a means of learn- 
ing to write. Of these exceptional cases one 
or two may be worth noting. In lower 
grades a new pupil may be put iu a class 
without any previous drill, or there may 
be two or three exceptionally jtoor writers 
who cannot think of the form of the let- 
ter and write with sufficient accuracy to 
keep with the cUss. A book with alternate 
lines of tracing will, I think, be a benefit to 
such pupils- 

If an adult pupil, owing to early neglect, 
fails to comprehend tlie true foru) of letter by 
tracing, and noting whore inclined to depart 
from tbe true model, his mature judgment 
niny teach him the true form, 

Tbe pupil's own imperfect effort* should be 
au important factor iu gaining a correct 
kuowledgo of tbe true form. I would not 
ouly have a correct mode) before the pupil, 
but bis own writing us well, that he may see 
in what special point* his own work differs, 
and learn by contrast as well us by imitation. 
If he has learned the first essential to every 
good writing lesson, a correct knowledge of 
the form to be written with the aid of a cor- 
rect model, be is prepared to take the second. 
To reproduce as accurately as he can his cou- 
coption of that model, and, having done this 
luucb, to take the third step, that of criticis- 
ing his own work by the copy and seeing 
wherein it compares with and dilTers from 
his own efforts ; and, lastly, to apply bis 
own criticisms to his own work iu aipiin re 
producing the copy, trusting more to the ap- 
plication of his own criticisms and less to tbe 
copy as be proceeds. In this way each line 

should be better than the preceding. Where 
contrary results are produced, tbe Ust line 
being tbe worst, you need uot look far for 
tbe reason. It is not the distance from the 
copy, but the distance of (be teacher and 
proper instructions that produce micb sad a;- 

I would not lose sight of the fact that the 
success of a teacher depends not only on his 
enthusiasm, but bis abibty to impart tbat en- 
thusiasm to bis pupils If possible ^et tbeui 
up to tbe points of making home efforts -this 
will bring the penmansliip to tbe notice of 
tbe parenta, and no one subjictwill excite 
more admiration on their part thau the good 
writing of their children. 

Briefly, theu, some of the difficulties now 
existing in regard to proper instruction in 
penmanship in primary departments of public 
schools our Normal schools fail, or rather do 
not alteuipt, to impart methods in teaching 
writing as in other studies. 

School boards do not moke it a requin-- 
ment that primary teachers shall have the 
proper knowledge to impart primary instruc- 
tion in penmanship. .School superintendents 
and teachers do uot examine the writing and 
give credits as iu other studies. 

Principals are ofti^n required to instruct 
classes duriug school hours and cannot super- 
vise tbe writing iu the grades, securing iu 
each tbe proper amount of special class drills, 
holding each teacher responsible for tbe 
highest excellence iu their particular part of 
the work. Primary teachers do uot fully uu- 
dersUind the abililies of childieu, that all cuu 
become good writers if tbey will but bring 
their teaching down to the capacity of the 
most incorrigible. With tbe difficulties meu- 
tioned the remedy is hufficieutly indicated. 

There are other difficulties where the rem- 
edy does not seem so easy of applicatiou. 
There is uo intermediate school of penman- 
ship between the little learned in the primary 
schools and the instruction under the skilled 
teachers of Commercial Colleges. I would 
have the itinerant writing-master localized 
OS before mentioned, studying the situatiou 
aud exciting tbe interest rather than the 
wonder of the pupils. Claiming bis right to 
occupy this intermediate place aud filling it 
by a thorough acquaintance with the duties 
of the position. 

I think it the duty of Commercial Colleges 
I unite upon some plan to satisfy this de- 
laud for better primary instruction iu writ- 
iug, before pupils come directly under their 
IU. I would that sufficient interest 
could be aroused for all to work as one man to 
this eud. Discouraging, as far as possible, 
the idea tliat good writing is the gift of the 
gods to the chosen few, aud advocating on all 
proper occasions that all primary teachers 
should be able to impart the elements of a 
good handwriting. I think this course pur- 
sued by tho.w pr. -.lit nil. I tliMsi- that may 
atteud our fulm. lu.-tML:- uiU effect ft 
marked change f^n iIj. 1. ii. i n, |.iil,lic senti- 
rogavdiuK |>riumi-\ nihirui'tiou in pen- 

In couclusion, feUow teachers, I am not 
le of those who are continually mouruine 

rthe I 


more modern t I i. i . i - ■ t, , \\_,. 

gOOdoId tiuifK, W l<. II ji I. ^^ , 1 1 , , |. ,,t iimiiiIi'.I 

and uncatenden-d pnp.r. with tht- yraj yo^jse 
quill and a bottle of home-made ink, a vil- 
lainous decoction of logwood, mitgalls aud 
vinegar completed tlie outfit of tht, iouth in 
bis first efforts iu learning to write. Heiiher 
do I ignore all the advances made in tL ^ poiit 
towards the splendid reHuUs of to-day. I 
bail this Convention its tbe dawn of a better 
era in tbe department of peumauship Here- 
tofore we have occupied different Rpheres 
with no common grouuil \\li. i,nii ^i muM 

take counsi'I together. I'll. \- .. ,i 1 

tations may be crude jiml .h^.i: ,i,i i misi 

this is only tbe forerun iki- uiMtui t ihl'^^ 

wherein tbe crude things of to-duy mny be- 
come crystftlized and formulated. The Com- 
mercial Colleges, though of comparative 
recent origin, provide a splendid opportunity 
for business education, including, of course, 
a good haud-writing. They are reaching 
down for the small boy. I trust the primary 
teachers of tbe laud, aided by the itinerant 
writing-master, soon to be known as a re- 
spected and honored educator, \vill see to it 
that when tbe youth knocks for pdmiesion at 

the door of the Commercial College uud bis 
credeutials examined, their efforts towards 
his iustructiou iu the e^eutial elements of a 
good band-writing shall be bt-youttall praise- 

Penmauship and Drawing. 

The principles that underlie good penman- 
ship and drawing are so intimately connected 
aud mutually dependent, that to be a good 
penuiau <.-videuces the ability foi successful 
designing and drawing- If the niultipUcity 
of books and maiiUTds for instruction were all 
that is necessary for the pupil in either branch 
their acquisition might be comparatively easy. 
Among the great number of excclleut works 
ou the subject, it would seem not difficult to 
make a choice of one ci >ntaining all that could 
be desired. One of tbe best helps for the 
Ivacher in peuuiansbipiethenew chart, "Key 
to Correct Penholding," by H. \V. ElLsworth. 
No teacher that has tested its merits before a 
class iu writing exercises would consi-'ut to do 
without it. "Essentials of Peuuianship," 
by the same penman, is also an excellent 
work. But if books, charts and manuals of 
instruction were all that is essential, the 
making I'f good penmen would be an easy 
task. Mind material is as necessary as iu- 
structiou, and the exercise of thinking with 
proper attsntiou is as essential as exercises iu 
•■ Esseutials of Peuuinnsbip." The baud is 
uot a machine merely tbat can be used with- 
out the concurieul exercising aud training 
of the will ; aud without the essential mind 
training alt the instructions, definitions and 
rules usually given can never make an artistic 

In the first place, the ideal thought must 
be nurtured into just perceptions of imagiua- 
tion ; coiTect ideas of size, form and propor- 
tion must he conceived in the niiud; the 
emotions must be awakened, and a keeu dis- 
criminatiou had in regard to expression, laste 
and beauty in outline and design. Tbe inatf- 
rials, both mental and manual, for writing as 
well as drawing, are the artist's tools, and the 
('motions are the motive power for producing 
all that is proportional aud beautiful iu exe- 
cution. These are essentinls that must bo so 
trained that nature would seem to have as- 
sumed the sequence of a skillfid study and 

The exercises of the pen with iis peculiar 
structure require the full play of all those 
"thousand and one" muscular movements 
that produce the varied forms and curves 
that make up the sum of artistic penmanship. 
The pencil should, therefore, precede tbe 
pen, especially iu tbe hands of younger 
])upils aud lieginuers, and should be watched 
aud guarded by the instructor with the ut- 
most care, iu order that the hand and mind 
may recognize the tirat fruits of mental de- 
velopment in their prope* applicatiou of size 
and form. Drawing sboiild. therefore, be 
the lii'st exercise for the primiiry or infant 
pupil. Simple objects of such intcinsic merit 
as will appeal to the longing perception will 
afford tbe proper mental aliment aud secure 
the needed attention necessary to insure suc- 

Liues, curves and angles, embracing the 
more difficult acquirements iu drawing, which 
iu tbeiufielvi's have uo special nttractiou lor 
the pupil, should be left for future lessons, 
and at a time wheu the discovery will be 
ziade by comparison with the object lesions 
already received, that instruction and prac- 
tice has unconsciously beeu making the best 
acquisitiou possible in this branch of science. 
From these simple lessons on objects the 
transition under professional instruction is 
easy to the more difficult exercises of sketch- 
ing, drawing and forming letters, and not 
until the forms of the letters of the alphabet 
can be well produced by the pencil should 
the us.- of the pen be permitted Pupils with 
proper instruction, usiug only tbe pencil aud 
slate, will eventually be better penmen than 
if allowed to pass years in tbe ordinary man- 
ner, wasting time and stationery, scribbling 
with a pen under a careless, uncontrolled 
freedom which gives no mental discipline or 

The first impressions made ou the mind of 
n child are from perception of size and form 
through the medium of the senses. The pro- 
fessional and scientific teacher will make this 
natural order of mind development tlie means 
of cultivating and moulding those early im- 

piessions which remain indelibly fixed for 
Ufe by pr.&eutiug the most attractive forms 
for drawing iu the first lessons received iu 
the primary or infant school. With proper 
drawing becomes the most attrac- 
for younger pupils, as it belongs 
to the first faculty in order of mental develop- 
ment- It therefore follows tbat ideas planted 
so firmly upon the mental r< tina should bo 
from nature's best design : nature never 
makes mistakes iu the beauty and outline of 
objects of life audj^rowth. It i>nly remains 
for the teacher devoted to tbe most noble 
profession to skillfully select the subjects 
from nature's etore-hous«, for practical use, 
by presenting them to the longiugs of the 
pupil's imitating powers in the most practical 

We therefore come to the following con- 
clusions : 

Tbat drawing or imitating with the pencil 
should be the first lesson in the primary 
school aud should be continuous in the grani- 

That the pencil should be used exclusively 
in the formation of letters and all writing by 
the pupil until arriviug to a certain degi-ee of 

That the use of the pen for writing or 
drawing should be a special study, according 
to its peculiar construction. 

That the nbihty to impnrt instruction in 
drawing and the use of the pen should be a 
legally required qualification for every teach- 
e'-'a diploma, aud especially foi- Ibe priuuiry 

RemimsceDses oi John D. Willlanis. 

My pcrsoual aequitintance with John D. 
Williams, the distinguished penman, teacher, 
jirtist and author was limited, but my kuow- 
I'ldge of the man and his wonderful produc- 
tion bfie intiTVfited me deeply in the worthy 
criliutes to his memory, offered by his honor- 
ed and faithful friend Prof. S. S. Packard, 
aud by othei-s, 

Mr. Duff's reeollectious of Mr. Willinuis do 
not entirely agree with my information ou 
sOino points. 

The late Hon. Victor M, Rice informed me. 
it I am uot mistaken, that Mr. Williams when 
II small boy was a member of his (Rice'sJ class 
in penmanship at one time in New Castle, 
I'cnn., where Johu then resided with his pa- 
rents. In 1851 I became associated with Mr. 
Rice iu a commercial school at Buttnlo. Some- 
time in the winter of 1851.2, I think it was, 
Mr. Williams came to Buffalo for the purpose 
of preparing himself, under Mr. Kice's in- 
struetiou, to meet Prof. Wui. P. Cooper in a 
trial of skill in pursuance of a challenge which 
had been given by one or the other. Mr. 
Williams sought Mr. Kice's instruction, as 1 
theu understood, because be was not confident 
of hie ftt)ility to cope with Mr. Cooper success- 
fully. Mr. Cooper was then teaching penman- 
ship iu the public hchools of Alleghauy City 
and Pittsburg, T think, and Mr. Williams was 
employed in Mr. Dufi^'s College as teacher of 
penmanship. My recollection of Mr. Williams' 
skill at that time is ipiite distinct. It impress- 
ed mc as being remarkable for grace and finish 
more than for strength, systematic accuracy 
Hud orijjiuality of character. His stay in 
Buffalo was brief, about ten days or two 
weeks, perhaps. The sfunc ingenious manner 
that characterized him iu after years was at 
that time a prominent and charming trait of 
Mr. WiUiams. 

What was the result of the contest between 
Williams aud Cooper, or whether it caiue off 
or not, I am uimble to say. My iiupression 
is, however, that it was waived for some rea- 

The venerable Peter DufT. founder of 
Durs Mercantile College in Pittsburg, had Ot 
one time a rival in tbe person of O. K. Chom- 
berliu, a geutleiuau known to some of your 
readers as quite an original character aud a 
man of energy and ability. Chamberlin find- 
ing that Mr. Williams' fine penmanship aud 
reputation wore giving to Duff's College some 
decided advantages over his institution, en- 
gaged the services of "Father Spencer," 
hoi>iiig thereby to compete suecesirfully with 
the Duff school. 

Chamberlin's aclive,pHHhing, audacious and 
untiring efforts, created quite afuror, and the 
streuk'tb of his new acquisition drew crowds, 
IU d finally resulted iu selling his school to 

U'JJJi j'i'.V./k 

Mr. SpcDciT. whftNP wrionx illness MOon 
obliged liiin U» rtlintjiiiHh it to Mr. Duff, 
that time I Hp»>nt Monie limt- in PitUburg. and ^^^^ 
Bftw much of Mr. WtliiamH' work iliftplfljreil by 
DiiITk Cnllcfi*!. Abont tlitit tinit- tlie fanioun 

Practice Alone Dots Not Make Perlect 

great pity that the 8nyitigtbut " pmc 
CK pirfeut " was e%rr utt4;rtd iu the ' viihit of 
preseiiuf of uu aspiriuK pcnniBU. A greater who wisl 
iiulrtitb wiw nevtr hpoktii. iiud cvtry profess- the liui^i 
workof Mn,.Jl«rri.lHoe.-L«rStowe.eutiU^.d ioual of .icknowlcdK^d ubil.ty wiUendom- other on 
this asst>rtioD. Nim-ttniliB and on-- i much to 
tenth pmvtit;f umkes porfcot, and while this | as thiit. 
may not Ik- rfali/cd by hundreds who Ospiri' ' many 
o pL-rft-c-tinii or liif>h Kkil!. if tliey 

wnat It IS Worth to De a uood PeiiE 

It is idmoNt impot^sible to ovt-r cslimiite 


Unrle Toui'k Cabin made 
at onco (levply niov«>d Ihi- public mind. Wil 
liuruH exectiled with bix p<-n a very nrti»ti< 
and HtrikinKilliiMtralioiiof I'nttlcTom'ii Cabin, 

r-d I think with moditinitions from^ the ^^^;^ ^^.^^^ ^^^^.y winlouk 

icknowlcdRc Ihf tnitli of 

of thu book. 
^ iitt'-ritiou that thiH Mpecimeu of hiK 8kiU 
d UuiU' iittracted and the adtiiimtion that it 
iitud. At the tim« Mr. Wiliiaras. if I re- 

ber rightly, hml not dt-v.lop^d mtieb of beforehand the key'to" 

the wond<irful power that hiix diHtiugiiished 
him in tlin dvimrtment of lloiiriHhiug, hctoW 
work and bold lettt-ring with the pen. 

I am iind«r the imjireHHton that the Btrong 
impidxvH that ho received in that direction 
■*a-s dun Homewbat to the iullurnce of U. K. 
Chamberlin, who wax all HoiiriHh, and to une 
hiH own favorit*! cxprtKwou, eould " boat the 
world iu running a duck niid piling ou the 
gravy." Mr. Willian.H* work iu this line. 
how,;vor. watt by no ukouk modeled on the 
Chaniborliu hiuiin, although hit practical 
writing waK iilway« pretty thoroughly Spence- 
rian in all of itit features. 

wherein tbey have waKt^-d years in trying to 
accompliNb by practice what would have been 
achieved in one-fourth the time by knowing 
We have with 
us a young man. twputy-one years of age, 
whose skill in all branehcs of pen art in not 
surpassed by eight persons io thin country. 
During his eight mouths' stay with uf, he has 
constantly expressed sm-|>riRe that there was 
so much in the art to learu. Before com- 
mencing, the neighboring farmers had bo ad- 
mired his then so feeble efforts that he had 
grown great in his own conceit. Now he looks 
back at hia ignorance of eight mouths ago as 
a man of strength remembers his feebleness 
as a child. The great troubleis that young pen- 
men do not hunt for errors as a cat does for 
a mouse, patiently, for hours and days if ne- 
cessary, to find out the slightest error in form. 

The Convention, &c. 

.Vi/ rlenr A i/i'n : 

Kucldsed. please And two dollars, subecrip- 
tiou priee ioi- .JotrHNM.8 sent to ■"Prof." L. 
L. Spranii-' and Io *' Itev-" L. L. Sprague. I 
)mve iii'i-n I'lislnig about buligereutly to know 
who it ih tliFil ih so boldly claiming part of the 
houorh of thwpriuci]mlslni>of Wyoming Com- 
mercial College, but can find no HUeh iiudu- 
eioiis one. I conclude, tht-refore. that the pa- 
perK iiri' {niitii-jiiU for lue.aud remit Hccording- 
ly. Do you ii»k wliiil wc iin- '• about," besides 

When the c 

ught hei 

a first-class hand to young persons 
to obtain good, paying positions iu 
ess world. There is probably uo 
accomplishment which will do so 
isure the success of such aspirants 
We have known, pi-rsouolly. of 
R where preferment iu business wa^ 
based almost exclusively on an exeelleut 
baudwritiog. and where, without it, the pros- 
and see pects would have been very slim. First-class 
writing always attracts attentiou, and busiuess 
men take pride iu having such come from 
their offices and ciuinting-rooms. 

Advertisements for clerks and book-keepers 
aluiost invariably end thus : '■ Addrexs in 

handwriting of applicant . " Those who 

lire not very good penmen had better not 
spend time aud postage in replying ; there is 
no chance for them. The best written letters 
ore only read — the others go straight into the 
waste-basket. From among a few of the very 
beet the selection is made of those who are to 
be invited to a personal interview. The best 
penman, if his credentials are all right, stands 
the best chance to secure the position. Good 
penmen are more plentiful now than they 
were before the days of Business ('olleges, and 
if young men wish to secure positions that 
worth having iu the business world, they 


^of (he Jo 

Wurkiufj hard aud batlliug with the times. 

" 'Tis not in nujrtals to counuaud success. 
Hut we'll do more, Stnipronius; we'll deserve 
i> daily polish 

Jd p. 



have In . , 1 , I I .1 |.. I, i| this year, and lu 
turiiiti II ' I i-iiMssgraduates iu tl 
laud. \'.'■^ I i iilii I ;4ii.ii| ruiumercial College 
doing the same. But what about the ue: 
convention ? My eyes turn longingly froi 
last August. Never were j^uehls lunie Imspiti 
bly eritej-laiuf'd than by lli< ( ii.. 


uld l.M 


singly, but the momor.v 
tee. Coney Island and t 

' The 
' &t*. 

of clcmu 

tiiu wiiii^k of 

All honor to the local comuiitteu. Long 
may they wave. May their stars never be 
dim. IVrc if. bhie fish. May his glory never 
fade. But glance as lonirinuly .is we may at 

the past, the ful 


tivi'iitiou from the nature of 
^■nuid sucoess. The chavac- 

il eiilerprise of our western 
uiado iimnifeet there if I 
mistake not, We looked iu upou Messrs- 
Pioreu aud Soul... Philadelphia, l.wl week, aud 
found tlu-m enjoying greut prosperity. We 
•• look in," idiomatically, Fairmount Park, 
aud pniolically the proverbial cat fish and 
waffles found there, and witlml. dis. uss.d Ibe 

is honored : aud when the learner has 
his letter and killed every error that has crept 
into it, then he has done his whole duty, but 
not till then. Twenty strong blows may be 
struck with a sledge hammer, and the rock 
may remain unbroken, yet the next may break 
it into fragments. This holding on to a single 
purpose till accomphshed is the the only quick 
and sure way to master oin- art. 'Tis the little 
things that one must know that .secure success. 
The longer one studies upon the form of a 
letter, the less certain is he that he knows 
every point concerning it ; but when his forms 
are placed upou paper, and in every miuute 
detail Ihey correspond with a perfectly engrav- 
ed copy, then il is time to take up another. 
The form of letters are so alike in many points 
that after few are mastered others require less 
itudy. How often do teachers see pupils who 
leave the copy to scribble, and how rarely do 
we see a pupd who stops to cross his letters 
with lines to ten their height, width, and 
slant, &c. ; the one is practicing never to be 
perfect, the other is moving towards beauti- 
ful penmansbi]) at woudrons speed. The 
eight principles of penmanship lie at the bot- 
tom of perfect letters, yet there are hundreds 
who trj'and try for months and veiir.s In 
master letters, who never realize tli/il ii.n 
they to master the principles of wrilJu- on. 
by one, and then combine them cmnrtl_%. 
their writing would be perfect. 

There are plenty who call themselves mas- 
ters of peumansbip who cannot wr 
line with pen or pencil as correctly 
at the top of any advanced copy-book. To 
do this the mind must realize at every move 
of the pen just how much curve, how much 
turn, the exact angle, width, slant, height, 
strength of line, and all points that make per- 
fection, aud one who cannot do it proves that 
he is not ma.stfr of his art, and he is not so 
because he has not forced himself to realize 
the importance of considering every miuute 

, then she must prepare themselves o 



tliroughoiit each letter. 
Until one bai> niastere<l the principles of "a 
letter, the letter shonld not he attempted, for 
it is attempting too much for oorlaiu buccms. 
Correct letters are formed only of correct 
principles, for those who »ould advance rapid- 
ly can well aiford to study the minute |)arts 
of every letter and continue to regard them 
shoosl When a fe»- letten, are mastered a short word 
may be formed with them, hut ever the most 
critical eye must be watchinf to guard against 
errors. To write perfectly will always require 
care, but when the habit of walcbfidness is 
once formed, it requires but little effort to 
keep it up. There are so many vrho waste 
yeatK depending upou practice to make per- 
fect, that we offer what has proven in our es- 
l«'ui^'l^rsl"»°°o"vir ' perience an escollent method, as it hasaccom. 

^ ' ] plished such certain and speedy results. The _ _ 

r. * 'Z '^*'P''''"*"'^".^*'.80veming them, asnresented I disnuiablv 

Commumcations „ b„„ ,^, p„,„„. „„«,„^ iscinerand I ^r be' 

ns of the .lorBN w,, n-garding any hpenccriau copy-books, furnish esceili 
teaching or pmetieing ^vritiug, ^ ^^^\.-^,^^T":^^'\'^Y':'^'^ *''"' "-^Produce 

NAL. Hut lei it sullk-e that meiu>iu 
already been iuaugumtcd ; for the 
thereof let thu n;nders of the JoURKAl 
language of the excited Teuton, * 
look owl." Iu great haste. 

Ever yours, fraUrnally, 

L. L. Si'B 


b sixty I 

I It pays to make one's self competent to 
teach writing. Many a man with no abil- 
ity iu any other direction makes money 
solely by skill with the pen. Any one who 
makes himself a first-class penman may be 
sure of an income that will compare very fa- 
vorably with that realized from most profes- 
sions. In but few of the many academies, 
seminaries, normal schools, aud literary col- 
leges of the country is there to be fouud a 
teacher who is competent to give instructions 
iu this branch. Educators are beginning to 
realize the fact that iu order to satisfy stu- 
dents, and prepare them respectably for per- 
forming the duties that will devolve on them 
in life, a good hand-writing is essential, and 
yet it has been heretofore much neglected. 
They also soon find out that to be a successful 
tt-ttrher of Ibis branch one must be specially 
trained in this direction- The abilityto write 
aud skill in imparting instruction are both es- 

While the other professions are crowded, 
the ground in this is, as yet, comparatively 
unoccupied. Where there is one writing- 
teacher employed there is room for at least a 
dozen. The pay is much better than that for 
tcncliiiic the other branches. Teachers of 
iiiiii^ii i;;. s, mathematics. &.c.. who are gradu- 

upon drawing and education in the arts of 

The nations of Europe, without exception, 
great and small, are arming and fortifying 
themselves with this knowledge and discip- 
liue. It is owing entirely to the artistic edu- 
cation of the artisans of France that she has 
been able to command the markets of the 
world in matters of taste for several gener- 
ations. The variousinteruatiooal exhibitions 
have gradually opened the eyes of the various 
Governments of Europe to this fact, and they 
are all directing their etiorls in the most 
energetic as well as systematic manner to 
produce similar results. 

Great Britain, by the Exhibition of 1851. 
discovered her deplorable deficiency in this 
respect, and with vast expenditure attempted 
a remedy by establishing free schools of 
design for the industrial classes, and by ar- 
ranging costly museums of art for elevating 
tLf u.LiiM(,:,| -in„ of taste. She found 
till' I. -.'-It- ,i( n- I ■■leoud International Exhi- 
lii'i"" HI l~'.- iN'l tbey were so remarkable 
"■■I" . M (I. th. I'liJousy and apprehensions 
of her eoutiuentid neighbor and rival France, 
who immediately applied herself to revising 
aud reforming her own educational arrauge- 
meuts iu industrial art. The statistical re- 
sults of such educational efforts demonstrate 
their practical importance in developing 
wealth and power. 

A Beautiful Piece of Work. 

The photo-lithograph copies of the resolu- 
tions presented by the Common Council to the 
Columbia crew as a mark of public apprecia- 
tion of their achievementin the representation 
of American college oarsman, at Henley-on- 
the-Thames London, on the fourth aud fifth 
days of last July, have been issued. In design 
and execution they are exquisite. The original 
from which the lithograph copies are taken 
was done by Mr. Dauiel T. Ames, of No. 205 
Broadway, entirely with the pen, and is oue 
of the most remarkable pieces of work in that 
line that have ever appeared.- iV. Y. Even- 
ing ErpffSH. 

leges R 

1 be hired 

fur siii:illei- salaries than can good teachers of 

Young men, take advantage of your oppor- 
tunities. Become first-class penmen, and 
whether you wish to enter business or to 
teach.auccBBs is aj«sured. —Ilnnu Gneal. 

upon -.branch of p^ education, | !S.TJS:ra7r"'.^d'".5 ''Ce"'S:; 

The progress of events is gradually briug- 
ng the principal nations of the earth to real- 
20 the fact that, though drilled armies cau- 
lot be dispensed with as a means of defence, 
yet that tbey are less to be realied upon than 
the drilled artisan. That it is by the pro- 
duct* of skilled industry that real national 
honors as well as natioual power aud pros- 
perity can be achieved. The pencil and the 
being more and more appreciated as 
instnimeuts of power than the sword and 
needle.guu. The Austrian Minister at Wash- 
ingtou. addressing a Convention of School 
Superintendents, held there, said: "I think 
the want of knowledge is the root of all the 
evils that exist in the world, and that they 
can only be combatted successfully by three 
things. These tlu-ee things are, first. Edu- 
cotion ; secondly, more education, and, 
thirdly, much more education." This is in- 
e and true, but the education 
must be more pointedly directed to the 
development of an esthetic sense— to the culti- 
of the perception and appreciation of 

The Phantom Pen. 

The last reported invention in telegraphy 
i an actual writing machine. The ^vritersita 
t one end of the wire and moves his pen at 
will, and as he does so a pen at the other end 
moves simultaneously, transcribing exactly 
the same characters as are indicated by the 
first pen. The idea of a pen writing without 
any apparent aid is startling, and the editor 
of Natiirr, who has seen the iustrument at 
work, says it appears to he guided by a spirit 
band. The inventor is said to be a well- 
known English mechanical engineer, and it 
will soon be made public before the English 
Society of Telegraph Engineers. 

The Pen King. 

W. Lynn White of Porlland. Oregon, has 
recently issued a smiill compendium of pen- 
manship bearing the above title. It consists 
of twenty 4x10 inch pages of copies and ex- 
ercises in what is denominated straight-line 
writing ; the work is got up in attractive 
style, and will no doubt be popular with 
those who fancy Ihaf, style of writing. 

Our Teachers' Agency. 

Teachers wishing situations and prin- 
cipals wishing good teachers of writing or 
any of the commercial branches, should 
bear in miud that they can probably secure 
the same through our agency. Send in 
y<nir applications, with $2, and we will 
render you all the ser- 

(^ respectfully solicited^ 

high in the ^, 

climbed I '^* beautiful. Tliis can only bo done by 
A. H. HtNUAx. 1 arlietic culture, which, of course, is based 

The Cflfstial Empire states that "among 

le most renowned cidhgraphiBte of the pres- 

it day, his excellency 8ben Pao Chen holds 

high rank. It is related that when he was 

struggling scholar, years ago, in Foochow, 

3 used to write inscriptions on fans at 400 

tsh (say Is Hd) apiece, aud thereby gained 

an honorable, if rather insufficient livelihood. 

He called his small studio wherein he daily 

toiled atsuch drudgery, ' Yi-hsiao-ah,' which 

may be roughly rendersed 'Laugh, but buy.". 

Remember, eighteen back numbers of the 
JoCRSAt,, including all uumbers from and 
inclusive of the September number, 1878, 
will be sent for f 1. 

uiij^ j^ii^w'i\aaig'. 

To »ny pMnoii seniling Ihrlr 
ime B* BUbMcrlhera, liieloHlng |2. t 
e JoDBNAi. one yotr, and forwAn 

land HIS, prlco $7^1). 
■nd 113, we will forwurd i 
>rd'0 Ociiie of Ponmanfchip, i 

reoolved od or bofon 
Hliould bo by |iohI 


Our Writing Class. 

In the present number of tin 
will he found the first of ii series 
in inacliciil writing to be given I 
columns of the Jouhnal by il** 
Editob. Prof. B. F. Kelley. wli 
and justly been rc'sarderi up one ( 
skillful Iwicbors and wrrlns ir 
For severiU years piisl lif hi^ 
large iiortinn of his tinir m u-.,. 
ing i 

educnliontil in: 
remdiiider of I 
Hiding; UH in i 
fidomv. iissmv 

enil of llu- 

n( l.'ssons 

Kelley. while we shiill s|mi< no |viiii ,., , a 
penseinpi-oducing fine fn^jinv iul- i'\ « im h 
lo present the copies iimi iliu-nnimi- im 
essary for securing Uic mui»i clK-Ltivi n-- 

In order that the greatest interest should 
be awakened and the best results secured to 
our readers fi-om these leusous we have, be- 
fore announcing our plan, invited nil of our 
unprofessional renders to forwui-d speci- 
mens of their present style of writing, to 
which nearly one thousand have responded 
At the close of the coui-se of U-ssons wr 
shall again call for specimens from each one 
of these respondents, when a competent and 
disinterested eonuniltee will be appointed 
to compare all the specimens and to decide 
upon the three best specimens of improve- 
ment To tlie person who has made the 
most impi-ovemeut we sluUl fonvanl a copy 
tif -Ames" Compendium of Practical and Or. 
nanieutal Peumansliip, " or *■ William^' and 
Tackardb Ueuis." ashe may prefer. To tlie 

nn(-- who has made tin- nfrmui lies! improve- 
mcDlwe will».cndlhc -Willinmsand Pack 
Mirl's Guide." For the /A/;rf best the ■ Speo- 
ceriiin Key." In each instance the books 
will huvc inscribed on their Ily-Ieaf. in the 
best style of pen art, the name of the win- 
ner and the purpose for which it was 
awarded; and there also will be a full re- 
port of the committee, and the names of the 
successful competitors published in the 


Xol only may the improfessional reader 
of thi; JofHNAl. profit largely from this 
rniirsc of instruction, bnl teiubfrs and pro 
. of writing will very likely find many 
valuable suEtgestions regardinii systems nnd 
methods of teaching wrilini:- 

Praeticing Writing. 

The poet has sjiid, with much truth, of 
writing : 
■■ No Uloiit nniung men hatb more scbolare and fewer 

While it may not even be desirable that 
all shotdd be masters, it certainly is very 
aul that all should be good. legible 
writers, wliicb we believe, with rare excep 
tions. might be the fact were writing prop- 
erly taught in all our public and private 
srhools. Were fhr samp p.ains l.iken nn the 

of tlir 

ijuality uf writing would be greatly en 
hanced. No teacher should be permitted to 
have clnirL'f' of writinL' classes who does not 

tliMi-MuJ,'- uimI, ,- I i!h uMhMSiiudall 

\vM^<\ w ■■. - ii.i hr ,,,L-„MK'd anil 

taught as au ub&olute t>tudy, its, theory and 
prin(;iples should be developed by questions 


mar, geography > \ ''ili. i -uhly. The 

idea seems genr-r:iii ■■■ |.i. ^■ i:. u :i)] i.bat 

before the i)upil :i - • i-v , nni Hi ii hr should 
daily or occasionally spend hull an hour, 
more or less, endeavoring to imitate it. 

faults, should tliesc. as they art likely to 
do, remain undiscovered, he yoes on in their 
reiielilion term after term until his school 

d;iys..nil. :i~li;,inr^l -f lii- .iwkward writing 

:iii.l MMiuirnui: ,ill ihr Inn.- why be can 


Mii.v » 

uuli/i 111 

il i'j lung as the.proper 

( :i( 1 

u;.. of I 

riling i 

thus neglected in our 

M hui 


YC have 

so low an average of 


iiKT a 

tlip re 

,ir till 

hIui- 1 

suit? When, on the 
I'UliiLs constantly to 
i:hiiir(' of a well quali- 
i< inr, who would fre- 
■ tb.-ni Mieir faults, 
^rstioiis for their rem- 
liir study as well as would be rapid 

iml c 


ml bad 
1 as are 

writers would become 
good writers now. 




■ill tjc 8 

en by a 

communication in an- 

ither column from Prof. Mtiiman. that he 


aiiih 111 

t till'- 

*cnmans' Convention'' 


II 11,1V , 

i\ l.iM 

\iiL'' was captured 


\ liy Husmess College 

ihil IIk 

It hniil 

\ M siilieilin anassoci- 


f the pe 

uiiien constituted' only 

the tail. 

This, to some extent, was the fact, and 
tievitably so because a very large majority 
of the most experienced members of the 
ution were in some manner identified 
iusiness Colleges : nor can we see how 
t(! li;ivr been or can be otherwise, 
hill\ ilinr fourths of the penmen, 
iii-li' in.ii^ for their skill and attain- 
ts iiriuiuii and teachers, arc connect- 
h those institutions, and since the call 
for the Convention included all penmen and 
persons engaged as authors or teachers in 
liny branch of business education, such an 
iissociation as was formed, was, perhaps, its 
appropriate and legitimate rcanll. 

That penmen outside of nusine-ss Colleges, 
who atlemled the (-'onvention should have 
beeu disappointed in Uie gathering and its 

result a^i a Penmen's Convention, we are not 
in the Iccist surprised.andsince that Conven- 
tion has resulted in a very much needed and 
promising association of persons int<*rested io 
business education, of which good writing 
forms a conspicuous part, we do not see any 
good reason why penmen who are more di- 
rectly identified with writing as artists and 
teachers should not, as Prof- Hinman sug- 
gests, come together in a convention of their 
own, wherein they may exhibit the best spe- 
cimens of skill as artistsand teachers, extend 
their acquaintance, and otherwise advance 
all the mutual interests of the profession ; 
this may be done and their standing and in- 
terest in thepresentassociationbealsomain- 

\s. Mr. Hinman suggests, that twenty or 
inore real live penmen might maki a red hot 
convention, we are in favor, and (ran be 
counted as one of the twenty. Who next? 
We shall be glad to hear from any and all 
who are ready to pledge themselves to take 
part in such a convention. Il might be held 
al some central point, in July, or the latter 
part of August next. Can we not have a 
regular Simon pure Penman'6 Convention ? 

The question is now open for debate. 

"Practice Makes Perfect," 

Ml i!ir fikl saw. Whether this be true or 
! ii-i ill |M lids upon how we define the word 

in;iHiiL'' If il is sim|)ly to exercise the 
hand iit wiiliriL;, iMilimit study or thought 
for impiovciiii III ti i- hil-r jis is evinced 
by the fan ili.n iii;iii\ ii^istms who write 
almost constantly are most miserable 
writers. Few persons write more than law- 
yers and their clerks, while it is proverbial 
that no class on the average write 

If, on the other band. " practice" means 
a constant effort, by study, of correct forms 
of letters and their easy and graceful com- 
hiL'ation into writing, imited with a de- 
termined effort to produce the same, then it 
will be true that practice tends to perfec- 

The great difficulty, however, lies in the 
fact that much that is called practice by the 
pupil and often by the teacher, is aimless, 
UM It - \r!i worse, damaging scribblini; 
w I' II' to impress upon the mind mI 
tnpil and teacher the indispuijiMt 
l.H I iliii any period of time devoted (n 
scribbling or careless practice sets the 
learnei backward as much as the same 
period of careful prartire could advance 

estadvanr ' ■. 'n : ■ , ■ .,,|<|. of 

the pen is ih ■. ■.■ ■ i ■ ■ ! m ■,■ , iii;i(le 
for thedevr!i.|.iii'iii c' i > i i.nii It.rni- which 
must either be prLscut for imitation in the 
form of a copy before the pupil, or a clear 
and perfect mental conception of the same 

Business Writing. 

Wc are oflc^n asked why pupils wholearn 
to write in our public schools and collegrs 
never acquire a business hand, and the 'i-.u i 
that they do not is urged as an arguni- ni I 
against the systems taught or methods i,i 

As well mighV it be asked why the same 
schools do not graduate practical merchants, 
lawyers, doctors, ministers, &c., and con- 
demn them for not doing so. 

The fact is, that wluvt is denominated a 
" business hand '' is formed and acquired as 
the habitual result of long and extensive 
practice of writing in some business pursuit, 
and can be acquired in no other way. It is 
akin to the peculiar air and accomplish- 
ment that characterizes persons as expe- 
rienced practitioners in any other profes- 
sion or avocation of life, and can no more 
be acquired in school than any other profes- 
sional accomplishment. 

Writing as a Gift. 

The ability to execute t5ne artistic pen- 
manship is regarded by many persons jis a 
special gift. This to us appears to be with, 
out foundation in fact, except it he that the 
faculty foj- diligent and thoughtful practice 
be regarded as a gift ; if so, we have no doubt 
thai ilit -nil. -Ifi would equally distin- 
:-rni ! I 1 11 almost any other study 

»\. Ml! 1(1 M ."--itiitu that there is no 
skillful penman who does not know that 
his ''gift " of good writing was discovered 

after an untold amount of the most earnest 
■study and practice of writing. So far as 
our observation coes. such "gifts" are not 
passed rntmd gratuitously to any great ex- 

The Dollar Mark f$i. 

Much controversy has arisen as to the 
origin and meaning of the peculiar mark 
used to denote dollars. Some have attri- 
buted it to a corruption of the two letters 
r. S. . used to represent Federal Currency, 
which afterwards, in the hurrj' of writing, 
were run into one. ibe V - being first made 
and the S. put over it. Some writers say 
that it is derived from the contraction of the 
Spanish word pesos, *' dollars;" others, from 
the Spanish ,/>«'<■«. "bard." to distinguish 
silver from paper money. By some it is 
claimed to have been nnule in representa- 
tion of the pillars that were upon the Span 
ish dollars, which were prineipnlly in use 
fluring the early periods of the United 
States. The more probable explanation is, 
however, that it is a modifieatitm of Ibe 
figure ■■8," having reference to eight reals, 
as the dollar was formerly called. The 
word dollar itself is regarded as derived 
from the German "thaler." 

At Least One Million 

of persons in the Vnited States should read 
the Pknm^n's a ri -Iournal. beginning 

ictical writing, which 
practiced, will be of 
ly pupil in our public 

voluuif (.Jaiiuaiy minilnri, m any time de- 
sired by the subscribci. 

The Special Attention 

of the many persons who will receive spfcu. 
men copies of this is.suc of the Journal is 
invilfd tn tlir iinirsc nf ])raetical lessons in 

^vt■i|jn- III. inn ■ i.iiniirnced by Prof. Kelley. 
\\ y IkIi.m Mill .ill will find these lessons 

cMTr .|iii_-h hiiL' and |-in>filable. and 

Art culture is thu great desideratnn 
quired for our country to place her 
higher level \n the sc;ile of civilization 

the)mtriolic-entliusifisni of the scholar and 
the statesman. Though we can barely allude 
to its importance in the space al our com- 

We are happy to perceive that although 
the public mind is not sufficiently informed 

tlie level of the national .sentiment. But 
though it may be a long time before govern- 
ment^ action < Midd br ln„k(fl for jn this di- 

ii'id ih.ii Hi. II 1- ■. . ■,.., -lemandfor 

light ill lhi> <lu.,.-ii lu -i.M ,.ii Ni-c-ntcry. as 
from the ■paullug Uail." comes up from 
many, saying help us to perceive, to appre- 
ciate, and to produce the beautiful. In re- 
sponse to this appeal it is very gi-atifying to 
perceive that efficient individual effort is 
being made in many cases tn satisfy ibis de- 

Among the most encouraging of these we 
may mention that of Mi". Barlow, now 

'I'SLi. -^ 

au' JUSLli^l 

opened at 205 Broadway, whose advertise- 
mfni will he found in another colnmn. 
From our lone and intimale arquaintanw 
wilh Mr Barlow, wc know him to bt among 
the mosi skillfiii and cxiiericn'-cd arrinls and 
tpachors of our oounlry. Among his numer- 
oiw piilrons and piipiU are somvof the mOHt 
wcnllhy and refined citizen.'* of New York. 
And w<' feel afwundthal the facilities which 
he now offers to a.spiraois for penuine art 
atudy and eiiitiire. are not rxrelled in the 
rountri-. while hi«lerm^ will hr very reason 


Parebment hn» bpon used for 2,100 years — 
Pftp^r Rtnee the ninth century. 

Quill pens are quite extensively used in 
Eoglaod at present, especially in the club- 

BdKHr A. Poe, onee receiv(>d h prize for a 
1 for a Daltimore litttrary paper, 
hf«ing " thn first of geniiiKea who had 
ten legibly." 

record of a mac 
and forgetting to write thp !■ ii. r. 

The fider D'Israeh wTote of penmen, 
"Nf-vt-rhafi there been a race of professors 
in any art. who have excelled in Bolemnity 
and pretensions, the practitioner in this sim- 
ple and niechaoical art." 

Pliny says that Homers Hiad was once 
copied no Bmall that it wa» incloned in a nut 
shell. Thie manuscript, it ib Raid, was seen 
by Cicero. And in the reign of Elizabeth 
was "a rare piece of work brought to pass 
by Peter Bales, an Englishman," a writing- 
master and an author, 
the fntire Bible, so . 
to be easily inclosed 
Queen Elizabeth is said to have wnm a 
ring which contained writing by the same 
master, and. if written ordinary* size, would 
require sevenil broad pages. This could be 
easily read by the use of a magnifying glass 
contrived by the writer. 

pt of Pope' 

Iliad and Odyssey nre preserved in the British 

Museum. They are written upon the baclis 


uutively written as 
an Enqlisb walnut. 

ihc./irg/rolumD of the /owrA'' pajre — and if 
you do not want any of those, send for our 
list of special cash premiums. Every reader 
of the JounNAL ought to pet up a club to 
begin with this number or vol. iii. They 
will thereby hc!p us and themselves, and do a 
favor to each subscriber by securing to him 
the be-M teacher and advocate of writins in 
the world. 

Ames' CostPENDitiM or Pbactical a>d 
Obnamental PENMAySHip. BY Prof. D. T. 
Ambs. — This work is a complete compendium 
of pen art. containing over twenty entii-e 
alphabet* of diflferent kinds, numerous designs 
for engrossed resolutions, testimonials, certifi- 
cates, title-pages, monogiams. and a great 
variety of truly artistic pen-flourished designs 
of every description. The work is the most 
elegant and elaboi-ate published on the sub. 
ject, and should be in the hands of every pen- 
d engrosser, as ideas, designs, styles 
of borders, lettering, flourishing, &c.. may 
be found therein to suit almost any taste. It 

A Penman's Convention. 

All penmen agree that great goodwou'd re- 
sult from a coming together of such live 
members of tbe profession as would relate 
their experiences, illustrate their methods of 
securing results in tbe execution of plain and 
ornamental penmanship, in leftching and in 
making money. It is well known that last 
summer a large number of penmen were 
brought together who lost their patience in 
being compelled to lislcn to long essays and 
longer winded discussions by Business College 
men and authors of books. 

No one can say that as a Penman's Conven- 
tion, the meeting was a success. Yet it was 
demonstrated that a combined meeting of 
penmen and Business College men would re- 
sult as it did in BvisinessCoUege men crowding 
out penmanship, " gobbling up " the time, 
and paying penmen the compliment of being 
allowed to serve as a tail to what they quickly 
changed from a penmen's convention into a 
Business College teachers' and penmen's 

Lotttra of Napoleon I to JoHcphuit. from 
Gormauy wore bo badly written that thv> 
won. Mometnueb mistaken for maps of the 

Chesterfield said uvery man \sbo has the 
use of bis eye$, and his right hand, can write 
whatever hand he pleases. 

Palimpsest is parchment prepared to use 
the Mocond tiiue. Formerly parchment, owing 
to it« scarcity, was often used a second and 
«veu a third time, and modern scholars have 
htiuu able to decipher the Nurious works in- 
completely effaced. 

Manuscripts from tbe fifth to the twelfth 
centuries an- far superior to those of a lat«>r 
dato iu point of freshness and legibihty, ou 
nooouut of the better quality of ink with 
which tliey wure written. 

Henry Want Beecher, it is said, once opened 
what ho Buppotied to be a letter nddcessed 
to him, but upon examiuation found it to 
uoutaiu tb« one word " Fool," upoD ^veiug 
which, he immtdiately n-marked, " 1 biivu 
bfjtrd of penionti writing letters aud forgot- 
tmg to ugn their uameti, but (lua i« tbo first 

of letters from lUustrious contempoi 
Pope taught himself to wiito by copjmg 
printed books aud much of thi above men 
tinned manuhtript is m Bom m and Itabc 
characters, cleverly formed. 

On Michaelmas day, 1535, a great writing 
contest took place between Peter Bales and 
his aDtagotiiat David Johnson: a pen of gold 
worth twenty pounds, was to be awarded tbe 
victor. Five Judges were to rendera ducisiou 
-great vxcitemeut prevailed- to Bales the 
prii[4< wiui awarded, according to Bales' ac- 
coimt. But Johnson asserted that the per- 
son holding the prize iu safekeeping pre- 
vious t<> the award, was prevailed upon by 
Btili-s to loan it to him, that bis sick wife 
mij^ht '"bttve u sight of the golden pen to 
comfort her," aud, upou permis-sion being 
given him, he immediately pawned it aud 
afterward sold it at a price far less than its 
actual value ; that, be, instead of his antago- 
uist might receive benefit therefrom. 

Now ib llic time to suhiicnbe for the 
J0UA^;U., aud get all the lessons iu writing. 

be properly appreciated 
The photo engra\mg and pr nting of the 
numerous pen pictuieb are a marvvl of excel 
lence — Cai adi SWw / Joui il 

Writing for the Press. 

Waste no time on introductions. Don't 
begin by laying out yourBiibjcct like a Dutch 
flower garden, or telling your motives for 
writing. The key-note should be struck, if 
possible, iu the very first sentence. A dull 
beginning often damns an article ; a spicy 
oue whot« the appetite, and commenda what 
follows to both editor aud reader. Above all, 
stop when you are done. Don't let the ghost 
of your thought wander about after tbe death 
of tbe body. Don't waste a momeufs time in 
vindicating your production, against editors 
or critics, but expend your energies in writing 
something which sbuU be its own vindication. 

To any pennon desiring a duplicate of the 
ahuvc cut. with the scrolls coutaiuing the 
lettering morticed, wc will send the same by 
cjEpress iminQdwwIy o» roccipi o( $5.5u. 

who can hope for satisfactory results at 
a meeting, with College men are indttd blind. 
Never was there a more abl or sk llful num- 
ber of penmen together tha lat>t summer : 
yet, leaving out an exercise which we were 
invited to giva tbe last twenty-five minutes ol 
the Convention, there was notduring the whole 
ConvL-ntiou a single letter placid upou the 
board and analyzed or iu any way discussed. 
There was no illustration, discussion or allusion 
to anything relating to oruameutal penman- 
ships. OnlyMr.H.C. Speuceraud AR Dunion 
took up the crayon, and they only exhibited 
a sliding movement upou the board as used 
in starting pupils. Their subjtctN related to 
position, penholding and movements the same 
as found in their published systems. Outside 
of a few essays, which would have filled a bet- 
ter place in tbe Penman's Abt Jouiinal, the 
above was all that was presented of specinl 
interest to penmen. 

We will no! admit that last summer's Con- 
vention wus in any degrew a fair sample of 
what would result from a week or ten 
days' meeting of thirty or forty hve penmen. 



A Convention, sol^-Iy in the inKrest of jt'-u 
men in. in our opinion, tbe onJjr way our art 
C'<n secure the showing ibi iinportaut 
meriU. Such « convention would b« a »tuc- 
ccM, and a grand one. too , und such u one 
can cft»ily be held if a doiwn to twenty will 
pledgo tbeujrtejvfi* to attend, and by all kLow- 
iog their thoic* points none will be poorer. but 
«ac'h Hharing all others experience will not 
only be greatly Btreogthened, but be better 
able to Mer\'« theiiiHelveH and their fvUowmeu. 
We liiid no fnitb in last summer'K mixed Cod- 
vfutiou. unioiiutiug to more than it did, but 
wo have ihu full.-«t faith in the result** of » 
nivcting of bbrral inioded penmen, and Biich 
a one let us have. Let college meo have their 
own conventions. Let euch College men an 
hove devoted a year to scattering circulant, 
ftrlvcrtiBiog tbftt the public will surely be 
humbuggod by getting into any buKiuetih 
Hcliool but tbeir own, let th^-m come Uj- 
gcther an n baud of brothern and bhIc whiit 
Khali we do to overcome the widc-prevailiug 
DpinioD that Bui^iueHO CoUegCB are humbugs- 


Writing Lesson. 

No. 1. 

The object of a course of lessons in pen- 
mauKhip Bbould be to enable tho pupil to uc- 
(juirc a handwriting conibiuiiig legibility, 
fciiiiplicity and benuty with rapidity of execu- 
tion ; und thih rc.Hult ctin never be attained 
itiik'Rti the iDKlructiOD given be united with 
caniest, careful, persisteot effort upon the 
p«rt of the pupil. 

In order to produce the best reeultfi in 
writing it Ik neccRsary that tbe pupil, whether 
III the primary or tbe higher department*, of 
ikiiy sehool, ijhould be provided with the be&t 

Of pens there in an infinite I'ariily of forniK 
mid qnaliticB. althougb in qualities the greater 
portion rauges from bad to exec-able. To 
Ktntiourrs in gt-ncral iu city or country a pen 
in a pi-u, and the kind that may be bought the 
r-li.[i|>.'«t ih the kind they prefer to Kell. In 
Hilirtmg n \nu that shall meet tin- nquire- 
iiii'iit&nf the averuga pupil the two extremes 
of oonrKeui-sK or fiupuesB of point, or thickaf ss 
or thiuuess of metal should be avoided 

I'( iilioldiTH should be of medium t.i7( both 
111 length and diameter, of medium weight 
(Hid should have the jtarts, at least wLuh 
<'omc iti contact with fingers and tl umb 
slightly roughened or corrugated that thc\ 
may tbe more easily be kept in position and 
the fasteuiug nhould be euch as to admit tht 
])eii without injury, and to bold it firmly in a 
liue with the penholder instead of mcUniug 
dowiiwnnhi, us iu the case of man) now in 
use Triangular penholderB are bitter than 
round. The oblique penholder has itfiad\aD 
tagei^, but it is doubtful if they equal its dib 

Ink, according to well known authorities 
should flow frtst'Iy and be jet black — two con 
ilitions which have never existed simultaue- 
nuhly; and. as wii cannot have the two desir- 
nbl. qiMilihi's tMiitcd. we will sacrifice some- 
what i>l tlu' I'bou hue for perfect fluidity, and 
will M-l('(-t an ink suflioiently dark to be seen iu 
finest lines when flrsl written, and which will 
eventually become outiroly black and Btill 
preserve u soft and mnooth uppviirunce. 

Paper should be in single shcetM of fools- 
cap or letter Bizu, aud should be white, of 
flriii texture and smooth surface, thickness 
being ordinarily of little importance. 

I'euwipere of i-hamois skin are best, but 
very sfitisfiictory ones may be made by cut- 
ItnK in oiri-iilav or other form pieces of black 
hilk or any lirinly woven olotu. Flannel 
^lllluld be Ktboued for tbiK use, as also tbe 
nionkeys and other iirtistic emboUishmwutsCi') 
familiar in sobool-i-oonis aud stationers* >viu- 
ilows. A. peuwipor is an absoluU) uccus- 
sily tu any ouo who writes well, but its exist- 
euee is almost sure to be ignored by all care- 
le>.« pupils. 

Hlnttiug piipui of more than average thick- 
lU'h!. and M»fliies-i should bo uscdwheu a page 
of writiii;; is ftnisUed, or at the close of a les- 
son— rari'ly at oUicr times. When it is to bo 
used, bold it by tbe right h lud immediately 
over the writing, and with the left baud de- 
|iretvH the left side ttutil it eoiucs firmly iu cou. 
tact with the paper, then upon releasing the 
ri^'ht side it fall^ in such position thut by one 

I aurfiiot: the ink in atoorbtjd with a curtaiiity 
I that, upon the removal of the paper, the page 
I shall not be blurred or soiled in the sUghiest 

degree. I have be*n thus particular i 
I plaining the manner of using the blotting 
paper, because Ha use iu the majority of 
cases that have paiiHed under my observation 
previous to such explanation has been disas- 
trous to the not otherwise too fair page. 

We come now to the lost of the materials 
reijuisite for writing, viz.; the copy t- 
aunlyzed, expluiuedand imitated. This should 
be sufUciputly brief to enable the pupil to re- 
member all tbe principal departures from the 
correct forms in his attempted imitation, 
should be so detached that it may be moved 
into close proximity to the intended writing, 
aud should be as perfect as it is possible for 
the most gifted penman to prepare for tbe 
most skillful eugraver. And in ord<3r to make 
such perfectiuu practicable in the case of 
teaching in clashes, at least, it is necessary 
that the copy be engraved and invariable; for, 
although absolute perfection will aot be 
reached by the pupil, yet, it may be as closely 
imitated as any given perfection, and more 
nearly than any variable imperfection. 

The proper position at the desk should 
be one in which tbe right arm shall (Sup- 
port no weight, but shall ho left to freely 
execute the conceptions of the mind. This 
condition is realized by slightly inclining the 
left side toward tbe desk at a distance suffi- 
:?iently removed from the edge to avoid any 
movement of the pen from respiration. The 
left arm should rest parallel to the front edge 
of the desk and at a distance of five or si\ 
inches from it. The right arm should be so 
placed as to suataiu its own weight upon the 
muscular swell of the forearm about two 
inches from the elbow, aud the distance of 
the elbow from the body should be from three 
to six inches, depending upon height of desk 
and position of pen upon the page -the paper 
or book to be placed so that the ruled lines 
are parallel to the front edge of d'-sk. 

By many the right position is recommended 

In this position thu light buh- is turned 
squarely to the desk, avoiding contact with it. 
The right arm parallel with the front edge of 
the desk, and resting upon tbe larger portion 
of the forearm, the left arm at right angles to 
it. The advantage of this position is that it 
may be assumed uniformly by nil tbe mem- 
bers of the class. 

j In the front position the pupil should sit 
directly in front o( tbe dvfik, leauiug neither 

lo the right cor left, but inclining slightly for- 

In any of the positions mentioQed tbe same 
relative position of forearms to each other 
aud position upon the poper or book should 
be maintained. Tbe feet should rest firmly 
upon the floor, and the body should be as 
erect as may be, and yet clearly observe the 
writing and copy. 

The penholder should be held betweei 
thumb and first and second fingers, and should 
cross tbe first finger immediately forward of 
the knuckle-joiut (A), aud also the root ol 
the second finger nai! (Bj: the point (C 
placed squarely upon the paper jf of an inch 
from tbe second finger; the peuliolder (D) 
pointing towards tbe extremity of the right 
shoulder ; the thumb bent from first joint 
so that the point of contact (E) with holder 
shall be opposite the first joint of first finger. 
The third imd fourth fingers should be sepa- 
rated from the others, and curved under suffi- 
ciently to support tbe hand upon the tips of 
the nails (F), the wrist (G) being sUghly ele- 

In writing there are four movements, vrhich 
may under varying circumstances he em- 
ployed, viz : tbe Jinger movement, the fare- 
firm or mu^cu/^r. the combined and the irholr- 

Tbe finger mmement is made by the exten- 
sion and retraction of the thumb and first and 
second fingers : and is, of course, quite limited 

its scope, being exclusively cotifined to up- 
ward and downward strokes. 

The fore-arm or muttcidar motemtnt con- 
sists of the motion of the fore-arm either for- 
ward or backward, or t« the right or left, oud 
a union of these motions producing oval, 

liptical or any other forms required. 

The combined movemnit consists of the sim- 
ultaneous action of tbe forearm, fingers, 
thumb auH wrist, and is the one generally 
adopted by skillful penmen and teachers. 

The wliole-arm movement is that in which 
the centre of motion is the shoulder, the only 
supijort being the movable one— tbe finger 
uails of the third and fourth fingers. By this 

ivement great freedom is attained with cor- 

iponding inaccuracy in regard to miuor de- 
tails of form. It is. however, desirable iu 
making large capitals, in flourishing and in 
black-board writing. 

Having thus briefly defined and explained 

e various movements required in writing, 
we will now proceed to give exercises tbe 
tice of which will tend to assist in their 

above ext^rtise should be practiced by a 

lateral movement of the forearm in connec- 

with a downward movement of the 

This exercise is designed to be executed 
with a purely muscular movement, and should 
be practiced from right to left, and left to 

The above should also be practiced with 
he muscular movement, combined with a 
ilight movement of the fingers in the for- 
uutiou of the letters. 

These exercises should be very extensively 
and carefully practiced. 

Practical Questions in Penmanship. 

1 How does writing differ from penman- 

Which is the most powerful movement, 
the finger movement, fore-arm or muscular 
movement, or the whole arm movement '' 

3. What, iu uinetcen out of twenty cases, 
prevents writing a good hand ? 

4. How may legibihty of vmting be spoiled? 

h. What are tbe most important things to 
be learned before tbe pupil can hope to ob- 
tain any verj great degree of excellence in 
wTitiug ? 

tl. When should the bend of the body be 
made in writing? 

7. In writing, why sboidd the feet be 
placed firmly on the floor? 

8. Which is the most important for a be- 
ginner iu writing, to tract over a correct copy 
or to pntUrn from a correct copy '{ 

0. Who first introduced ebryfhmography 
into his classes iu peumaushi]), and by what 
means was it accomplished? 

10. How does want of finish effect letters? 

11. How may the dress of a letter be 
(spoiled ? 

12. Should smairietters receive more or Itsit 
attention than capitals? Why? 

\'.\. Why is the slant of thirty degrees 
called the connective slant? 

14. What are turns in writing? 

\Ti. What does practice in peumnnsbip 
give ? 

m. Should writing be taught merely for 
the purpftse of copying ? Why ? 

I". By what are tbe different classes of 
letters distinguished from each other ? 

18, How may good shading be secured in 

10. What part of all written manuscripts 
do the small letters comprise? 

20. Which of tbe small letters is need most 
in writing? 

21. Which of the capitals is used most in 

22. Why is writing a science? 

2.S. Why is writing akin to music ? 

2\. What class of people are most apt to 
find fault with poor writing? 

25. What should be the true desire of every 
teacher of this important branch ? 


W. P, Bedford is leaching writing at Parie, 


P. P, Preuitt is teachini; classes at Kiiuf- 
mon, Texas, he is a good writer aud success- 
ful teacher. 

H. C. Clark bns disposed of his Business 
College at Rockford, 111., aud has engaged to 
teach in Troy, N. Y,, Business College, 

Daniel Hoohst^tler is teaching writing at 
Stone Creek. Ohio. He writes a very good 
hand aud sends specimens exhibiting very 
creditable improvement by his pupils. 

Prof. J. M. Mobon sends ninety-three speci- 
mens of writing by the pupils of public schools 
of Oreston. lowo, iu %rhich be is the teacher of 
writing. Tbe specimens are highly credit- 
Prof. H. C. Spencer, of the Washington, 
D. C, Business College, sends fifty specimens 
of writing from pupils in his college, which 
represent the highest averagb of excellence in 
writing that we have ever examined. 

W. C. Sandy who has been teaching writ- 
ing and other branches at tbe Troy (N. Y.) 
Business College diiriug the past four years, 
has recently entered into au engagement to 
teach writing, drawing and book-keeping in 
the State Normal School at Indiana, Pa. 

Prof. L, S. Thompson, Lafayette, Ind., 
.\ntli r 111 III. I , 1. , (jr series of Copy Books, 
'""' ' ' ' lii'liistrittl Art at Purdue 

' '"■■ ' III iLunounces through our 
"dv. iii-Mi_ .1 I ,, Siiiiiuii'r school for 
I Penmanship, 
u of 

Prof. Thu 



tolerably correct, but lacks case and grace ; 
e the fore-arm more and tbe fingers less, it 
11 improve the speed and quabty of yon\ 


W. J. Titeier, StoD«?boro. Pfl., sendii credit- 
able^ tip(.'ciin<-D»t of writiug aud floiiriubiiig. 

L, MiidaruHZ, Iloc:h(^'Ht«r, N. Y., tDcloHes 
Hcv^ral card Hpecimenn, done up iu oiont ox- 
quiBitO style. 

E. L. IJiirnett. La Croiwe, Win., forwards it 
HkillfulJy dcDiffoed and oiecut«d Npuoimen of 
Hourittbing and drawing. 

F. I). IJavis. Btudeut at Sonle's BuirineS!! 
Coliego, Philadelphia, incloM'8 very fine 
lipGcimeoB of writing aud fiouriKhing. 

W. E. Dennis. Wright's lluxiuera College, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., nendit several elfgnnt opeci- 
mvint of flourishing nnd card>writiug. 

ScriLTal elegant HpvcimeuM of HoiiriKbing 
liiivo been received from Preston & ituarmf 
wlio are U^aching large clawtfti at Adami>, 

Uriah McKeo, Principal, WritiiiB Depart- 
incut of Oberlin(0.J Colloge. writes an «|... 
(^iiiit li'tter in wbicb ho incloses a very grace- 
ful and beautiful specimen of writing. 

Iu the liuit number of the Journal we 
muntionird specimeufl of peuuiansbip received 
from C. F. Hamilton. New Richmond. Wis., 
wbicb should have been C. F. Himtington. 

Jos. FiBller, Jr., sends a large assortment 
of copies, cards, flourishing, and a photo- 
graph of an engrossed copy of the Lord'h 
I'rayor in the Irish language, all executed in 

;. a M.lone who i 
.tbsviil.-. W Vii.. « 
rtbicU Iu- m.-los.N 11 
.opy slips. u,k1 n . 
I exeoutL-d specim. 


tlud «,m. 


The Writing Class. 


The science of th^ century is making ilself 
felt in even primary education, and no greater 
work is beiuK accompli^ied than that of in- 
spiring educators to reorganize and vitalize 
some of the cold, dry, monotonous mothod« 
of the school-room. The cry against science 
in primary education is wholly miftleading, 
S.-ience ought not to be considered a bugbear, 
to friRhten the child, bat a genial helper. It 
is the true expoueut of Nature, the ver>' sun- 
light lo education ; but it should not be too 
strong for the dclicat« tissues of childhood. 

Tbe art of penmanship is based upon the 
science. Penmanship as an art must be mas 
tert^d in detail, befon- it con become a fit in- 
stniuiL'nt of the expression of thought. While 
the real object of writing should never be lost 
sight of in the teaching, and while children at 
an early stage of progress should begin to use 
written language as well us t^poken, yet. until 
tbey have acquired liome degree of familiarity 
with the written liigos. both in cnnception aud 
execution, theyum-t ,,f u- . -.m1\ Ii.' occupied 

with the medium 'I n m-uii- r;ilhertban 

withthetliought 1. I nu, l i'he wires 

must be laid befoif iU- ui. .ssii^. ■.nu he sent. 

To make u-ritiug a facile instrument to the 
child, bis earliest efforts in the art should be 
directed to tbe simplest parts or processes of 
letter making, building up from these aud in- 
creasing his confidence and skill, by increas- 
ing his knowledge of the forms, as he advan- 
ces. The very first steps in this branch 
are of the utmost importance, since tbe force 
of bad habits coutract4;d iu primary classes 
will not only embarrass the pupil throughout 
liis entire school course, but may effectually 
prevent him from ever becoming a good wri- 

Writiug is a far slower and more laborious 
process than speech, and more artificial, re- 
quiring the use of B foreign iustviimeut and 
materials. The child is not compelled, iu 
speakiug, to minutely analyze the sounds 
Hut iu writing there are successive stept^, 
which he is unable to master at a single 
stroke, but must move his hand with the pen 
(the latter not anatural organ, like the tongue, ) 
and consciously describe every change in the 
lines, by a corresponding change of movement. 
H.iicf the piWL-s.?s ti.u not be ao latent as 
vvli.u \u- L.'fuiiii-, .-uiister of the art. 

i'bi' sci>.D'.>; uf pt'umauship takes the let- 
Ic-rs lo pietes, and says to the child : "You 
can easily learu to make these simple partw; 
then you cau learn to put tbciii tugt^tber; and 
when you cau do that, you will bnv,- Icftriit-d 
how to make the letters." These windings 
ill iiiul out. thebie turns ami angles, all at first 
so intricate and puzzling to mind and fingers, 
are reduced by a little science,— suited to the 
child's capacity. — to a beautiful aimplicity, 
order aud progressiveness. 

In teaching writing to primary classes, we 
would let iuto all tbe dark comers some light 
or science, that the pupils may not stumble 
over impediments, and thus lead them uatur> 
ally into the subject, iuterestiug them at 
every stop, confident tb&t tbe delight iu posi- 
tive knowledge, even to children, is a great 
incentive to progress. 

" Small is the last letter in this group of 
ovals : does it look like the sutue Roman or 
Italic letter ? " "It does not." I erase the 

connecting lines, aud fill out the upper curve, 
adding to it the dotted turn, aud the childreu 
joyously recognize the familiar Italic. I then 
re-write the script letter for analysis and criti- 
cism. " Tbe main part of «, as you clearly 
see in the Italic, is a double curve, one of tbe 
most beautiful forms used iu writing. The 
line is taken from two ovalu, as I will show 
you," writing one above the other, so that the 
nvaU are on main slant, and tangent at tbe 
turns. I then trace the main curves of « in 
opposite sides of the ovals, to illustrate this 
characteristic part of tbe letter ; and next 
erase the superfluous parts of the ovals, to 
evolve written .«, leaving the double curve 
abbreviattd at top. and terminating with the 
short turn at base, finished with the dot. 
" Let us now try and complete the script let- 
ter from this model. Where aud how shall 
we begin ?" ■* At bise, with tbe right curve." 
•' And a Uttle to left of dotted turn," writing 
tbe curve through the dot. and continuing it 
on connecting slant, thus iutei-secting the 
double curve. The hands are all moving in 
expressive dissent. "That is not right"; 
"The curve runs right across tbe letter." 
" Why. I have made it just like the first curve 
of u .'" writing tbe latter nu the board, di- 
rectly to the right of model. '* But it is not 
right in «, it leans over too far" "Then the 
slant must be wrong. How shall I change it. 
— lo slant more or less ;• ■* "To slant less." 
I then decrease the slant, and eombine the 
first with tbe main curve at top. Thix result 
is approved. "How shall we finish the let- 
ter?" "With the right-curve." This is 

.-•SS sj^JLL 

madt; ou the usual slant aud the children are 
satisfied. I now write the letterseveml times 
ou the board, and explain that the upper part 
of first curve is retraced a little : that the dot 
is made on first curve ; that the lower turn is 
retraced from dot : and that tbe final curve 
sags a Uttle near base, so as not to touch the 
oval. " What is the height of a .'" *' A little 
more thau a space." 

" Small r is mated with a. It begina tbe 
same, and is of the same height. You make 
a light dot on first curve, at top of letter, and 
then a short double-curve nearly upright, ou 



first principle a little below height of space." 
illustrating ou the hoard each part of the let- 
ter while describing it. "You will also see 
that the first line and tbe double-curve in r 
and a meet in an angle, and thus form a sharp 
point near the top of each letter. But the au- 
gle is wider in r than in ». " The different slant of 
tbe first and last curves is apparent at a glance. 
The decreased slant of first curves gives prop- 
er width as well as symnietiy to both letters. 
Tbe peculiarities of ;■ may be very finely 
brought out by contrasting it with i. Both 
begin with the right-curve, and end with the 
tirst principal, having a dot as a characteristic, 
But in r the dot is at the vertex of the angle, 
.iiid tbe first curve aud first principle aie con- 
nected by a short double-curve, giving increas- 
ed width to the letter. The first curve is also 
on increased slant, and extended a little above 
height of one space, while the main line is 
shortened to about the same extent. Tbe 
dotted double-curve of r corresponds to the 
dotted shoulder of the printed letter. 

Xote. The thirteen short letters form a 
natural aud easy first course iu writing. It 
is worth while to consider how much of in- 
terest and profit these thirteen language signs 
may vi^ld. They embrace half of the small 
alphabet, nnd iucludf M-Tii< of nil the vowel 
sotimlv witli li.iind." inid ^hiljuil ebarac- 

of tbeni I 
ing froi. 

faining the 

'«fl,y 'Jcac/ur. 

Qood Paper and Valuable Premiums. 
If you want tbe bc-t pennnin'.s paper 
published, send $1 for the's Aht 
JouKNAL. If you want either of the two 
best books published upon ornunicnial pon- 
nianship. viz.. "Ames' Compendium of Or- 
namental Penmanship " and Williams' and 
Packard''* Ocnis," send a club of twelve 

If \ 

■ N.ii 1'.] ihr Williams' iiiu 
oi two for tbe "Thcor 
intiiaQship." All theabovi 
iiks, and are of great valui 
L-lier or admirer of line pen 

A Live Agent 

Is wanted in every school and town iu tbe 
United States aud Canada for the .JouRNAl.. 
To such we are prepared to offer the most 
liberal inducements, either iu cash or other 
valuable premiums. Send for special rales 
to Hgeuts. 

Iu the present number Mr. J. H. B.ultiw 
favoi-s our readei'S with tbe first of a sei'ies 
of articles on the very important subject of 
Art Culture as a branch of national educa- 
tion. From Mr. Barlow's large experience 
as an artist aud knowledge of the subject 
upon which he writes, we feel assured that 
nur readei-s may safely anticipate a tseries of 

Ames' Compendium 
of Practical and Oruamental Penman- 
ship is designed especially for the use of 
professional ])enmeii and artists. It gives 
au unusual number of alphabets, a well 
graded series of practical exercises, and 
specimens for olT-haud tlouriabing, and a 
great number of apeeimeu sheets of en- 
grofised title pages. it-r.olutu>ns, ceriiti- 
cates, memorials, &c. It is tbe mcwt com- 
prehensive, practical, useful, aud popular 
work to all classes of professional penmen 

ever published. Sent, post-paid, to any 
address on receipt of S5 00; or as a pre- 
mium for a club of 12 subscribers to the 


The following are a few of the many 
flattering notices from tbe press and 
patrons : 

)rnH|i)i knowledge of 

K llkoly t< 

I heavy lines, floiirlshca aud all v 
lucB will flud as m ■ ■ - 
Korfc Tribune. 
a work of great prnctk'ol merit, peeullnrly 
J wf pen art ujoro fully t: 


, B. DoUii:aT, Ktv 

ilTord to be withiut it.— Frqf. L. Asire, Red Winn, 

R. South- 
t complete 

n-uiunnitixip—Prtff. O. C, Stockm 

aXUy.—Pnf C. C. Curtis, MinneapoUa, ,1 

taiag. -Prq/ D . 

al ExbibltiooH. 


Ornamental and Artistic 

In Priietieali AriUfic and Ornow 
iiiniiHliip. Ever)- department of Pennii 
most tborougbly tauglit. 

'dally so to those ntio wi 
o Bucce^efully execute wor 
i-hoto-KoKrnWng or Ptioto I 


-j'.Lu: y^^_luJ^!p\\ k 




Practical Penmanship. 


Thb'flntl to (uiiuil MKUAhHtoT Improve 
man-hip (18Tfl). 


V aV C K ^Jl K L> ' S 


Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


S. S. PACKARD. Publisher. 

Soule & Flickinger. 




.'^ 'JT) 


l!() OK -KEEPING. 

tiiDg, Lctiermg, OemiHn T«xt, 

Common School 

iiiii|iii> ncid oninprohonalve, 

Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the- Most Perfect Manner. 

Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand-Writing and Accounts, 


We Iiave eevernl appropri:iii- i : i,,.! eepectaUy for dldpUflog 

. By using I 

HiilillcnteB In Klecirotjpo I'lmo .1.! Ll ~:U. Lj l,ij.» t. ^^. jJJi — -. ut 

r spM-iiueD clKular v 

complete. Plain. 

Cotti-vOiV: i^ p 

Elementarv i'-fllliuu. Double Euwy; prii 

riir>> ■l.lUictI ai.ri illiiatrntfd. In twr< colors: ]>U 

|.r.utl<uh ;fr<-';^''-»iii nbNUrd Hit-oriM: 06 Jrtvr- 

Commercial K<lHlan, DonWe nnil Slug 

Not a Revision, but an Entirely 

iSTE W H i^:r I p. H 


£0 Ki-iiiblr m., Vticn, N. Y. 

i iBPERS f<.r latBi- «pecnnea« of IXOURISHING, 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

Forged. Disguised & Anonymous 'V riling 


M llrotLdiv 

iv. New York. 


uUj *r 







.^1 J,' ' 




u siiriicorlnn. -JS 



1»>M u 


„ ', :,' 

'"'■ ''",!'■ 


HKCIPES lor tw»lv 
Bold, Mlvcr, whilp 

* coll.™ of InJts (lucliidinR 





e BrMt ileiUHUd 
art 10 .tud Uy 
11 .cl or topl.^ 
froin tho /Vn 

\Vtl«l.l-.' Bim' 



, K MtlUXQTON. Roclii'iu 
uaiiew i uie public 1&:!. 








^ R T S C° H O O L . 

Mr. Barlow has Lad great t sper 
the pen, uiid will prepiiit^ pupils 
cveaes of engraviog, htliofjraphy, I 
moat Improved tratmng for the hi 


Dy ordoTlag from us, patrons cun rely 1 

tollowjDK U 
viuu a superior articlo, but U|iuii 


■ flJHJJ:l=l:l.l.l!4^ 

n Series of 


'^^opi/i/iRs-rfiPfi's/^' use "■ ■ f 




Piicp, bymnil, $1. Liberal teruis for first intro- 
This popular work, irhich for the last flfteeu years 

iiow appears In a now aud attractUe typosrupbical 
dresB acd greatly Improved In apiiearatice. 



colleges, the 

by ! 


Bristol Board, ! 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 



3 Specimen Sheets of Engrot 

3USa " 3 50 30 00 

EugruMiug r 

Congduu'a Normni 

Key to Speuceriiiij 
Payson, Duuton ^, 
SpencorUu Comi<t'. 

!ipoug« Rubber, 21 

I ont of tht but ptnmet 
t combines t&Hte, ing<; 

Eemble St., Utfci 

Empire WealWHtd. and shnuli] hnve ii plflCP in every 

His ingenious and skilllul - llrv. t:<lira,d EgyU^Un, 

-Hon. Uamilton Fi»h. Bx-Se^rtary <^ StaU.WaHlnng- 

The illustration of the subject te admirable:— £f cm. 
M It. WaiU. CIdL/JmUee U. S. Supmm Court. Wash. 

The Centeunial Picture of Progress is u work of 

l.-Han. B. B. Bri 




• " Addreas L. S. THUilIPMON, La Pay ell 


(ifnuprrtor ENGLtSB *) 

r^OH. 10 CENTS.- 1 will scud 6 e.rds writtf 
19 CMtU. AddKMS, A. W. DaEIN, TuUj, : 


i Eraadny, }(ev Tort 


Publlslied aContla^ri a.t SOS SroBd-rray, ±'oi- 81.00 per Year, 

D. T. A31KN, Kdll'*- nud Proiir 
B. p. KBLLBY. AiMoeiBfe Kdit 

NEW YORK, MAY, 1879. 

VOL. III. NO. 6. 

broohxVn, e 

louusel glvt<u u» Bipcrt od UuDilwritlug. ■ 


TlIOM\H MAV PBIROE, M. A,. Prlucipal. 
119 South i'viith Street, Ptailadelpblu. 


L. L. S 



i;e .UOOHE, 

Whtiug' iu the FabUc Schools ot 
Rochester, N. Y, 

Si.mi- tmit' siine wv puM-iitt'il lu llii- 
muUi» t.l thf JovKNAi. II sk.K-ii of i!k- 
iiu'thmi of coiutuctiuj; roiuiiL-Iilivc cxiimiiui 
liuu& iu wiiliiig iu ibe schools of Ni-wurk, 
N. .1.. which, at the lime wc cousidurcd the 
bi'Ht iiivihott iu prut'tlcal ust* iu auy cily lu 
tht iiouiitiy, so fur »s our own knowledge 
cxteiiili-d Siiu'i- iheii it has beeu adopted 
lutl.i- .iiv ..( KiH-hi-sUr. N. Y..wilh!>e%- 
end m-w uml vahniMc features, which gives 
Ilt)ilii;!,tei pre euiiueiice x\& having iu opeiii- 
liou lUe uiosl curefully devised aud siieoess 
f ul plan of supervision for securing uniform 
uud satisfactory results in pi-nuiauship. We 
propose III lay hefon- oni readeis such por- 
tions of the -Thirty riflh Annual Report of 
the P\lblie Schools ot Kochester." together 
witli later eXCractsfroni president Wiles' val 
edictory. and of the annual ix-porl* of "The 
Committee ou the Kree Academy" aad 

"The t'oramittee on School Organization," 
as refer to the experiment and results. 
We do this not ouly as a matter of interest 
to penmen, but in the hope that this num- 
ber of the JoDitNAL may fall into the bunds 
ul some school ofllcer in aome city, where, 
to quote from the Uoeheater report, "No 
liranch of study is so generally neglected 
and so poorly taught as writing." The 
report further says: "1 took occasion at 
an early date to seek for the cause aud. as 
far as poosihle. provide a remedy." 

Consulting reports from other cities and 
in some cases communicating directly with 
superinleudeuts, we gathered facts aud ar- 
rived at conclusions which we purpose to 
place before you as) briefly as possible. It 
ia a fact borue out by statistics that more 
than half the pupils iu our graded schools 
laud wc presume the same is true of tht 
schoolb not graded;, obtain all the iustruc 
tiliu they ever receive in school iu the pri 
mary and intermediate departments; aud a 
very large number go no farther than the 
primary grades. 

It ..eemed to me to be of paramount im- 
portance that the foundation of a good hand 
writing should be possessed bj every cliild 
ai the earliest period possible, aad I (iud. 
upon consulting the reports of former >ii 
periutcndenlb. thai they were impressed u iih 
its imporlauce to the exieul of inlroduLing 
script It ridni/ iu the lower grades, on slates 
or on pajjcr with pencil, 

This practice, however, pursued with 
short pencils, aad requiring no special in- 
struction to secure a properly made mark, 
produced a cramped method of writing 
wliich many terms of efficient drill with pen 
would not eradicate. In a word, it is im 
possilile to secure a position of holding the 
pencil that shall be especially applicable to 
pen and ink— materials which the pupils 
are supposed to know nothing about. 
With this fact impressed on our mind, we 
caevaased the subject to learn, if possible, 
if there were any way by which writing 
with pen and ink coulu be successfully in- 
troduced into the sixth, seventh and eighth 
grades. [The ninth grade is the lowest, and 
the one the child first enters at the school 
age of six years A grade represents a 

Mj attention was called to the tracing 
books of (he Spencerian system. lovesli 
gating the theory of the authors, I learned 
tha' by tracing over a script letter or word 
pruned in blue, with pen and black ink, the 
nuiid >>l ihe child would not be distracted 
ii> iiit.v lli(nii:lii of the shape of the letter 
«liil. ti\ijiL. In guin a proper knowledge of 
1" ii ii .lliiiL .Mill a careful use of pen and 
"i'' ^^I'li' I' ibe same time the muscles 

MiiiK-il !.■ iiiiiv, I |,n,|,i-ii\ formed letter. 

On >-,.■,.■.,:, :■'■ .iiM-iis of writing sent 
'" III' ': ■'■'■ ! I uilke, I found not 
only 11 -'1. ii .li\r,-.iii ..I ■styles indifferent 
sc'bools, l>ul !i L'liiii vjiriety of bands, as re- 
irurds sitipe, hIxc. spacing antl shading, in 
the same school— even where there seemed 
to be an apparent similarity in the shape of 
the letters 

With this variety before me, it seemed im- 
possible to make a proper examination, 
having any intelligent basis, by which 
leachers could be profiled iu their future 

I learned of a system of competitive 
'" ' ""- '1 writmg in use in the public 


s-as suggested that pen holding, posi 
tiou. deportment, &c.. were important 
elements of general success, and that these 
could not be reached by an examination of 
written specimens only; and as the superin- 
tendent was the only one who would be 
likely to see all the grades while at work in 
writmg he should have the privilege of add- 

ing or deducting live points (or credits) 
from the average of the grade for good or 
bad work in these particulare. • ♦ • 

Another feature was added, which was 
thought important (suggested by Prof. A. P. 
Root, special teacher of writing in the 
Cleveland public schools), i. e., that every 
teacher prepare a specimen of his or her 
writing under the same conditions as the 
pupils, to be examined with the other speci 
mens of such grade and included iu the 
making up the per cent of the srade. 

With all this material at baud, I called 
a meeting of principals aad laid the facts 
before them. Although favoring the plan, 
they asked for time to examine details, and 
after investigation and deliberation reported 

On the 12tb of December the first com- 
petitive examination, under this system, 
was held, with results in the main quite sat- 
isfactory, but particularly valuable as fur- 
nishing a basis from which lo judge our 
future success. During this test we were 
more than pleased to note the cordial sup- 
port and marked interest manifested by all 
our principals, whose expectations of a 
satisfactory result became as sanguine as my 
own ; aa interest believed to be shared by 
our teachers generally. 

/'Vr«^— By writing with pen and ink in the 
seventh and eighth grades, to have the 
pupils as well instructed iu penmanship, by 
ihe iiiuc they reach the sixth grade, aa they 
lornitrlv were on reaching tbe'fourtb grade 

.•i.vund—To send forth into the world 
from our schools at least fifty per cent more 
good writers than formerly, particularly of 
those leaving school at an early age. 

Tfiii-d— By this system of competitive ex 
amiaations, to introduce and keep alive an 
enthusiastic interest in penmanship. 

fburfh—By the supervision, under the 
superintendent, of class work, in position, 
pen-fiolding. drill and deportmtnf. to see that 
the results attained in writing are not at the 
sacrifice of other essential poTnts. 

Fourth — By requiring a specimen of the 
teachers' writing, under the same conditions 
required of pupils, not only to improve 
their own penmanship, but to euable them 
the better lo criticise the work of their 

iiixth—By the exhibit, on one sheet, of 
the standing of every grade and every 
school m the city, both in regard to the 
work done, and the manner of doing it. to 
definitely place the responsibility for inef- 
fiency, and render proper assistance orapply 

Sci'<y*r7i— Instead of writing being the 
branch of study most neglected, to estab- 
lish it as the one most successfully taught in 
our public schools. In a cily where no 
special teacher of penmanship is employed 
some iucenlive for continued effort on the 
part of principals and teachers must be sup- 
plied, in order lo keep up to a uniform 
.standard whatever interest we may be able 
aken in this important branchof public 

the greatest obstacle 

and this 

desire to' add that 

; have had lo con 


teud with has been the 

in pen-holders, ink and inkstands. 

of the schools we find pupils with their in 
dividual property, consisting of inks of all 
shades— carmine, violet, blue, black, green, 
and of no known color— contained in ves 
sels ranging from a two ounce vial to a pint 
jug; aad penholders of every conceivable 
shape and size. 

We have become impressed with the fact 
that no outlay could be made to a better ad- 
vantage than in securing uniformity of 
tools with which to accomplish our work in 

President Wile in bis retiriag address to 
the School Board, ilarch 31. ISTy, refers, in 
the following complimentary terms, to 
Superiatendent ilabbell and his efforts lo 
improve the methods of teaching writing in 
the cily. and adds valuable statistical in 
formation — valuable, as giving accurate 
instead of approximate figures : 

Manifold are the cares of which our 
efficient superintendent, A. L. Mabbett. re- 
lieves us; he has beeu uutiring in his 
efforts, uot only to fulfill the imporlaut 
trust confided to him, but in anticipating all 
that the most critical and careful could de- 
sire. He is vigilant and accommodating, 
circumspect and genial, and deserves the 
best thanks of this board and the patrons of 
our schools, whose interests he has so 
faithfully served. Through bis zealous 
ITorts, writing with pen aud ink has been 

grades, with most satisfactory resultii. I 
find on consulting the tables accompanying 
the superintendent's report, just issued, that 
there were in 'luil) ;iti. ihIuulx- in the public 
schools for tijr in^'iiili -t .Marvh. 187» (Sup- 
posed to be iiii .111 1,1-. 1 iili iyjy the yearj, 

the primary liepuiimLuL, composed of the 
ninth, eighth and seventh grades; 2,4y7 
were iu the intermediate gi'ades, viz. : sixth, 
fifth and fourth grades; while only 1,435 
were in the grammar department, compris- 
ing the third, second and first grades, or iu 
other words, of lUO pupils entering the 
primary department, only fifty-two enter 
the intermediate grade, and only uineteeu 
of the fifty two reach the grammar deparl- 
meul, showing that forty-eight per cent re 
ceive all their iuwlructiou iu the primary de- 
partmeul, aud eighty-one per ceut never go 
bevonti the inlcruieuiute grades. 

From those facts the huportance of time 
and care to be devoted to writing in the 
lower grades Will be more apparent. Too 
nuich iitlenlion ciinnol be given it. Our 
leui Im I - iiiiiu niij.illv aud collectively de- 

t alli 

3 of 

The Commiltee ou the Free Academy re- 
port the following at the same meeting 
" We recommend that writing be intro- 
duced into the scientific and classical depart- 
ments as an optional study iu each term," 
aad the commiltee on the orgaaization of 
.schools the followiag "' Owing to the fact 
that a large uumber of the pupils leave 
school before passing through the grammar 
deparments, it was deemed advisable to try 
the experiment of writing with pen aud ink 
iu some of the grades of the primary de- 
parlmeuts. which has been done with good 
results, aud your committee would recom- 
mend its coutmuance." 

It seems to us that to Rochester belongs 
the credit of organizing a plan for teaching 
and supervising writing, the most perfect 
and complete of any in the country, and the 
Penman's Art Journal can do no better 
service than scattering a knowledge of this 
improvement in primary instruction in pen- 
manship through the leagtli aud breadth of 
the land. 

Reporting: by Machinery. 

A reporting mticbiuc ut the Paris Ezposi 
tion. known as "La Machine yteuographiqu< 
Michula, "the httter being the name of its 
inventor, attracted much attentiou- The 
claims made respecting it are that after i 
fortnight 'a practice, any peraou cau take down 
iu shorthand characters a bpeech, however, 
rapidly deUvered. It is a small iustniuient, 
piauo-Iikt in form, with twenty-two keys, 
white and black, and the steuograpbic charac- 
ters are small aad impressed on slips of paper. 
Signor Michela claims to have classified all 
the sounds which the human organbOf speech 
are capable of producing, and to have so con- 
structed bis machine that it shall report with 
unerring fidehty whatever is said in German, 
French, Itahan, Spanish and English. Th« 
machine is highly ingeuious, and seems to 
have stood several practical tests aatigfac- 

How will nirtb MWiD m 

jnllowltiK dlsiMiuu n 
I nipronio rallRlOR ti 

>, bUndod wl 

The Convention. 

A niL'cilug af tbe ottlcei's and executive oom- 
luitlu'L-of tbu Uu^iiiL-ss College Teachers' uud 
I'euiiieu'tt A^aociutinu wu»lii-ld at llm Uuiuu 
Lunelle Club [t»iiiii». FliihulL'lphiu. III! April 
2.')i)i. for llif piiipust; of di-vibiug n |)ltiu uud 

40 Court street, Brooklyo. N. V., on 
or before Auguitl 1st. 1B79. 

Ruoloed. Tbal iLe editor of tlie Penuan's 
Akt JoL-BNAL is bercby requested to insert 
in tin* May iiumberof iheJoiRNAi-thecon- 
^ititiition of lliis associalioD together with 
the forejfoing resolution and to nmil » 
marked copy of tbe sume to tbe address of 
everv buaioeHs college leaclier and peotnan 
wboi^e addre>(s be may have. 

iitwhed. That tbe local conimitlee at 
Cleveland be requested to provide a room 
in whicli pupils' work aud plans of instruc- 
tion and nianugeiuent may be exhibited; and 
that the members of the convention and the 
public be informed each day of- the same. 

^ To Business College Teachers and Pen- 

' The Executive Commilt^e of tbe Business 
College Teachers' and Penmen s Association 
together with tbe general officers thereof, held 
a meeting on tbe L'5th of April at Phila- 
delphia, and decided upon au outline of 
the proceedings for the nest couveuion. 
It may be proper to say a word concerning 
whnt remains to be done. 

Of course a programme, witboiit living , . , . x, . 

«gents to cany out its features, is as utterly I -1^- the platform .as so broadened that 
worthless for pmctical purposes as the oldest Busmees College 1 .M.cbers and eum.-u 
Egyptian mummy or tbe driest skeleton found I «o"»d ^^^^^^^^ B»"»d "P'"'" '--^ -"^»^ '" 
in tbe Catacombs of Rome. Our secretary 

Articles of Association. 

Pomsinucb ns there are a large number of 
BuHiness Colleges in the United Slates with 
attendance as great as that of the Normal 
schoolu. aud as there seems to be a want of 
clearness in tbe public mind as to the mis- 
sion of thcBe colleges and tbe place they oc- 
cupy in the educational field, it is agreed by 
the following proprietors, principals and 
teachers in Business Colleges and antbors 
aud teachers of penmanship, to organize an 
association to be known as tbe 

tbe object of which fibull be to promote fel- 
lowship and fratiTuity among tbe teachers, 
to draw togflher in f;OL-i»l feeling and inter- 
oourse till- eniployirauU employed, thus giv- 
ing the employer a pei-soual acquaintanck 
with those adapted to help him in his work, 
and to the employed a personal knowledgt 
of those likely to need his services, to canvass 
and discuss methods of teaching and courset 
of study, and generally to promote the caust 
and elevate the standard of business educa- 

cures all things desirable for ourselves and 
for those for whose benefit we labor. 

I am of tbe number who consider the New 
York Convention of August last a sucoess. I 
may say a very great success — both in tbe 
spirit which prevailed in it and in the work 
it accomplished. Tbe movement at first con 
templal#d only a Penmen's Convention. 
While thus restricted in its scope some felt 
themselves not included in the invitation, who 
became earnest sympathizer 

will immediately 
have been designated 

<ai) : 

< tboi 


veue at Ulevelaud, O.. un August 5. Ther 
were present the President, S. S. Packard. 
New York: Secrelary J. E. Sonle. Phila- 
,k-I|.!,i;i, Tn.i-inL. C. Clagboru. Urouklyu, 
ami I III' I.M.I nh VI I .uiiiiiillee. L, L, Sprague 
..I Kiir-i..,, I'., iho- H. Peirce, Phila-, 
ami I! r N|M.n, . , i.f Washington. O. C, 
and yL- uililni iu pursuit of an " item," was 
also present, ll was decided that the cou- 
veutiou should be called (o order at ten 
o'cloik Tuesday, August 5lli, and continue 
its sessions four days and evenings, and that 
the e\eniscs should alternate between tbe 
diKiu^sjnii lit topics and the giving of prac- 
tical k-ssiius, as examples of tlie best modes 
uf imparting iuslruction, a liberal share of 
which should be devoted to the dillercnt de- 
purtmenls of pcmausbip. 

The evening sessions are to be devoted 
primarily to social intercourse aud the ex- 
tension of personal acquaintance among the 
luiinlierri Invitations aretobe sent at once 
to the leading represeutatives in the various 
brandu's of educaliou, to be considered, to 
prepare to lead a discussion in lliuir spe 
cialty. When responses to these invitations 
shall have beeu received the eonnuitlee 
will again meet uud eoiuplele the detailti of 
uprogmiume foi the convention, which will 
be uunounced in full iu the June uumber of 

Any one engaged in teaching or qualified 
o teach any branch of BuRiuess College ed- 

member by n 

ibership, and may 
vote of three-fourths 
at any regular raeet- 

The officers of the association shall be 
President, Vice-Presiden 
tary, and an Executive Commi 
to be elected annually and ser 
duly appointed. 

The dutiesof the President. Vice-President, 
Secretary aud Treasurer shall be such as are 
ordinarily performed by such officers. The 
Executive Committee shall have charge of 
the busmess matters of the Association, sach 
as the auditing of all bills, the revision of 
]>roceedings for publication, the calling of 
special meetings, the preparation of a pro- 
gramme of exercises for all meetings, and 
generally to perform any duty not otherwise 
provided for by these articles of auisociation. 

Meetings shall be held annually, during 
the vacation period, at such time and place 
HS the association shall have designated 
the last prcci'diug annual meeting. 

Each member shall pay annually at the 
opening of each annual meeting to the Treas- 
urer the sum of Jive doUarg. FiiUure to pay 
at or before the time specified shall have tbe 
force of an accepted resignation. 

Fifteen members shall 

In all other matter ' 
governed by the rulei 
ing's Manual." 

It will be seen that it is the purpose of 
■ he managers of the next con vent iou lohavu 
no long essays or addresses, such as con- 
siimeii a greater share of the lime iu the 
tiiiiiiLr one, but to devote the lime lo down 
ri.i;lii I'liMiiiiil and useful work, leaving the 
liuii; wmdiU docuuieuls lo be published and 
read at k-iauie. If we bad entertained a 
tloubl ol the grand aud complete success ul 
the ncxteouvcniion. such doubt would have 
beeu lully removed by the earnest and prae 
ticul action thus taken by iu managers. 

Tbe tolluwing resolutions which explain 
IhemselvBs wei-u unaninioiiBly adopted aud 
ordered to be published in the Jouknai.. 


lieaoleett. That any business college leaeh 
er or penman uf the Uuited Statesuud Cana- 
da may become a charter member of this 
a^oeiaiiou, by forwardiug the back dues 
^♦o.OOj for l87»-& to the Treasurer. C. Clag | Philadelphia, Execuli' 

Any of these articles may be amended by i 

lead iu the discussion 
( earnestly hoped that 
he will not receive one negatiee re»pome. That 
8U3h a result may follow, it will be ueccessary, 
perhaps, for a few to sacrifice t.o some extent 
peraonal interests. There is much work to be 
done at the next Convention. Topics that in- 
terest every Business College teacher, and peu- 
man will be presented, and for the interests 
of our cause must be most elaborately dis- 
cussed. Detinite action will be taken on 
very important questions concerning our call- 
ing. We want the presence of every man en 
gaged in our specialty. One of the objects of 
the Association designated by our Constitu- 
tion is the elevation of tbe staudard of busi- 
ness education. What can you do to aid in 
this worthy and eminent purpose. Harriug 
all transcendentalism, what substantial facts 
can you present to the next convention that 
will materially promote this end. If you hon- 
estly believe you cannot learn anything in tbe 
Couventiou, and persistently determine that 
you wib not impart any iuformation you may 
tainly lay yourself open to 
the charge of being a shriveled soul at least, 
hvilliug to believe that this is the 
kind of material we have in our ranks. Our 
last Convention demonstrated the fact that all 
were eager/t>r information and equally the 
fact that too few were eager to Impart infor- 
mation. There were men there who could 
have taught some specialty to every member 
of the convention had they but opened their 
mouths and clothed in words the inspiration 
within them. 

If there be any in our profest-ion who has 
lost faith in his business and respect for it, 
and therefore has no interest in the Conven- 
tion, we beseech him to make his meekest 
and most peuetential bow, quit the business 
and leave tbe work to worthier aud more de- 
serving hands ; and above all let us leave 
croaking to the raven and complaining to 
the " Moping Owl" of " yonder ivy-mantled 

To every one of fair perception it ie very 
evident that the purposes of the Association, 
as named by its constitution, impose upon 
every member no easy or trivial task. They 
call for tbe exercise of the best talent and en- 
ergy of every enterprising teacher in om- 
it is believed that the determination of 
every true Business College teacher and pen- 
man is that the next Convention and every sub- 
sequent oue shall be so thoroughly "furnished 
unto every good word and work," and the 
ends prescribed by the Coustitution so emi 
neutly attained, and tJie true mission of Busi- 
ness Colleges so clearly defined, that even tbe 
carpers own words shall smite him should he 
impeaeh their worth, or dare to assert that 
they " wear an undeserved dignity." 

L. L. Sl-RAOUE, 

Chair. Ex. Com. 
Kingston. Ph., April 29, IftTt'. 

The Cleveland Meeting. 

My Ihtir A/iie-1 : The receipt aud perusal 
of the Akt JorfiNA.1. for .\.pril alforded me 
very great satisfacpon. I was especially de- 
lighted with the spirit and scope of the article 
from a correspondent from Pennsylvania 
who contributed so largely 

baraiouy and to mutual advantage. Authors 
and teachers, not of one branch merely, but 
of all commercial studies, should consider 
themselves members one of another. Each 
succeeds best when the proper claims of all 
others are duly recognized aud respected. 

In the Cleveland meeting I trust we shall 
find just what we all need. Bookkeeping, 
correspondence, business practice, commer- 
cial law, penmanship, and any and all other 
commercial branches, and methods of teach- 
ing them as well, may here receive attention. 
Aud if it please any one better, I for one 
would be quite willmg to have penmanship- 
head the list. What seems to me essential' 
is that we should not weaken ourselves by 
divisions aud dissensions. In union le 
strength. However strong any one branchi 
may be, separate and above, it becomes 
^trouger when properly as'.-ociated with other 
needed studies, which are all required to 
secure the beat grand result. 

Anfl this association, unlike some which 
have preceded it. looks not for the protection 
of one another as a.saiust others of our clasa, 
admitting to membership proprietors only. 
On the contrary, it invites to membership 
teachers, editors and authors of commercial 
branches, as well as proprietors of institu- 
tions, and labors io promote the 
welfare of all alike. 

If for the purpose of economizing i 
shall become necessary. I see no 
why our association may uot 
While one section shall be cousideriug com- 
mercial law. another may bo illustrating sys- 
tems of penmanship, and still another some 
other branch, But even this I should depre- 
cate unless upon due consideration it should 
seem necessary and best. 

The Executive Committee will doubtless 
make suitable provision for the Cleveland 
meeting. Let us go up to it in charity and 

hope, and with ii 

things well done, and we shall doubtless all 
return to our duties wiser, and better pre- 
pared to render efficient service in whatever 
department of commercial work we aay be 


Detroit, Mich. 

L. of three-fourths of tbe members present ^j,^ ^^^ y^^^^ Convention, and wh. 

any I 


tiou of tbe hospitality of the local committee, 
of our visit to Coney Island, Jkt:.. revived 
the memory of pleasure which can eome to 
some of us only ut long intervals and which 
many can never experience, I only regret 
Brooklyn. Treasurer , aud that aU of your correapondenU do not exer- 
Pa., H. C. Spencer, cise that broad cliarity which Ihinketh no 


S S. Packard of New York, President; 
tloQ. Ira Maybew, Detroit, Micb.. Vice-Pres- 
ident ; J. E. Soule, Philadelphia, Secretjury ; 
Charles Olaghi 
L. L. Spragui 

Washington, D. C , aud Thomas May Peirce, 

evil, which hopetb for the best, and whic 
^ by provoking one another to good works a 

Mr. Hinman's Plaint Considered. 

Editor Penman's Art Journal: 

SiB: — It is well to consider fairly anything* 
that Mr. Hinman may say on any -subj*ct, oir 
at any time; for he is a man of positive vou- 
victions as well as of positive expressions. It 
is well also to remember that being human, 
Ml*. Hinman is quite as liable as other men to 
look at affairs from a single point, and thus 
fail to avail himself of all the sidC'ligbts 
which are available. 

Mr. Hinman complains, in brief, that the 
Commercial Teachers' Convention, held in 
New York last August, was, just what might 
have been expt'cted of it, a failure ; that the 
time was "gobbled up" by UusineRs College 
men, who "crowded out penmanship," and, 
in short, used the Cunvuntiou as a means of 
advertising themselves and their specialties. 
This is a bold charge, and coming, as it does, 
from one of our best kuown and self-assertive 
"Business College men, "is worth considering. 
Especially so, as until the appearance of this 
indictment the opinion was prevalent that no 
subject was mure thoroughly discussed, or 
received more respectful attention at the re- 
cent meeting, than that of penmanship. And 
it wa.s natural that such should be tbe case, 
for. lis Mr. Hinman frankly confesses, "newer 
was there a more able or skillful uumber of 
penmen together than la.xt summer." In 
fact, if it is at all true that penmen allowed 
themselves to 'serve as a Uiil" to the Con- 
vention, it must have been that kind of a tail 
which puzzled Lord Dundreary so, because it 

"wacgled the dog/'raHipr Umu being wag- 
gled by the dog- R«ftUy the Conventioo was 
ID the handx of poiimeD, and if it was not 
made to dubttt-rve their best interest* they 
havo only thoniHdlvcM to blame. It is true 
that Mr. Hiocuau'H iini^cjiialed exposition upon 
the blackboard occvirred ul the close rather 
than at the beginning or in the middle, but I 
am Bure he can blame no one for following 
thft scriptural rule of re(t<-rvin^' " the best of 
thfi wine for the lost of the feast." I doo't 
know who promoted this end. but I can well 
understand the desire any ouf might have to 
HO away with a good tiiHte in Iii« mouth. It 
wa*t, in my opiuion, a very graceful ending 
to a most satisfactory nud useful Convention; 
and it has had the effect of determining me 
to go to any convocation where there is a 
chance to bring Mr. Hinman to the black- 
board, for I consider him as among the most 
practical teaohem of penninuship to be found 
among our Business College men. 
Yours truly, 

The Writing Class. 

Handwriting is the product of arfc-proces- 
ses, which reipiire both intellectual and man- 
ual exercise Ft would not be a satisfying 
result to drill a cIbbs of pupiln to correct 
imitation only of the written charneterfi. 
We would aim rutber to help the »;cho]ar to 
build up the ideal forma of the letters in his 
own mind, nnd then to fvecnte them from hia 

owuconc'i.ti I ,i;i imnmI .11(1 hand act to- 

CcthiT, Alli'i I' I !■ ■ ■' '■ .mI totlie design 

th.' pupil n,,,,.- ,„ti, l,r. ,,,,,,.1, will be sure 
to work out of liih liuytrs in the better exou- 
tion of the letters. Intelligent effort will 
nm)( niuch higher than mere mechanical 
praetice. The menlid process will stamp the 
penmanship with some individuality and life, 
and the result will 1>l- n lit and valu»hle iu- 
strumont for the notation of thought. 

We consider it no infallible criterion of 
proKroBfi, that the last line of the copy-book 
page is better writtun than the first. The re- 
verse even may be an index of progress. En 
writing the first line of the page, the pupil's 
eye reverts more fretjuently to the copy, 
which is in greater proximity to his own wri- 
ting. He perhaps imitates more, and thinks 
Irss about the letters. As the hand moves 
downward, and the eye has to travel farther 
to the copy, he may depend more upon a 
mental picture or conception of the letters, 
and while more imperfectly executing them, 
may yet be making u genuine effort in the 
line of real progress. Let a class of attentive 
writers, after completing a given page, close 
their books and write the same copy on slips 
of paper. The result will hardly equal the 
copy-book work. The supports have been 
removed, and the effort' is consequently 

There is just sufficient aid in placing an ar- 
tistic copy at the head of the page. If the 
model was repeated on every other line, the 
pupil would gain nothiii;:^ from the proximity. 
It is frequently observed by teachers that 
wlu'U the classes in penmanship ore doing 
witisfactory work in their copy-books, their 
general writing falls far below the class aver, 
age. This is often directly attributable to a 
method of instruction, which aims merely at 
meuhanioal imitation of au engraved model, 
and entirely neglects educating the pupil's 
mind to the artistic and intellectual ooncep- 
ticm of the forms. We would place elegant 
and accurate models before the pupil, not for 
him to mechanically imitate, hut to give him 
A good style, and to render his own eouccp- 
tiou brighter and clearer. 

Text-books for class use are needed in this 
branch of education as in any other. The 
teacher will have to supplement them with 
orol instruction, hut to allogethersupply their 
place is far too onerous The text-book shoidd 
be the essential accompaniment of the copy- 
book. Marginal notes over copies, or con- 
densed text on covers, will not supply this 
want. Pupils in our pubUo schools must 
draw their main supplies from text-books. 

The previous practice on the thirt«du short 
l«tt«r6 has paved the way for the portly-ex- 

□ames of these 
r letters. The 
) nearly like the 
must know it." 
"The second 

tended, or stem letters, which only require 
broader movement. 

*■ Here is a new group of letters, children. 
for you to learn. If fournew scholars should 
come into the class, you would soon know 

each one of them. Now I wish you to look 
lit these four letters, and study them as you 
would the new scholars. If a toll boy or girl 
came into the room, you would naturally 
think, 'How tall he is!' 'What a big girl 
that is! 'because each one of you is quite 
small. The letters you have already learned 
have been short,— all but r and Jt only one 
spac« tall. How is it with these new ones?" 

"Oh! they are twice as tall"; "One of 
them is taller than twice," speaks up a little 
thinker. "You have fotmd out one point, 
that these letters are of greater height than 
the short letters. The short letters have had 
only short straight lines. How is it with the 
new group?" "The straight lines are lon- 
ger ;" "And thicker, too." "The shading, 
children, makes them thicker or heavier. 
Now, on account of the long straight line, 
tike a stem, in each one of these letters, they 
are called stem letters. 

" Let us next find out the 
new scholars, — I mean ne 
first letter is crossed, and is f 
same Italic one, I think yo 
■■ 7"' is echoed on all sides 
and the last you will know, if I cut off the 
connecting curves, thus, " /; and 7 are hap- 
pily discovered. To evolve Italic from script 
/>, I erase the first and final curves, also the 
upper part of stem, and convert the last 
part into an oval, when its prototype be- 
comes apparent. "You have gained a sec- 
ond point, to know the names iu this group. 
Let us now try and become acquainted with 
each letter." I write script ^ on the board, 
and erase all the upper half. " If I dot this 
part of t, thus, what short letter will I make 
from it?" " /" isanswered. " You see, then, 
that the lower half of ( is precisely like 1 
without the dot. We will now build ( from 1, 
but let us first remove the dot. We will start 
from the angle at height of one space, and 
carry the right-curve up on main slant to 
height of two spaces. We will now make 
the straight line downward, and by means of 
the shade combine it with the upward curve, 
so that both will form a single line as far as 
the angle. If now I cross the stem with the 
straight line. thus, we shall have a perfect /. 
The lines on which you write are horizontal, 
and the cross of £ lies in the same direction, 
and is therefore horizontal. About how far 
below the top is the cross?" " One-half a 
space " " You begin t at base with the right- 
curve, and from height of one space make 
the curve on main slant to height of two 
spaces ; press the pen gently aud evenly for 
a square shade at top, and combine the down, 
ward straight line with the upward right- 
curve, to height of one space ; continue the 
main line nearly to base, add a short turn find 
final upward curve, aud finish with the cross. 
You gradually lessen the pressure on the pen, 
to gradually lessen the shade downward to the. 
turn. This gives a graceful look to the tetter, 
and pleases the eye. If ttie long curve went 
clear up on connecting slant, the letter would 
lean way over, or else have a loop in it." — 
illustrating both faidts, and drawing com- 
ments from the class. 

I build up d from fi. in a similar manner, 
and point out its analogy to t in the slant of 
long right-curve, the shade of stem, and the 
blending of the two extended lines above 
height of one space. The critical point in 
each letter is the change of slant in the extend- 
ed curve Next comes p. a simple letter, 
but extended both above and below the base. 
Une. "Now, children, let os analyze, or take 
to pieces, this letter. Suppose we cut it iu 
two places, at top ami at hn^^r line, close to 
the stem. We ■ilmll ili- n |j,i\. throe parts, 
which I will writ* ^' |'ii:it. ]y Vn'i may name 
these parts." .\ n.. ill' y of ■ Uight-curve," 
"Straight line," aud " Third principle," fol- 
lows. ■ ■ These three partsare joined in angles. 
When you write p. you must skint the first 
curve a little less all the way up from base, 
because you want to keep the angle open clear 
to top. like this. When you write the last 
half of stem, you must prvs-s gradually a 

little more on the pen all the way down, be- 
cause p ends with a square shade, thus. Next, 
lift the pen, and begin right close to stem on 
the base-line, and complete the letter with the 
third principle. The last part of p is just 
like the last part of two short letters. Do 
you know what letters?" A murmur of "p" 
and "m," by eager voices. The decreased 
slantfrombase of first curve in p is apparent, 
if compared with that of the final curve. 
This is the critical point in the letter. We 
next write small a on the hoard, and erase 
from it the last part, or first principle, in or- 
der to build Q from the remaining part.. The 
main straight line is continued downward 
nearly a space and a half, and combined in a 
narrow turn with a slight double curve, which 
is on main slant to base, and ends hko first 
curve of n. It will be seen that t, ", and n 
form the ground-plan of the stem-letters. — 
Primary Tenrher. 

Dead Beats. 

Editor Art Jour-nttf 

Deab Sir — I send you herewith two postal 
cards lately received, asking for specimens of 
penmanship "direct from the pen," anil 
" not made by h printer." Evidently the 
writers are making collections ; certaiuly 
they are levying contributions. I have seen 
five of the Fort Madison, Iowa, cards, and 
several from Mexico, Mo. Now, since your 
labors ore very light as editor, publisher, 
artist, Ac, Ac, why can't you sei-ve these 
parties? With your well-known skill in oli- 
hand flourishing, I feel certain that one hour 
a day of work faithfully devoted to these 
men would supply their wants. Y011 would 
thus estahhsh what mit;ht be styled a free 
labor bureau, aud all apjilicants would know 
where to write ! What say yoil ? 

C. E. Cady. 

The following are verbatim copies of the 
postal cards inclosed by Mr. Cady : 

Fort Madison, Iowa. 

Dear Sir: Four of us are going to start to 
some first-class book-keepinc; and pen school. 
Yours has been highly recommended to us. 
Will you make a reduction, if so, bow much ? 
We want you to send us your latest circular 
aud a specimen of your plain and off-hand 
flourishing such as is taught at your college, 
and nob-made by some printer. 
Very respectfully, 

Signed . 

Mexico, Mo.. April 4, Ifi.H. 

Dear Sir: Three of us contemplate enter- 
ing Biisine^s College soon and exptct to 
make ornamental penmanship and book 
keeping a special study. What reduction 
will there be for a club of three ? Snnd 
specimen of your pen work direct from the 
pen, and not an engraved specimen. 

Another correspondent sends the following 
communication ; 

A number of leading Business College 
Principals report to the Jouknai, that they 
have frequently been annoyed hy applica- 
tions on postal cards like the above, copies 
of which he also incloses. 

Such commuuicatious are justly regarded 
as emanating from "Dead Beats," who 
simply seek to obtain the resiUts of profes- 
sional labor and skill without compensation. 
The "three or more students" who seek in- 
etruction are, of course, myths. 

Auy one who really wants handsome 
specimens of ornamental penmanship should 
be willing to enclose at least one dollar as 
compensation for the work." 

We know of a large number of persons 
besides those mentioned in the above com- 
munications, who have received postal cards, 
having the same identical words. These 
writers evidently belong to quite a numer- 
ous class of frauds and " dead beats" which 
seem to atflict every community by earnestly 
seeking to get "something for nothing." 
They appear in all forms, the more courage- 
ous take to highway robbery, burglary, 
picking pockets. &,c., while the more coward- 
ly choose the safer course of becoming "con- 
fidence men." It requires eternal vigilance 
and considerable shrewdnesB to escape beoom - 
ing a victim in some manner of these human 
vultures. — Ed. 

Oar Freminm List. 

Do not fail to read our list of premiums in 
xUejirnt column of the fimrth page — and if 
you do not want any of those, send for our 
list of special cash preininms. Every reader 
of the .louKNAi. ought to pet up a club to 
begin with this number or vol. iii. They 
will thereby hc;p usand thi-liiselves. and doa 
favor to each subscriber by securing to him 
tlie best teacher and advocate of writing in 
the world. 


There is very little use in making to-day 
cloudy because to-morrow is Ukely to be 

Don't worry over the little ills of life. It 
is like swinging a sledge hammer to kill a fly. 

Some people are willing to be good if they 
are well paid for it, and others are good for 

A bad boy becomes a had man about as 
easily and almost as inevitably as a tadpole 
becomes a frog. 

There ore many folks iu the world who still 
pray. " Good Lord, good devil," because they 
do uot know into whose hands they may fall. 

The immaculate purity of poUtics ia indi- 
cated in the Buffalo Exprenn by the the mod- 
ern mottoof office holders, " United we steal, 
divided we can't." 

If the scandal about you is true your bet- 
ter way is talk yourself nearly to death in or- 
der to convince men that it is false. If it is you can afford to keep still aud allow it 
to die of its own poison. 

Dr Talmage divides the world into three 
parts — First, himself, second, those who think 
his telegi-ams perfectly honest; and third, 
the " villains or fools," as he calls them, who 
dare to think him dishone^it. 

Fortune very closely resembles aoy young 
girl who IK playing a young man as he would 
play a trout. If she finds that you have the 
pluck to be indifferent she is apt to bestow 
her smiles, but if she sees that she can hrenk 
your heart she will do it just for the pleasure 
of mending it again. 

Have you ever noticed the fact that there 
are a good many imperfect men iu the world? 
Some are underdone, some overdone, and 
some, like Ephraim in the Scriptures, are "a 
cake not turned." They ore done brown on 
one side and all dough on the other. Perfect 
men, like angels, are seen only at rare inter- 
To very few of us will these verses apply, 
if each one judges for himself ; but to many 
more will they apply, if others judge for 

Raid vain Andrew Soalp, my luitlals, I gueu, 
Are ImowD, ho I sign all ray pooin§ A. S. 

Fnr tliafs telUng only two-tblrda of tUe truth. 

How much truth there may be in this story 
we caunot tell, but it certaiuly affords oppor- 
tunity for thought: — "Jennie, what makes 
you such a bad girl?" said a fretful mother. 
The child had inherited genius, if not virtue, 
for she rtjilied, with a voice as crisp as an ap- 
ple tart. ■■ Well, mamma, God sent you just 
the best child that was left, and if she don't 
suit you I can't help it!" 

If you wish to investigate the peculiarities 
of au infuriated indigestion just indulge in 
the luxury of a Welsh rarebit before retiriqg. 
In the course of a couple of hours you will 
be driving through a Russian forest with a 
pack of wolves at your heels, aud your jour- 
ney will end hy a tumble over a precipice 
several thousand feet high, with jutting crags 
here and there, against every one of which 
you hit in your descent. Nature teaches re- 
spect for her laws hy introducing us to a vi- 
vid panorama of that kind every time we dis- 

Thincs ore great ov small according to the 
end of the microscope through which you 
look. Some people manage to look at their 
troubles through the upper end. andso incoa- 
tineutly magnify them, ond at their good for- 
tune through the lower end, and so minimize 
them. The story is told of a man of science 
who looked at a mite taken from an old-fash- 
ioned Stilton, and who was in turn looked 


I, eettiuR n proper aigbt, t 

While the philosopher was looking down 
the mite looked up, and his reflections are 
also worth attending to, together with the 
moral which the poet deduces : — 

Skid tbo mlto *8 be ■quinted Ibroiigbit; 
" Uan is not eo wondrously big, after »]], 


If from thp coDventioo upnn such grounds, 
enmen will i.rednminnle. and penmanship 
il! he ronspiruons upon the profrraaime of 
IP ronvcntion. Wp say ppnmen will pre 
fiominate. from the fart tbtit a ven,- large 
ajf-rily of the proprietors of Business 
olleges are profepsional penmen, they and 
her penmen in their employ ronstitute an 
overwhelming majority, not only of the 
ention, but of all the really skillful 
teachers and nrnficiert penmen in the cnun- 
and because most of these are inter- 
I in other commercial branches will 
detract nothing from their standing and in- 
terest in the convention a< penmen, hence a 
convention of commercial teachers must be 
essentially an assembly of penmen 

We anticipate, as there certainly should 
be, a large convention. No teacher, author 
or penman specially interested in any branch 
of commercial educstion can afford to be 
absent, fircat good has come out of the as- 

of authors and t 

branches of pduci 

1 this 


Ts in other 
phy should 

iich injured 

Businesw Collegt 

their own petty ' 

which has led many proprietors to always 

speak contemptuously or disparagingly of 


This is equally true of 
penmen There has been wanting that ac 
quaintance. mutual respect, co-operation 
and sympathetic feeling existing among 
other teachers and most other professions. 
These annual gatherings, should they lead 
only to a more general and extended ac- 
quaintance, wovild he highly advantageous, 
but when we consider that here Oreek 
meets Rreek, not only to measure swords. 
hut to render more keen their blades and 
themselves more agile in theiruse, we can- 



exaggerate the lo; 


and cha 

NEW YORK, MAY, 1879. 

The Business College Teachers' and 
Penmen's Convention. 

Rut lilllr mnrp tlijin three months will 
lapse before the time aptmintecl for the 
meeting of the next Commercial Teachers' 
and Penman's Oonvention at Cleveland. 

1 of last 
lorc of a s 

Although the cnnventi 
was as much and perhaps 
than the most sanguine of 
dared to hope for. yet there is ample mom 
for. and should be, a marked improvement 
in the next, the experience gained and per- 
sonal acquaintance therein formed will 
alone serve to greatly enhance the interest 
in and sviccess of the next convention. 

Tho members of the former one came to- 
gether principally as strangers, iuexpe 
rienced in conventions, without organiza- 
tion or any well matured plan of procedure, 
at ft point so uncentral as to deter many 
of our extreme Western and Southern 
brethren from attending. In the next, will 
assemble largely acquaintances and friends, 
at » point central and convenient of access, 
well organixed. and under tho direction of 
experienced and able officers, who will be 
sure to present a well matured and inviting 
programme of eicrciscs. We^ therefore, 
can pn'dict nothing hut a grand and 
brilliant .success, one that shall impart 
new dignity and honor to the important 
educational iotenssts therein represented. It 
may be urged hy some penmen that this will 
not he essentially a penmen's convention be 
cftuse other commercial branches will be 
equally and perhaps more numerously n-p 
resented. We trust that no penman will 
make so great a misL-ike as to absent him- 

pbs fire as varied a= are the phy 
R or drese of their authors Taste 
Mer are about as much indicated 
hy lb'' one as the other Persons who exer 
cise good taste in dress and other respects 
will usually write a tasty and legible autn 
crraph; upon the other hand, had taste or 
special eccentricity of character will seldom 
fail to manifest itself in a person'^ auto- 

Many persons ape their heroes not only in 
dress, manners ai 
their autojrraphs. 
we have been able to recognize and name 
the ma'ter from the pupil's autocraph We 
also often meet with nuloirrnphs which 
plainly indicate ibr writer's admiration for 
that of some celebrated and popular per- 
sonage. The celebrated signature nf .John 
Hancock upon the Declaration nf Independ- 
ence has been an ideal autotrraph to many 
an aspiring voung writer, who. by 

Pen Paralysis. 

Frequently persons who write rapidly 
irioE long periods of time are afflicted 
ith a numbness or paralysis of the fingers 
at are m contact with the holder, which 
affection frequently extends to the wrist 
arm to such an extent as to utterly in- 
capacitate persons for writing. This p).r- 
s has been attributed to various cau-'^es 
chief among which has been the supposed 
electrical effect resulting from the use of a 
steel pen and steel tipped holder: by some, 
to the exhaustion of the muscles of the fing- 

Our own observation leads us to believe 
that there are two principal causes : First— 
The use of a pen-holder which is too small 
necessitates a tight gr'p of the fingers up- 
on the holder to keep it in a proper posi 
tion, thereby subjecting the muscles in con 
(act with the holder, l6 a severe and con- 
stant compression, which prevents a proper 
circulation of blood, producing first numb 
ness and then paralysis. Sfroiui — The over- 
taxing of the muscles from too long, rapid, 
and laborious exercise necessary to execute 
writing rapidly with the finger movement. 
We have yet to learn of any one using a 
large sized pen-holder and writing with the 
muscular movement being in any way af 
flicted with pen paralysis. 

atcd i 



The grotesqne ■Spinner" .autograph is 
often met with, while the plain, unpre- 
tending "A. Lincoln" autOErraph is often 
seen Yet it is apparent thnt the great of autn'j-npl,- -ir-.^ \ Mrri by the 

taste, habit ami . ' , ■ n- nr char- 
acter of their '■-■■ ■ ■ th^Tcfnre. 
strikincly ch)ir!\i 1. I, .-1 1. -h..m\,> in all the 
world alike, or more resembling each other 
than do the persons and characters of their 

Many business met 
tain marked and ecci 
signatures, supposing 

contrary. Especially 
they are executed n 


p led to adopt eer- 
ie forms for their 

often quite to the 
this the fact when 

a slow or drawn 

movement. Such marked peculiarities 
easily imitated by an expert, and thereby 
become all the more deceptive. Tho odd 
hieroglyphics used by Spinner are 
easily imitated by any expert, while the 
graceful and masterly off-hand signature of 
John Hancock is well nigh inimitable. Sig- 
natures gracefully written with a rapid off- 
band mov.-mont -are most difficult of all to 

L good hond-writuig opens many 

Business Writing. 

The term "•business writing" is c 
used as if it were something distinct from 
other writing, which, to a certain extei 
true, certainly, as distinguished from the 
set, stiff hand of a school boy or of that 
of most persons having a limited practice. 

What we understand by a "business 
hand " is a flowing, easy compact style, 
legible and entirely without any superflui- 
ties If there is one thing more than an- 
other abhorred by is careless 
sprawling letters obscured by superfluous 
lines. The tendency in all business writing 
is to make the very simplest forms of letters 
possible, using such forms of letters, so far 
as is practicable, as are made continuously 
without raising the pen. What is known as 
business writing results from large and ex- 
tensive practice, by which the hand has 
been so exercised and disciplined, that, 
from the mere force of habit, it repeats 
with almost unerring precision all the forms 
and details of writing; and it is quite nat 
ural that where speed and legibility are of 
paramount consideration, as they are in 
business, that all diflicull. complex and un- 
necessary forms should be avoided, and 
that those selected, from being so often 
repeated, should take on that air of ease, 
grace and uniformity which characterizes 
what is known as good business writing. 

Writing" in Public Schools. 

That writing is the most miserably 
taught of any branch in our public schools. 
is always conceded without a question, 
hence it is with pleasure that we hail any 
plan that is calculated to improve the 
method and efficiency of teaching it. 

Some months since we published the de- 
scription of a plan originated and practiced 
in the public schools of Newark, N. .1., 
which, at that time, appeared to us to be 
the best we had known. Since then the 
same plan, with some improvements, 
been adopted in the schools of Roche.' 
N. Y., where it is said to have prove 
marvel of success. We certainly ad 
all superintendents of writing and of 
city schools to read carefully the ab- 
stract, given in another column, from the 
report of Superintendent of Schools in 
Rochester, setting forth the plan and com 
menting upon its success. 

Hospitable Reception. 
The officers and executive commmittee of 
the Business College Teachers' and Pen- 
mens' Association, who met on the 35th 
ult. in Philadelphia, will remember long, 
and with pleasure, the more than generous 
hospitality extended to Ibem by Messrs. 
.T. E. Soule, President of the Bryant and 
Slnittun Bu.>»iness College, and Thomas 
H. Peirce. President of the Union Business 
College; their courteous generosity did 
honor eyen to the City of Brotheri/ Love. 

A New Book of Alphabets. 

We now have in the bands of the binder, 
and which will be in readiness to mail rn 
or after May .ith. a new book of alphabets. 
It comprises thirty-four 7x11 pages, giving 
thfrtp-four complete alphabets, with mono- 
crams, borders, topographical signs and 
miscellaneous lettering, also instruction for 
the use of India ink. transferring. <fcc. It is 
specially adapted to the use of penmen, ar- 
tists, architects, painters, engravers, &c.. 
sent post-paid on receipt of $1.50- See cut 
giving specimen letters from a portion of 
the alphabets on page seven. We believe 
this to be the best and most comprehensive 
work on lettering ever offered at so low a 

Special Attention 

is invited to a report of the proceedings of 
a preliminary meeting of the officers of the 
Business College Teachers' and Penmen's 
Convention in another column It is to be 
hoped that a large number of the active 
teachers and authors of practical education 
will respond favorably to the invitation 
therein extended to become charter mem- 
bers, and to the invitation which will be 
given by the secretary to take an active 
part in the proceedings of the Convention. 
Every Business College in the United States 
and Canada should he represented, and 
every author and teacher of writing should 
be present in the Convention. 

Prosperity of the Journal. 

During the month of April we have re- 
ceived the largest number of new subscrib- 
ers to the JoiiKNAL of any one month dur 
ing its existence. Tbi-s is undoubtedly large- 
ly owing to the desire of many to begin 
their subscription with the very practical 
course of lessons begun In that number by 
our associate, Professor Kelley. We are con- 
fident that the interest thus manifested will 
be sustained to the end of the course, and 
all interested abundantly rewarded by the 
praclical instruction therein given. 

"The Album of Pen Art," 
which is a worthy successor to the Pen- 
man's Help, published by Will Clark, Toledo, 
Iowa, comes to us in fine style. The new 
heading, which is photo-engraved from a 
pen drawing by F. W. H, Wiesahahn, of St. 
Louis, is very artistic, while the whole 
paper is filled with interesting and well 
chosen matter. Its editor charges the Jour- 
nal with unfriendliness, in which he is en- 
tirely mistaken. We wish the AUmm, as 
we certainly did the Help, the most abun- 
dant success, and hope it will long be a 
regular visitor to 

Crall's Patent Drawing Verifiers. 

We invite the attention of our readers to 
Crall's Patent Drawing Verifers. advertised 
in another column; having examined them, 
we are very favorably impiesfed with their 
utility, and believe any one interested in 
teaching or studying drawing, will fiud one 
dollar, the price of a set, sent to E- L. Crall, 
No- 9 Cooper Institute, well invested. 

Elegant Penmanship. 
During a visit recently to Philadelphia, 
we had the pleasure of inspecting several 
specimens of professional pen work execu- 
ted by Prof. H. W. Flickinger. at Soule's 
Business College, which for delicacy of fin- 
ish and real artistic effect are rarely 

Davids' Inks. 


nted I 

the adv 

Thaddeiis Davids' Ink Company, whose inks 
have a world wide ci-lebrlty. Their jet 
black school ink is thf liesl in use. 

Twenty-eight Numbers 

of the .Tot-UN.\L for $3. All numbers from 
and inclusive of the September number, 
1878, and the advanced numbers to January, 
1880. with the "Lord's Prayer '* as a pre- 
mium, will be seat for $2. 

Art EdacatiOD. 

^*ntr 11 

may have brai 

coofiider^d as vast 
Such a body 
>l have a heart. 
ItH life :r incapable of the fientimflnt quoted 
above, thotigh a poetic tmth, id " but n dead 
loiter to such a body." It can only •>*■ 
ed by appeals to its national interests — to 
RtibjectR thai directly influence its acres, its 
coffers or its hattalionfi. It is wisest then, 
to address it in this light. Our nation is like 
ft young giant, overflowing with misdirected 
energy. I( is exptndinR its Herculean force 
\u the most prodigal manner. It can un- 
weariedly travel immense distances, and 
rarrj- heavy burdens. It is like the brave, 
but youthful son of Ulys'vPg, in need of n 
mentor to guide his head and direct his steps. 
By enslaving of the forces of nature it has 
nearly '•mancipated human muscle. It« 
labor-saving machinery is now mostly direct- 
ed to increasing the quantity of mnnufactured 
produefs. ralher than the improvement of 

It doi!6 not BuflSciently appreciate the fact 
that the value of its products ie lowered by 
iiicrpaKed quantity and raised by improved 
q»iality. And on this point it needn instruc- 
tion. The quality of it can be improved oidy 
by increased skiU. Such skill is the result 
of artistic culture. As a nation, we produce, 
handle and export mostly raw products. The 
value of these raw products is infinitely in- 
creased by artistic skill. In the markets of 
the world nide manufactures cannot compete 
with those embodying skill and taste 

The cost of transporting a bale of the raw 
product ■■cotton" to market is as great as it 
woidd be if skilled labor bad transformed it 
into the same weight of the finest muslin or 
embroidery. But what a difference in the 
value. We send to foreign markets the 
products of nide labor, and exchange tbeni 
for those embodying skill and taete Hom 
greatly would it coutribute to our nattrial 
advantage if this condition of things could be 
changed. Taking the article cotton alone 
how vastly would it increase our national 
wealth if all that could be exported be trans 
formed into the finest tissues and fabricb by 
the employment of skilled labor in its manu 
facture Some figures, which, it is said 
never lie. might be given to demonstrate 
this Suppose, for instance, we cite the ex 
ample of France. By the employment of 
educated skill and taste her manufactured 
products have long maintained a world wide 

Answers to Practical Questions of Laat 

1. Writing is simply the art of forming 
letti'rs and words with a pen or pencil; whil. 
penmanship includes everything necessary 
execute all kinds of pen work, lettering, 
flourishing, designing, engrossing, Ac. 

2. The muscular movement 
powerful movement in writing. 

3. Culpable indifference, laziness and down- 
right carelcsBiiess. in nineteen out of twenty 
ca^es, prevent writing a good hand. 

4. Legibility of writing may be spoiled by 
making the letterK too small. 

.'.. Th« most important things whiobsho-ild 
bo thoroughly learned before the pupil c«n 
liopp to attain any great degree of exoelleuco, 
are positiou. manner of holding the pen and 

i;. In writing, the bend of the body should 
be made at the hip- the center of gravity. 

7, The feet should be placed firmly on the 
fliior, that a sure and solid basis may be es- 

t^. To trar^ over a correct copy ia more im- 
portant for a kegitiner than to tkUtem from 

9. Prof. E. G. Folsom, of the Albany 
Business CoUege, first introduced obiryth- 
mograpby into hie classes in penmanship. 
Ohirythmography is a 
means of the metrouoi 
n pendulum set in mot 

any letter will be spoiled 
■ by not having it corres 

11 Tbf- dre=«^of 
by zigzag slopes, o 
pond to its angle t< 

12. Small letters should receive much more 
attc-utioii than capitals, because they are 
used more. They should always be carefully 
and smoothly formed. 

13. The slant of 30' is called the connec- 
tive slant, because most of the downward 
strokes in the small letttrs are connected 
by it. 

14. Turns are connectiDg links between 
the principles. 

1.1. Practice in penmanship gives facility 
and accuracy to execute lettere readily and 

Ifi. Writing should not be taught merely 
for the purpose of copying, but for the em- 
bodiment of our thoughts. 

17. The different classes of lettera are dis- 
tinguished from each other by the kind of 
curves which compose them. 

Ifi. (lood shading maybe secured in the 
capital stem by turning the band well over to 
the left and bringing both points of the pen 
squarely to the paper, with the slope of the 

W. The 

in point of fact they are not so instructed, 
and it has already become a question as to 
who is responsible for the failure. 

Here we find one of 'he four fundamental 
branches of our school system, so taught and 
practiced that the acquirement of a good bus- 
iness handwriting at school is scarcely con- 
sid.-red as within the rnnge of possibility. 

Teachers freely admit their inability to in- 
struct in writiug successfidly. however pro- 
ficient they may be in other studies, while 
iperinteiidents and parents 
lal the ac- 

have long n-astd to regard as 
knowledged fact that penmanship i 
fully neglected branch. 

If we are able to discover so 
causes tending to produce this, we 
thods of practice 

I shame- 

caiTied t 
In th( 

light i 

first place, then, experience has 
proved to me beyond a doubt, that any scholar, 
willing to practice, and possessing sufficient 
capacity to learn the other branches, can cer- 
tainly be taught to urite a plain, uniform and 
reasonably rapid style of penmanship. 

The ability to combine with the essentials 

I named, the additional elements of graceful 

all letters comprise theprincipal ' form and artii^tic finish may not be so clearly 

body of aU writing. | within the reach of aU, but as these are pri- 

20. The smaU <• is used more than any ' marUy of less importance, this feature of mx- 

other letter in the alphabet provement may be safely left to become the 

21 Thf letter J is used more than nuy natural outgrowth of future practice, espec- 

other of the capitals. jaUy when based upon a correct knowledge 

ting the truth of this, it cinnot 
expected that scholars who ba' 
taught to pay the slighu 
could suiceed : and yet we find that by actual 
test not more than five per cent of the schol- 
ars in public schools do hold the hand and 
pen in correct form, or in a position which 
micbt render it possible even for them to ac- 
quire the movements or command of hand 
necessary for good writing. 

Having the position right to begin with, a 
correct foundation for successful practice is 
secured, and by the use of exercises properly 
arranged and graduated, it is by no means 
difficult to develop and firmly establish the 
free natural movements, and through this drill 
and discipline to obtain an almost perfect 
control of the ouscles of the hand and arm 

With this 


for practice, 
the rest comes naturally enough, for if we 
have rommand of hand there can be no real 
diflSculty in forming the lettera. 

The recognized success with which Busi- 
ness Colleges have taught penmanship is due 
directly to the fact that they have always fol- 
lowed this method of tuition. 

The managers of these institutions have 
quite generally been fine penmen, and having 
learned by experience the value of position 
and movement, Lhcy have invariably made it 
a condition and insistrd upon it in practice ; 
for by adopting this method they were not 

Writing is a science, because it adm 
of analysis almost as complete 
tbmetic, geometrj' or algebra. 
23. Writing is akin to music, because it 

People who write poorly themselves are 
apt to find fault with poor writing. 
When they write, their work is often so care 
lessly executed as to puzzle an expert to deci- 
pher its meaning ; and when they receive a 
poorly written document themselves they 

2h. Every teacher of this important branch 
should desire to see the cause of penmanship 
promoted— to stand by it every time— and if 
he is willing to do his part, he will help to 
dispel the prejudices which yet prevail too 
much ogainst it ; and hasten the time when a 
true knowledge of penmanship will be re- 
cognized by all classes as a necessary part of 
every person's education. 

Penmanship in the Public Schools. 

The sub] 
schools is a question to be regarded I think, 
light which recognizes writiutt as an iin 

of the foundation principles. I conolMde, 
therefore that it is not the fault of scholars 
that they do not learn. 

Named in the order of their importance as 
well as natural sequence, instruction in pen- 
manship may be classified under four head- 
ings ; Position, Movement, Formation, Ar- 
rangcmeut; and any method of tuition | 
which fails to reeognize this order in practice, i 

nil no 

rilv eithei 




The rapid easy and graceful movements oi 

the pen, so indisptnsible to good writing, de 

pend almost entirely upon the position of tht 

hand and arm ; in fact the manner of bold 

iug and conducting the pen is of such impor- and although 'the period of ii 
Unce that with rare exceptions all efforts to , essary 

acquire a good style of penmanship without ; time is given to writiug would be longer still 
especial attention to this puint are practically as the principle of tuition is correct, the same 

only able to '"btain much better results, the 
actual time and labor required in teaching 
being greatly diminished, 'but in addition it 
was found that pupils who were properly in- 
fiti-ucted thus far, rarely failed to become pro- 

There are no valid objections, no especial 
difficulties to overcome, which should prevent 
a successful application of this highly ap- 
proved method of hand training and move- 
ment drill in any school where writing is 
taught, while it is clearly evident that a sys- 
of teaching, which wherever applied has 
iformly successful, could not well 
plish a change for the better; 

s where only a fractioo of the 

01 of teaching by ; portant and useful branch, rather than a. 
letrouome. an instrument with j artistic accompUshment 
... motmn by clock work, to 1 Writing is essentially good if it is done 
t4S.) ^P-cenan Key. page I ;„,, ,.„i,,,^,y ^„, ^^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

in n». ««..* «* «. ■ I. . tpu-stion that scholars have the riohtto ex 

I abled to become thus qualified at least? 

a waste of time and material ; 
an attempt to teach the application of a 
theory not yet acquired, the results in prac- 
tice must be mainly of an unsatisfactory 

It IS a fact I believe, that every penman or 

teacher of penmanship who has become re- 

of penmanship in the public ^"5" P'ofi^'itut in this art, has held the hand 

and ppii in substantially the mmt position, 

my personal oh 

conditions in practice would ultimately pro- 
duce the same results. 

It cannot be expected, I presume, that every 
teacher will, or should be required to write a 
Ily con-t b,.n.J. hnw...,,r advantageous 


tion that if tli',^.-- Lavinv; 
or departiut-iits where wri' 
fully understand the nature 
standard position, did have 
Itdge of the various mov 
ibined with the ability 1 

acquaintance with nearly all the leading 'J'"'"'* f""" the development of such 

vnu be little qucs. 
rhiirge of Nchoolfl 
ing is taught did 
and value of the 
a practical kuow- 
!mvnts required, 
iggest suitable 

of this country for a period of < 
wenty years has not in a single instance dis- 

It may appear tbereforp that with them a 
orreet position of the hand has been deemed 
u e&Ge&tial condition of success, and admit- 

aud >n addit 

t thn 

■ tlior- 

iij^hly trained 
surc..6sful practice, the results would iiotouly 
he far more satisfactory, but, what is Ktillbet- 
tei a very large percentage of the scholars 
so instructed would ultimately become pro- 
ficient peumen.—School BntUtin 

Se»^ lt^J|6-^AfcfI/xJi;,Lj,^_v^jRg^^ 

Writing Lesson. 

this regard i 

' the 

The following exercises arc de^icncd to 
Hid ID the further development of the finger, 
lar iind rombincd 

of uniformity 

greater impcrfectioDS of writiafr. If writ 

inghe more nearly liorizontal than 45^^ it 

becomes less legible, or entirely illegible. 

and. if more than GO", is more difficult of 


The alphabet of small letters may hnve 
three divisions, o** follows:— fonfrflz-divili-t 


cxerrise should be made to extend | 
he pace, iitid -thould be practiced 

— .:„..^... I..t«i.«l mntrATnar^t of thC | 

The above is mainly nn example of ellipli 
ml movement of the forearm, used in the 
formation of many of the capital letters. 

should be used 
in formin;* rhe letters of the above exercise, 
while the line encircling them should be 

The combined and the mnscular move 
mcnts should alternate in the practice of the 
above exercise, which is rendered somewhat 
difBcult in consequence of repeated change 
of direction. 

Having thoroughly practiced all the exer 
ciscs of the previou't lesson, together with 
Iho-^e given ab^we. uotil a fair degree of ac- 
curacy and uniformity with freedom of 
movement havu been secured, we are pre- 
parod to examine, more critically, the forms 
wc iirr cxprrled to imitate. Tliese. at first, 
should be simple and brief. 

The Utters of our alphabet are made from 
the fnlli.wiu',' forms which are called princi- 
plfi, !in<l ore designated by numbers as seen 
in the illustration. 

They are also named in their order, the 
otraight line., the right curve, the Uft fiurw, 
the extended hop. the capital 0, the invert^fd 
rtriT^ and the enpital Bt«m. 

The Ill-it four are formed by combinations 
of the fir t three, as are all conceivable 
forms iu penmnnship or uny department of 
art. These tliidc lines may therefore be 
diinominatfd the primary elements of writing 
or art delineation. 

In order to understand the proper inclina- 
linn or slant of the principles as applied in 
writing, we introduce the following dia- 

representing a quarter circle in which the 
main slant and connective slant are given. 

As every circle regardless of size is sup 
posed to be divided into 300^, a quar- 
ter circle will represent 90". Slant is 
reckoned from the horizontal or base line. 
The general or average slant of iheprincipnl 
pans of letlers being 52°. and the cnn 
ni'i-tivf -liuil or slant of Hues connecting 
(lo\M\\v:ii.l -link ■• of the letters, or letters 

extended, d. p, 7, ( : exttnded \cX\tTS., h.f, g,h, 
j, f,-, I. lonii n. y, I. 

The horizonla! line to which letters ex- 
lend downwanl and upon which some por- 
tion of nearly all letters may be said to rest 
is called the h/tM line. 

The horizontal line to which the contract- 
ed letters extend upward is called the fie/td 

The horizontal line reached by the ex- 
tended letters above the base line is called 
tUv iipii'i •rt4ntiion, nnd the horizontal line 
u> which ihr extended letters reach below 
tlif liii.-if linr is tailed the loieer extennion. 

Tbc-^i- horizontal lins may all be real, or 
all iniiiginiiry, but are usually imaginary. 
e.vrcpt tin- base line. 

Before attempting an imitati()n of the 
forms of the letlerswbich follow, ^\»-* \.\\ a\ 
tention should hi- given to sonn ■' , 
generfil clmraeleristics. All stu.iP 
except *. o and » have stniiglit linis uhj, i, 
are of the uniform slant of 52" and are mmi' 

Ihese straight lines are connected witii 
right or left curves, or with both by short 
turns of one-sixth of a spar'e in length, 
equally apportioned to the two lines thuji 
connected These turns are seen at extrem- 
ities of letters or parts of letters, and are 
nearly always of the same size and degree of 
curvature. Wlien found at the upper extrem- 
ities of letters they are called upper turns, 
and when found at the lower extremities of 
letters are called lower turns. By nothing 
is greater uniformity of slant and regularity 
of form maintained than by strict attention 
to the direction of the straight lines and the 
formation and position of the upper and 

In the following analysis and description 
of the small letters, alphabetical order has 
given place to similarity of form. progres,s- 
ing as far as may be from simple forms to 
more complex. 

The small letter * is formed 

\yfy_ by a right curve beginning 
at the base line and extending on a con- 
nective slant to the bead line, where it 
joins angularly with a straight line rln^rr n't 
ing on main slant to the base lim. iini i- 
with a lower turn to a curve rM-iin,. 
parallel to the first curve and in ihr >niiii 
height. The dot is placed at twic- lb.' 
height of the straight line, and in the direc- 
tion of its slant. This letter is tht unit of 

_^ ^-^ The letter" maybe considered 
^^^^^'=^— ,is two rs united, with dots 
omitted and the terminating line of tlie first 
formmg the initial line of the second. The 
distance between the two straight lines 
measured horizontally is a unit of wi 
anil is three-fourths as great as a iiriii 

r^ -j-j/- The letter w has the first foi: 

^''^^^' ^ — lines the same as «. continuiu 
with a right curve, touching the bead liii 
one-half space to the right of the see.on 
siniiirht line, at which point a slight dot 
made from which a horizontal right cun 
is extended one-half space i 
line. Height, one space. Width. 
..nelmlf spacrs 

A. A. Clark, who is teaching writing in 
the public schools of Cleveland, O., sends 
several el«gaut speoiraens of plain writing. 

J. W. Pierson. teacher of penmanship in 
the public schools of Mecca, O.. sends a gem 
of flourishing io form of a bird and quill. 

H. W, Bearce wbo is teaching writinn with 
I. S. Preston, at BndKeport. Conn., sends 
several skillfully executed speeimeus of cards 
and flourishing. 

Uriah SIcKee. Principal of the penmanship 
department of Oberiiu (O.) College sends a 
handsomely written letter in which he iuolo- 

8 a fine upecimeu of llourishiug 

J. M. Willey. teacher of writing at Cobb's 
Busiuess College, Paine-'ville. O., writes an 
elegant letter, iu which he incloses seveial 
superior specimens of flourishing, 

E. L, P-nvii f^T-'M,- r>f p.-viii-^hip at 
the La <■,,.. \» I " ' !■ ■ ■ , sends 

)bri.t. .1 !■ . ■■ ■■' ]■ ■ I' ■ .^iiig and 

A package uf sp^ciuifus rcct-ived from 
Jaokson Cagle, penman at Moore's BiLsiness 
College. Allania. (ra.. exhibits tiourisbing. 
off-hand capitftlsand drill exercises for pupils. 




and pujiiig liM.iL.Ns <'nlW-t .■«!. lefin. of an 
opportunity of doing so by addressing the 
editor of the Joubnal. 

S, K. Webster has opened a Penmanship 
aud Commercial School at Rock Creek, O. 
Prof, Webster is an aecomphshed writer and 
teacher, and deserves Miccess. 

Messrs. Koeriier A Gondier. Proprietors of 
the Indianapolis find ) Business College, 
publish a testimonial signed by the entire 
State Legislature strongly commending that 
institution as being thorough aud practical. 

At the closing of the evening session of 
the New .Jersey Busiuess College, Newark, 
N. J.. Prof C. T. Miller, one of the i)rinei- 
pals, delivered an address upon the "Pur- 
poses of Life," whith received a-«ery favor- 
able notice from the Newai-k Daily Megintfr. 

A n-ceiif n-imber of the Amn-iran Tmdf 
Eevieir ••ov^'^r- ■» ("u-M'.- ■■•■-it'j'liiTieutary 
notice <if ■^ < '< I . . '. . .\ '■^.■■: -- i;ii-i(iosn Col- 
lege ftiiil V, . ! . \ I , ■-■ 1. Mills, Mo, 
S. G, (In. . ■ i ■ . 1 .' lias had 

lid of him bv the Ii,i\ 

I quill, among whom were H, C. Spencer of 
Washington. D. C-. J, E, Soule of Philadei- 
phia, Shaylor of Portland, Me., Thoiuas E. 
Hill, author of ff'Vr.i Manual, Aurora. 111. 

Prof. J. T. Knauss, principal of the Easton 
(■Pennsylvania) Busiuess College, is conduct- 
ing, in an interesting andspity edu- 
cational column iu the E<i«(on Wefkiy Aigus. 
In the issue of April 18rh he has an article on 
teaching in public schools, which we com- 

, mend to the attention of all public school 

Mr. J. T. Granger, who was the official 

I stenograpbtr of the Penman's Convention held 

' ill this city in August last, and whose report 
was in part published iu this paper, has ac- 
cepted a situation as short-hand writer in the 
office of the General Superintendent of the 
Union Pacific Kailroad, at Omaha, Neb, Mr. 
Granger is a skillfid reporter aud a thorough 
gentleman, and will undoubtedly win. as he 
deserves, the esteem of his employers. 

Prof. J. M. Mehan, wbo has taught pen- 
manship in the public sehooLs of Creston. 
Iowa, receives a warm commendation from 
the Creston OazHle. It recommends the 
coutinuancA of his service, and says that 
there has been marked progress in this de 
partment during the past year. We will add 
that a large collection of specimens of writ- 
ing which we have examined by the pupils 
of Prof. Mehan in the pubUc schools fully 
sustain the good opinion of the Gazette re- 
u'arding his successful work, aud iu advising 
tlje school board to retain his services. 

P. W. H. Wiesehahn of St. Louis. Mo.. 
luis estaMishedau "Institute of Pen Art" in 
.1 II. iioii with Jones' Commercial College 
I 1 i iiy. The photo-lithographic copy 
1 ■ ncular which we have received ex- 
iri it- I Hire specimen of lettering and artis- 
tic pell uork. a uotirenble feature in which is 
the entire absence of flourishing iind other 
such ornament a^ penmen have been wont to 
use iu the embellisbinent of thtirwork. From 
his letters of recent date we abstract the fol- 
lowing as setting forth his views regarding 
flourishing. He says : " We are now endeav- 
oring to cultivate a tast* for the beautiful in 
pcuniiuisbip, and in order tt) do so have 
ii,1m|.i.j ,l |.iiiL l.\ which •flourishing' will be 
(L'l I I 1 ^ k' of ornamenting or em- 

i, ' lis will be strictly classical 

ni- . . II ^ . Ml <i>i <l I ntil the penmen make up 
their uiindsto retorui.or rather conform their 
designs according to the rules of 'true art,' 
their productions will never be recognized as 
anything more than a simple 'nieohauical * 
production, or at farthest a part of a ' com- 
mon' education. We have long ago dis- 
carded 'flourishing,* from the fact that it is 
not 'high art' and people of cultivated taste 
will look upon it as nothing more than a 
* skillful wielding of the pen.' We must do 
more, and we are pleased to inform you that 
our efforts in this respect are alrtjady bearing 
good fruits. The penmen must get up to 
reahze the fact that if they wish 'penman- 
ship' to be recognized as a 'fine art' the old 
way of getting up specimens must be dis- 
carded aud they must study and adopt such 
forms as constitute true art and embody the 
hame in their work 

Answers to 

B- M, Wortbingtuu is L.unduL,tin,j a writing 
academy in Chicago He rauks high among 
the skilifid writers of the country 

C. W. Ilobmsoii IS superintendent of pen 
unship in the publu, schools of Lafayette 

lud. Ho 

r and rtad^the JouK 

icbmg wnting : 
le Ohio Uuive 


: sn'. 

Ill I'luxi til. iiKiin slant of writing Is 
esLilili^lii il It '>■■ . '.' . 19" from the horizon- 
tal Ibis Nlaiit being the hypothcnuse of the 
riijlil ;in'_'U'd tmntile whose base is 8 and 
altitude 4. In our own country the slant of 
writing, us reprv-'iC'nlcd by the various pub 
lished systems, ranges from 45^ to 60°, It 
matters Utfle, within these Itniiis, what the 
slant m!»y be. but when once determined 
upon, ^hollld be rigidly adhered to, as alack 

C. Hills. Liinaville, O,, incloses seveml 
very creditably executed slips of writing. 

■loB. ■ Foeller. Ashland, Pa., sends several 
specimens of flourishing and card writing 
executed iu fine f^tyle. 

P. Hammel, penman at Nelson's Business 
College. Cincinnati, O,, sends a very grace- 
fully flourished euale. 
I J. M. Van Patter. Louton, Ont . writes a 
handsome letter, in which is inclosed credit- 
I able specim«us of flourishiug. 

Normal School 
Athens. O. Prof 
popular teacher 

Prof. I. French, has just closed a large 
class in writing at Argos, Ind . where ludg 
ing from the large dub of subscribers hent, 
he has awakened quite an interest in writiug. 

C. H. Pierce, principal of the Normal Pen- 
manship Institute, Keokuk, Iowa, has re- 
cently issued a new copy-book for 
public s;;hoole, in which be ' ' 


G. W, Mitchel. Valparaiso, Ind., is o e of 
losl successful teachers of the west, as is 
eviiicnd by the Iftfi^e number of bis graduates 
now nrciipviiie iiMispicuous positions asteach- 

■ y- ml |.. 1 II throughout the country, 

. of the Wheeling (W. Va.) 
\ / lit. litis 11 highly complimentary 

mil. L ,,1 i M;I. ,1. .S. Haines, who is conduct- 
ing classi-5 in that place and vicinity, judging 
from bis specimens aud other repoi'ts wc 
think the notice well deserved. 

M F B Akron O You wiite a veiy good 
aud tolerably torrett hand jour loops are a 
httle too long tht lower turns m your m s, 
and n's are two round and open. 

H. E, C, St, John, N. B. All back num- 
bers of the Joubnal can be furnished since 
August 1877, twenty numbers in all; those 
with the remaining eight numbers of vol. Ill 
will be sent for $2. 

T. B, B., Men-itton, Ont., You lack ease 
of movement; your loops are crossed too 
high, causing them to look diminutive; the 


moutbssinoe. H< { 

tril)utor to the -Lm i •, 1 
good writer and will uudoul. 
esting contributor. 

During the past month 
been honored with visits from more than the 
usual number of distinguished knights of the 

you with portable Vilack boards of compact, 
flexible slated cloth, mounted on roUers, 
which can be rolled up like a map. For sizea, 
price, Ac. , see our supply Ust on the 8tb page. 

-I ! i- !>'. executed with a pen? That 
.1 |. 11(1 ujion the kind and extent of the 
I. I ti) he executed. Simple designs for 
tloiMliiii^' and drawing should be executed 
with the pen without tlie aid of the pencil. 
It 16 customary to outUue the more compli- 
cated designs with a pencil- 

C A, P. Lowdon. Iowa.— Should left 
handed pupils be required to write with thsjr 

right haod? This would depend Iftrgely 
upon the fitent to which one* was inclined 
to UM* the left, and ifeiiore the use of the 
right hand. Except there was a positive ina- 
bility to uHe (he right hand, wo Kboiild axlvine 
itH use. Pew tbiogR can be more awkward 
than n'riting with the left hand, the Hlope 
and condtruction of writiuf; being upecially 
designed and adapted to being execut«d with 
the right hand, its execution is particularly 
difficult for the left band. 

C. E. C. Vandalift, Mich.— When and 
why were the principleti in the Speoeerian 
writing <liiiii|i:' il froQj eight to aectn 'i The 
liniiuipul drojjp'.'d wfutCj, used to finish C, H, 
.M. \, furintr >,t;indard styles, for which httvi 

H, M. X, 

rd forms not requiring the old Sixth 

pl>; lu their formation. The uld Uth 
l>iil forma of cMpa ure now reckoned 
inpH, aud may be 

H, M. X, were formerly reckoned among tbi 
variety caps ; but were gradually brought 
Ui the front as stiiudurds until the two clniisfe 
were finally made to exchange placeH. iu the 
interest of both simplicity and utility iu 

Deer Louue, M. T., 

Miirch Kith. 137;' 

' .hn 

L>KAB Sia ■ Thpough the kiudncHH of J. 11. 
Holcomb & Oo. of Ohio, I received u copy of 
your AiiT JoDKNAL. and after a liasty exam- 
iuBtion being conviuced of its merits I visited 
till! County Teachers' luxtiliite, which hap- 
pined to be in session at the time, with what 
resnll. the enclosed list of thirteen subscribers, 
with ft money oidi-r for *I«. will show. 

I also euirlo-ie u liht of teachers not present, 
luid. if ymi think advisable, would be pleased 
to hai'e you send each of them a "tiample 

pL^i^, fLfiV/vrioisl.VifiW. 

The above cut rcprcscnls spci-iinen li;ltcr.s from s(!ver;il [jayvs .if ■ Ames' New Book 1 
Al|ilmbeis," just eomplelfd, and uow in the hands of the binder. Ii will be reiid> i 
mail on and after May 5. Sent post-paid on repeipt of $1.50. 


H, 8. Rbsd. 

Packard's Business College. 

h is ti uotahle featur.' of Patrkard's College 
III,)! wliulevc-r is considered of importance in 
llir wiiy of business training is supplied, if 
not by the regular faculty, then by such speci- 
alisUi (IS may bo at command. The lectures, 
which from time to time are given by emi- 
ueiit speakers, are worthy of notice as a force 
in cQHcation. Among the names of these 
lecturers standing out conspicuously are those 
of Elibu Uurritt. Dr. IJellows, Peter Cooper. 
Jud^t Davis, Judge Larremore, Hon. George 
Opdyke, and others. 

Jleceutly Prof. A. E. Willis, of Chicago, 
gave two very interesting discom-ses on 
I)hy«iognomy and its cognate subjecls. the 
point of which was to instruct students in the 
ft-t of reading oUarncter from the features 
and their expression. Whatever may be the 
facta an to the science of physiognomy and 
phr.'uology, nothing is sih-lt ihan that every 
iulelli^i-iit p.THno iiidiitj^.'s more or less in 
cimnu-ter reiidii^ti. Ev.mi .hildren judge of 
cliiu-ivter l>y o.itwurd signs, either of features 
or action ; and as they are more apt to judge 
righUy than otherwise, it is evident that 
thoir judgment is founded upon iodiciitions 
that may by study and observation be brought 
into something Uke a system. It is, ol 
course, vain to presume that any rules of in- 
l«'rpretati(m of the countenance can be e-- 
Ublished 80 as to make it impossible for m. . 
iie to mistake a pei>..)ii - 
I will often "steal ili. 
lervo the devil in. " The 
1 exposure of thieves, de. 
ilualitieB of very bad sin- 
ners, who have been able to curry on their 
inconceivable wickedness for years and years 
without exciting the least distrust, and whose 
honest faces aud uusttspicious manners have 
pointed them out as fit candidates for high 
places in heaven, only emphasijie the fact that 
tlien> are no methods yet known by which the 
seeifts of men's hearla can be discerned by 
thoir fellow men. However, this does not 
weaken the assumption that to a certain ex- 
tent, men's characters are written upon their 
persons and exhibited in their acts. 

Whatever may be the force of Prof 
WUUs's asserUou that the eye alone, or the 
nose, or the mouth, taken separately can be 
made to tell the story of one's inner life, it 
is true, that a close study of these features in 
their combination aud under varied cirvum- 
aud especially when taken iu con- 

At all events, such lectures are iisef 
setting young men and women to thinking 
for themselves, and the more a " busiuest 
course " is varied by the thoughts and Bug- 
iJiestions of such men as Prof. Willis the 
better. — .V. ]'. Sc''»ol Journal. 

A Live Ageut 

Is wanted in every slIiuoI and t«jv\u in the 
United Slates and Canada lor the .Julii.n.m,. 
To such we are prepared to offer the most 
liberal inducements, either Id cash or other 
valuable premiums. Send for special rates 

Now is the time to subscribe for the 
Journal, beginning with the April number, 
aud get all the lessons in wi'itiug. 

"Fortune's hand," says a poverty-stricken 
writing-master ' ' is remarkable for its heavy 
down strokes." 


By orderlDR 

Good Paper and Valuable Premiums. 
If you want the best penraaus paper 
published, send $1 for the Penman's Akt 
Journal. If you want either of the two 
best books published upon ornamental pen- 
mauship, viz., ■'Aines' Compendium of Or 
uamentul Penmanship " and "Williams' and 
Packard's Gems," send a club of twelve 
subscribers to the Journal. If you waut 
the best guide to practical writing, send a 
club uf four subscribers for the " Speuce- 
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Packard's Guide," or two for the " Theory 
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to any pupil, teacher or admirer of finepea- 

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nd Proprietor* 


VOL, III. NO. 6. 



THOMVM MAY PEIRCE, M. A., Principftl. 

30 South Tonth Street Philadelphia, 





How to Succeed in Business. 

1 by Pr.»f 

of requisites are liouesty and 
in every transaction of life. ] 
the reputation of being fair and upright in 
his dealings, and he will possess the confi- 
dence of iill who know him. Without these 
qualities, every other merit will prove un- 
availing. Why then is honesty the best pol- 
icy ? Because without it, I venture to say, 
that you will gel a bad name, am 
will shun you in business affairs, 
of any kind, and a character for knavery and 
deceit, will prove an insurmountable obstacle 
to success in almost every undertaking. 
Needy men are apt to deviate from the rule 
of honesty and integrity, under the plea that 
necessity knows no law. This course is 
suicidal by destroying all confidence, and 
ever keeps them in poverty, although they 
may possess every other quality necessary to 
success, Punctuality, which is said to be the 
soul of business is another important element 
in money getting. The man known to be 
very exact in the fulfilment of his engage- 
ments gains the confidence of all. There- 
fore be prompt in all your promises and en- 
gagements and you will be trusted without 
limit. Order and system in the management 
Qf business jnust not be neglected. Have a 
plaee for everything, smd everytliing in its 
place : a time for everything, and everything 
in its time. Do first what presses, or is 
needed most, and having determined what is 
to be done, and bow to do it, lose no time 
in doing it. Without this method all wilj 
be hurry and confusion, and nothing ac- 
complished with despatch. Nest, a polite, 
affable deportment is recommended. Agree- 
able manners contribute greatly to a man's 
success. Be gentlemanly, kind, obliging and 
conciliating in manner; these in a great 
measure are the great secret in the success of 
business, or why some are successful and 
others unfortunate in business. A man with 
a pleasant disposition finds friends every- 
where, and makes friends where persons of 
a contrary nature make and find enemies. 
Gocd nature is one of the sweetest gifts of 
Providence, and should be carefully culli- 

Men fail of fortune often because they are 
unwilling to deny themselves mnmentary en- 
joyments for the sake of permanent happiness 
in the future. Lastly, stick to the business in 
which you are regularly employed. Let 
speculators miike their thousands in a day or 
a year, you should be engaged only in your 
own regular trade or business. Never turn 
to the right hand or the left. Your own 
business you probably understand as well as 
other men, other people's business you prob- 
ably do not understand. Therefore it is better 
to have nothing to do with it. Let your busi- 
ness be some one which is useful to the com- 
munity. All such occupations possess the ele- 
ment of profit in themselves. Lit it be deeply 
impressed on your mind, how perilous is false 
hood ; when once concealment or deceit has 
been practiced in matters where all should 
be fair and open as the day ; confidence can 
never be restored any more than you can re- 
store life in the dead. How true is this, and 
what a sadly neglected truth? Falsehood is 
not only one of the most humiliating vices, 
but sooner or later, it is certain to lead to 
serious crimes. With partners in trade, with 
partners in life, with friends, employers, and 
with all by whom we nre confided in how 
that all guile and hypocrisy should 
ust. How many young men's 
hopes have been crushed by one false step, 
which having been taken can never be re- 
traced— Foj-t Wayne Gazette. 

"Barring all Transcendentalism* 
" Long -Winded Documents." 





I considei 


What will my hearers give to know how 

vated. We a 

portant principle in the business of money- 
getting, indefatigable attention to business. 
Persevering diligence is the philosopher's 
stone, which turns everything into gold. 

Constant, regular, habitual and systematic 
application to business, must, in time if 
properly directed, produce the desired results. 
lead to wealth, as sure as idleness, 
inattention to business, intemperance and 
gambling, lead to poverty and wretchedness. 
It has been truly said, that he who follows 
these instead of his business, wiU soon have 
no business to follow. Next, the art of 
money-saving is an important part of money- 
getting. Without economy and frugality, no 
one can become rich. With them, few 
would be poor. Those who consume as fast 
as they produce, are on the road to ruin. 

As most of the poverty we see, grows out 
of idleness and extravagance, so most Uirgc 
fortunes have been acquired by industry and 
- . „ . , frugality. The practice of economy is neces 

_- affording the true secret of success in at- ' sary in the expenditure of time as of money 
tnmmg woalth and honor. Although wealth I They say that if we take care of the pennies 
often appears the result of mere accident, or I the dollars will take care of themselves. So 
a fortunate occurrence of favorable circum- , if we take care of the minutes and hours the 
stances, without any exertion of skill or fore- ' days and months wUl take care of themselves 
sight, yet every man of sound health and uu- I The acquisition of wealth demands as much 
impaired mind may become wealthy, if he self denial and as manv sacrifices of present 
tkk68 the proper steps. Foremost in the list I pleasures as the practice of virtue itself 

aud respected? Now I will 
following rules will enable 
may hear them, to acquire 
will say ; that if ever a mon 
by honest moans, and retail 
any length of time, be i 
practice the principles loid down in the fol- 
lowing remarks; and I strongly commend 
them lo the attentiou of every young man. 

become wealthy 
aot say that the 
very person who 
wealth, but this I 

does grow rich 

i bis wealth for 

follow and 

In the May issue of your valuabl 
my attention has been called to th 

n of the oflScers and executive com- 
mittee, with reference to the ensuing Conven. 
to be held at Cleveland on the 5th of 
August. It is highly gratifying, no doubt, to 
all lovers of practical education, to U-arn that 
the interest in the new department of educa- 
tion is becoming so general, and that so early 
a movement is being mode to secure a large 

In looking over the report of "ye editor 
in pursuit of an item," and of the letter of 
the Chairman of the Executive Committee, I 
observe a few points which are deserving of 
notice. One very prominent point made 
was the gratifying fact that our next Conven- 
tion is not to be inflicted with "long-winded 
documents," poems, and the like— gratifying. 
I say, to all members, unless possibly those 
who, at some little expenditure of time and 
effort:, prepared these essays. It is not im- 
probable that after repeated urging to prepare 
these papers, which were faithfully done, 
they may regard this want of appreciation a 
rather poor requital of hontst efforts, sopho- 
more though they may have been. It is stilj 
fresh in the memory of many how near these 
"long-winded documents," so-called, came 
near being decapitated without judge or jury. 
It is noticeable, however, that the member 
who moved, and the member who seconded, 
to slaughter these innocents, were not among 
those who were to contribute to the sacrifice. 
Now, "ye editor" will not, of course, take 
offence at "ye" report, because I believe 
that it breathes the real spirit of the meeting 
recently held at Philadelphia. 

But there is, I notice, a still more remarka- 
ble feature in connection with that meeting, 
as set forth by the encychcal from the Chair- 
man of the Executive Committee. In the 

main, it is a good document, (I will not call 
it "long-winded") and full of life and worthy 
intent. Ketaining vividly in mind an incident 
in the last Convention, our worthy Chairman 
could not forego the opportunity to make a 
sportive fling at your correspondent. This I 
do not lay to heart, observe, but I could 
hardly believe that a Committee, representing 
a Business College Teachers* and Penman's 
Convention, was really attempting to etrika 
down "free speech! " Our worthy Chairman 
says: '^'^ Barring till trartseendenfalifm, what 
substantial facts can yau present to the next 
Convention." Now, this word of reproach^ 
among small philosophers, was incidentally 
introduced by your correspondent in hia 
"long-winded document," and he has not for- 
gotten the attack made upon him, simply 
because of its use. I doubt if our Chairman 
of the Executive Committee is quite pre- 
pared to take the logical sequence of his 
posiiion. Perhaps, with hie conception of 
the word, he should be excused in his attempt 
at "barring transcendentalism." Possibly, 
his notion of it is not unlike that of th» 
gentleman who, while journeying on the deok 
of a Mississippi steamer, defined it to his 
fellow passengers thus : " See the holes mad« 
in the bank yonder by the swallows. Take 
away the bank and leave the apertures, and 
this is transcendentalism," Now, your cor- 
respondent, "ye editor," protests at any 
sand-bank -flwallow-hole theory of transcen- 
I dentalism. To me it is the science of self- 
evident, axiomatic, necessary truths, whioh ii 
backed by the most robust philosophers of 
the world, among whom are Coleridge, Words- 
worth, Mansel, Sir William Hamilton, Leib- 
nitz. Kant and Lolze — men who have never 
been heard to "sing the wooden songs of 
materialism." Why. the grandest pillar in 
the temple of Christianity to-day is a tru« 
transcendental philosophy. Most theologians, 
too, of to-day— and our worthy Chairman I 
understand is one — are basing their theology 
in these very axiomatic truths whi'jh transcen- 
dentalism teaches. Willingly do they go 
back to Aristotle, Hegel and Kant, in defence 
of truths that transcend experience, for that 
is all that is meant by this philosophy. Why, 
all of our necessary, self-evident, axiomatic 
truths have a transcendental origin. All such 
truths transcend experience. Thtft every 
effect has a cause, and that, things equal to the 
same thing are equal to each other, are truths 
that transcend experience, simply becausB 
they are universal, and are just as tni« in 
Orion as upon this earth. 

of the Executive 
it our Cleveland 
Convention, we are to have none of this 
transcendentalism, cone of these necessary, 
self-evident, axiomatic truths. Perhaps they 
will not be needed ; possibly, however, it may 
be found that even book-keeping science 
lights its torch also at the burning mount of 
transcendentalism. How about the axiom 
that every debtor has a creditor? Is thers 
any transcendentalism in that? It certainly 


:ial relatioi 

at the North Star, as in the business affair* 
of this earth. That, then, we affirm, ia 
beyond experience, and, therefore, is a trans- 
cendental truth. All this is true, also, of th» 
axioms: If to equals, equals be added, tha 
sumt will be equal; and if from equali, 
equals be token, the remainders will be equal 
both of which are applicable to double-entry 
joumalfl, ledgers and trial-balances. 

Agaio, T look i 

amoDg the " topics I and tediouB to teacher and pupils, from the | Id A, the last part of n, or third principle, 

for discussion" to find any alluaion to the I fonner having no interest beyond i 
subject of book-keeping 1 One would natu- I tine duty. But let the teacher fully compre- 
r&lly irappose that, in a Convention of Busi- ; hend that a beautiful art lesson is included in 
nesH Colleges, that the "Science of Accounts," j one of the most practical that can be given, 

which is the chief branch of the buBiness 
curriculum, would be the chief topic of dis- 
cussion Your correspondent has, he thinks, 
attended all the Business College Conventions, 
and he regreta to say that, in his judgment, 
the Science of Accounts, as a topic of dis- 
cussion, has not by any means received the 
attention that the importance of the subject 
demands. It is down, however, among "the 
Bubjccta to be taught," during which exercise, 
it may be the design of the committee that 
the theory and science ehall receive due 

and the laek will be relieved from any dryness stem 
and monotony. When the teacher once fairly same 
enters into the spirit of the work, the pupils angle 
will be easily attnicted. There isa fascination | of the 

finishes the looped stem. The second part of 
k is quit« difficult, but &rst impress the char- 
act«riBtic form, Italic k is finished by the 
meeting of two shoit curves in an angle at 
stem. The script letter has essentially the 
same characteristic, but the vertex of the 
short connecting curve instead 
This connecting Une runs up 

Finally, trusting and hoping that the coming 
Convention will prove a brilliant success, I 
am, fraternally, E. G. Folsom, 

Albany Business College. 

AuiANY, May 22, 1870. 


■lleutlf flllalt 

The Writing Claas. 

children in the very idea of being able to 
expresfi their thoughts in writing. Enthusias- 
tic effort will secure, in even primary classes, 
earnest workers, whose progress will be a 
pleasant surprise, and a proof that success in 
the writing-class depends largely upon the 
quality of instruction. 

The engraved models of copy-book enhance 
the necessity for mental apphcation. Here are 
correct forme, subject to laws of proportion, 
to be studied, analyzed, and reproduced ; 
while black-board lllustratioD, oral instruct- 
ion, and criticism, are demanded of the 
teacher. The material is all at hand, but the 
work is in no sense accomplished, nor is there 
given a royal road for teaching. 

Spacing is another essential point in wri- 
ting. "We have only casually introduced it 
as yet, since slant also regulates the width 
of letlerfl. In attempting too much with 
young pupils, we fail to make positive im- 
pressions, and confuse the mind. We have 
spoken of the slant as something easily under- 
stood, and have avoided any abstract treat- 
ment. This familiar method best appeals to 
primary classes. 

" Children, we come now to a lot of looped 
letters, which make up the last two groups of 

Legible handwriting is the logical result of 
educating both the mind and the hand in the 
forms of the letters. The pupil who rightly 
comprehends will be best able to execute. The 
intellectual grasp of the written characters will 
control the practice, and legibility will become 
the same unconscious law in writing as gram- 
maticiil purity in speaking. Illegibility of 
stylo betrays imperfect knowledge of form. 
Such writing is in reality a picture of the con- 
ception of the letters in the mind of the wri- 

It is becoming more apparent to educators 
that poumauship, as a special branch, should 
be better taught. But many who readily 
quioBce iu the need, do not see clearly the 
means to be employed- We would simply 
suggest that, if the primary instruction be 
thorough exposition of correct principles, the 
higher grades will have something solid to 
build upon. Let the very firnt effort be di- 
rected to the primory departments. Here is 
where cramped movement and vicious practice 
originate, and here is where the educating 
force should begin. To allow scbolars to 
start wrong, and work under a bad system 
during the most imprecsible school period, 
and afterward to devote time and labor to 
remedy this false education, does not smooth 
the way ot the pupil, lighten the task of the 
teacher, nor produce satisfactory results. 

The primary teacher has the ttdvautage of 
laying the foundation. To do this success- 
fully, call, for the same amount of time and 
thought as are given to other branches. It is 
not enough to require careful observance of 
the engraved copy. The pupil must be taught 
to know the hues in each letter before he can 
have a clear aud intelligent idea of the letter. 
To simply practice the written forms without 
any analysis, would be to repeat 
over again the same errors uutil confirmed. 
But to know the elem<?ntary parts, 
fully . 

the small alphabet. The tall iiud graceful let- 
ters in the upper group have a strong family 
likeness. They are all. in fact, built after 
one model, — the upper looped stem, which 
has the place of honor at the head of the five 
letters. Now, if you will look at the Italic //, 
/:, I, b, and/, as I write them on the board, 
you will st-e that each has a long straight stem 
for a main line. The written letters have the 
same long stem. But to make them easy to 
write, and to connect mth other letters, along, 
righl-curve begins each. This first curve ex- 
tends almost lo the top, where a short upper 
turn leads to the left, and combines with the 
long stem, thus. Here you have the upper- 
looped stem, which is wholly above the base- 
line. The main line, or stem, is not straight 
the whole length, because that would mak 
straight-backed, ugly letter; but above the 
height of one space it is shghtly curved to the 
left, so that above this point the stem is the 
left-curvo, and below this point it is the 
straight line. The stem should cross first 
just the height of one space. The 
loop is two spaces tall, and adds another story 
to each letter of the group. When you write this 
principle, make the first curve jusl like the 
first curve of i up to height of one space; 
then slant the curve a little less, to the turn 
Half space, or half the width of u, is the 
right width for the loop. In writing the 
long upward curve, you have to reach out or 
extend the thumb and fiugers; in writing the 
long stem on the downward movement, you 
have to draw in or slightly bend the thumb 
and fingers. When you learn this graceful 
finger movement, you will be able to make 
graceful letters. But you will need to prac- 
tice the principle some time before you can 
m"ke it properly. Hold your pen or pencil 
lightly, and move your fingers easily aud nat- 
urally, aud you will not tire your hand. 
Wrong practice is hard, while right practice 

The inter-secting point of the looped stem 
governs the proportions of the principle. 
The division is always into thirds. The de- 
creased slant of the connecting curve above 
inch in building up the whule the height of one space brings the main line 
the best, because intelligent, | on to the main slant, and preserves the sym- 

from base of stem, is on decreased slant to 
height of one space, and thence is nearly 
horizontal, in order to combine with the up- 
per curve of the characteristic ; the narrow 
loop resulting therefrom is almost horizontal. 
The last part of this characteristic is the first 
principle modified ; the main line is on de- 
creased slant, aud begins with a short turn. 
In I, the looped stem is finished like the last 
part of ('. or first principle ; in b. with the 
base and last two curves of v. 
In /, the stem extends below base in a shgbt 
id unites iu a short turn to the 
right with an upward right-curve which crosses 
base. A combined shade (gradual- 
ly increasing and diminishing) is given to the 
stem below base. The elegance of the letter 
depends upon the correct slant, aud slight 

of stem. 

t the lower-looped stem similarly to 
the preceding principle, illustrating to the 
class how the inversion and reversion of the 
loop results in the extended left-curve instead 
of the right, and in the lower instead of the 
upper turn. In both the looped principles, 
the turn is added to the long, sweeping curve as 
part of the connecting line. This is the only 
instance in the ^-mall alphabet where the turn 
is not part of a main line. The ground-plan 
of the four letters in this group is found in 
i, n, and a, and their construction will be at 
once apparent to the teacher. The looped 
stem is not modified, except in s, where it 
begins with a short upper turn. 

The practice on the above groups is an ad- 
mirable preparation for the broader move- 
ment of the capitals. General practice on 
the latter, previous to a thorough and com- 
plete drill on the looped letters is a violation 
in grading, inconsistent with real progress. — 
Primary Teacher. 

the Eureka of Mr. W, 

irregular lines have inve 
manship with the most 
yet these same I: 


where a few 
works of pen- 
itisfying effect ; 
'ould have pro- 

expression bad their 
wondrous power been tempered, as it were, 
to our mysterous desires. Who, then, would 
commend the Quixotism of him who felt 
called upon to avenge the perversions by 
attacking the impregnable ramparts of the 
knights of the artistic quill? 

The greatest geniuses are generally found 
to be the widest likers; aud the excellence of 
their predecessors and contemporaries con- 
tributes to their powers; not as presenting 
models of imitation, but as shedding new 
hght in their own minds, and opening to view 
their hidden treasures. 

Very respectfully, 

Geo. M. NicoL. 

OmoE ( 

effort of the pupil. Such practice is both metry of the principle. The following 

natural aud progressive. 1 sume of the construction will suggest the plan 

The writing-lesson ia often unsatisfactory I of teaching the separate letters of the group. 

Old DonnNioN Business College, 
Richmond, Va., May 13, 1879. 
Editor Penman'8 Art Journal : 

The abstract of Mr, Wiesehahn's letter, 
pubhshed in your May number, gives us the 
idea of a chaotic sea, upon which the penmen 
of our country have long been tossed; but 
happily, through his inspiration, the waves 
thereof are about to become petrified, and 
thus enable the misdirected mariners to reach 
the coast of the beautiful "classical" land 
dry shod, where, from its great elevated 
planes, they shall view with gladness the 
enchanting vale dotted with the tombs of the 
" fioui-ishing'" pens. 

It would be no extravagant metaphc 
af&rm that others see more with their minds 
than it appears Mr, W. sees with his eyes. 
Notwithstanding flourishes are but fanciful 
lines, they are still of such a choracter that 
we no Roouer receive their impress than we 
feel them to be acting upon our sympathies, 
without our knowing why or wherefore. We 
naturally infer, however, that their mysterious 
power is owing in some way to their poetic 
influence, and we rationally conclude that the 
spirit from which so many beautiful produc- 
tions have arisen is still teeming with others, 
and perhaps more beautiful, that only want 
the occasion or excitement to come forth in 
all their exquisite dash, grace, and harmonious 

To assert that "flourishing" is solely 
"mechanical" is to falsify our conviction, 
inasmuch as we find it appeals to our imagina- 
tion, which cannot be touched without 
awakening by its vibrations, so to speak, the 
untold myriads of sleeping forms that lie 
within its circle, that start up in tribes, and 
each in accordance with the congenial instru- 

It cannot be a matter of controversy 
whether ' ' flourishing" belongs to ' ' true 
art," since the greatest penmen that this 
country has produced have recognized its 
connection, and culiivated it as an affinity 
with their hearts and intellects. 

Admitting that the prevailing tendency is 
to render it too general, and that Mr. W.'s 
admirable draieingn supersede the necessity 
for it, still we are no less unwilling to permit 

Everybody, says Chambers, is now taught 
write, and there are probably few perions 
belonging to what are called the respectable 
classes who do not imagine that they can 
write a letter fairly, both as regards calig- 
ra.phy and correctness of expression. Our 
opinion is somewhat different. There is an 
immense amount of bad letter-writing. In a 
vast number of cases coming under our ex. 
perience, persons of good education do not 
know how to write their own name intel- 
ligibly. We have seen a letter written by a 
"finished " young lady in her nineteenth year. 
The penmanship itself Wds ugly, ungainly, 
and awkward ; the spelling of several ordi- 
nary words was incorrect; small letters were 
used where capitals ought to have been; and 
we wondered as we perused the ill-composed, 
badly-written document how a being of even 
moderate abilities could send forth anything 
so imperfect. Yet this young lady had been 
for years at a high-class school where masters 
had taught Enghsh in all its branches, the mis- 
tress of which was also a person of refinement. 
Penmanship is far too htlle attended to in 
schools, even of the best class. No doubt 
ornamental writing is often taught ; but this 
style generally unfits the pupil for the plain 
everyday process. The best model for daily 
use should be placed before the young lady 
for at least one year before she leaves school, 
and after she has emerged from the regular 
text and half text copies. Epistolary com- 
pofti.ion should also be studied as a distinct 
accomplishment, if the pupil have no natural 
talent that way. 

Good penmanship is as necessary for a lady 
or gentleman as a good style of talking or 
reading. If a man is owner of a large estate, 
with servants, money and influence at com- 
mand, we wonder all the more if he writes a 
mean, cramped or illiterate hand. We take 
up his letter with a feeling of surprise, and 
saying: "what! is this the production of So- 
and-so? It looks like the wretched scraping 
of some poor laborer with a scarcity of ink to 
boot." Bad writing has the effect upon the 
eye that discordant tones to music have upon 
the ear.— ,A^. T.Neus. 

Cause of the War of 1812. 

The manner in which a pig caused the war 
of 1S12, was as follows :— Two citizens of 
Providence, R, I., both of the Federal school 
of politics, chanced to quarrel. They were 
neighbors, and one of them owned a pig 
which had an inveterate propensity to peram- 
bulate in the garden of the other. The 
owner of the garden complained that his 
neighbor's pig-sly was in.sufficient to restrain 
the pig, and the neighbor insisted that the 
garden fences were not in good repair. One 
morning, as the pig was taking his usual 
ramble, he was surprised in the very act of 
rooting up some valuable bulbous roots; this 
was the " lost feather," and the owner of the 
garden instantly put the pig to death with a 
pitchfork. Atthecomingelection, the owner 
of the garden was a candidate of the Legis- 
lature, and his neighbor, who, but for the 
quarrel, wouli have voted for him, voted for 
the Democratic candidate, who was elected 
by a majority of one. At tha election of a 
United States Senator, a Demoirat waschosen 
by a majority of one ; and when the question 
of war with England was before the Senate, 
it was declared by a majority of only one. — 
Historical Magiuine. 

"V T? i /"!vr«-r ,Uiv K> viV 

THE qv ILL. 

Har. not for i 

d flutterlOK witb 

iDllRht on the lea, 
oil* bird vent fortb— 
ohet^n-w delight; 

iSKOlden quill; 

ed with joyous light. 
!'• v«iti({uii pages vhlt« I 

The CjDveation. 

The following topics have been adopted by 
the executive committee for discussion at the 
Business College Te'tchers' and Penmen's 
Convention to bo held at Cleveland, Ohio, 
AugURt, r, : 

1. The minimum amount of education ueo- 
fiBSRry to make one eligible for admission into 
a businesB college an a student. 

2. The minimum of qualification which will 
permit a pupil to graduate from a business 

3. The relation of business colleges to their 

4. The plaoe of business colleges in the 
educational system. 

fi. The relfttioQ of business ooUeges to the 
buHinesB community. 

G. The relation of business college grad- 
uates to the business community, 

7. The capabilities of a business college. 

10. Flourishing. 

11. Engrossing. 

12. Short coursea in book-keeping and 

13. Business arithmetic. 

14. Fartueriiliip settlements. 

15. Short methods in calculation. 

16. Business correspondence, 

17. Business etiquette. 

The following persons at this date have 
signified their intention to be present and 
take part in the proceedings, viz.: S. S. 
Packard, New York ; Hon. Ira Mayhew, 
Detroit, Mich.; J. C. Bryant, Buffalo. N. Y.; 
D. C-i E. G. 

H. C. Spen 
Folsom, Albany. N. Y.; G. W. ElUott, Chi- 
cogo. III.; C. Clagharu, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
H. C. Wright, Brooklyn, N. Y.; G. R. Rath- 
bun, Omaha, Neb.; J. W. Vau Sickle. 
Springfield, 0.; J. H. Palmer, Youkers, N, 
Y.; A, J. Taylor, Rochester, N. Y,; W. H. 
Sprague. Norwalk, O.; D. R. Lillibridge, 
Davenport, Iowa.; C. E, Cidy, New York; 
D. T. Ames. New York ; W. A. MiUer. New 
York: J. E. Soule, Philadelphia, Pa.; T, M. 
Peirce, Philadelphia. Pa.; P. W. Weisehahn, 
St. Louis, Mo.; W. H. Duff, Pittsburgh, Pa ; 
S. R. Webster, Rock Cr'jek, O.; A. P. Root, 
Cleveland, O.; H. W. Shaylor, Portland, Me.; 
A. H. Hinman, Boston, Mass.; L. P. Spen- 
cer, Cleveland. O.; L. L. Sprague, Kingston, 
Pa.; J. H. Lunsley, Elizabeth, N. J. Many 
other responses to the circular of invitation 
are expected by the committee from those 
who will desire to take an active part in the 

There can now be no doubt that there will 
be a large and enthusiastic convention. 

I other diflSculty is due to the causes which 
render the Egyptian historical writings more 
hard to enterpret than the historical. Yet, 
thanks to M. De Rouge's patience ^nd skill, 
the general purport of the work is now under- 
stood. It is, throughout, text and commen- 
tary and curiously, the text usually simpler 
than the commentary, which, by its alle- 
gorizing method, renders the obscurity of the 
subject greater. The theme of the ritual is 
the story of the man's fate in the nether 
world, and the text consists of a series of 
prayers to be said in each of the several zones 
through which the soul was to pass on its 
way to judgment, and the confession of iuiio- 
ceuce that was to insure its acquittal. It 
might be supposed that so great a 
would have been treated in the loftiest style 
of which the language was capable, with the 
simplicity of the Egyptian memoir, the path^ 
of the dirge, and occasional grandeur of the 
historical writings and the religious hymns, 
But it is far otherwise. Nowhere is the lowei 
element of Egyptian religion so evideut as ic 
the ritual. It is obscure and mysterious with- 
out elevation or dignity. The student seeks 
in vain for a single passage worthy of the 
ideas conveyed through the eye by the pyra- 
mids and the tombs of the kings. He wan- 
ders through a labyrinth peopled by the forms 
of the lowest superstition, and the idea forces 
itself upon him that the negro element of the 
Egyptian mind is here dominant, not always 
in the thoughts, but always in their express- 
ion. Nothing more forcibly shows the strength 
o: this element, not even animal worship. 
Side by side with the ritual we find another 
wort relating to the underworld, the ' ' Book 

"But," continued the agent, delight«d at 
the style in which he was crowding the 
Professor. "I doubt not but that certain 
energetic polarizations of the molecules in 
the mineral deposits have an attraction for 
the electrically charged clouds." 

At these points the Professor, who had 
been knocked around the ring and crowded 
to the ropes, so to speak, became fairly roused 
to his position, and slogged for the other's 
nose at once. 

"Ah, exactly my friend ; in the ledge are 
vast deposits of minerals. Found in volcanio 
matrices and disintegrated by the upheaval 
of plutonic rock and semi-fused masses of 
silicious alumina, mingled with homogeneous 
debris of porphyry, the molecules of kaohned 
feldites, with a slight potash base, the decom- 
position of the feldspar is most affected 
along the line of the horizontal cleavage, and 
necessarily the liberated oxide of manganese 
combining with the percolation of the alka- 
lis which permeate the entire mass causes a 
pronounced state of polarization, which can- 
not fail to account for the peculiar attraction 
in the vicinity. X might further explain the 
intricate chemical properties of the belt by 
illustrating the—" 

By this time, however, the book agent, 
who during the round bad been verbally 
pasted in the jaw, smashed in the nose, and 
biffed in the eye, rose from hie seat, paid full 
price for his half-eaten meal, and shot out of 
the place. Andy said he examined the Pro- 
fessor, found his pulse regular, no signs of 
perspiration, and his mind intact. 

We have found no boy's composition of late 
which seems to put the Father of His Coun- 
try on a stronger moral basis than this one. 
It serves the still further purpose of showing 
that where there is real, irrepressible genius, 
great ideas somewhat precede mere knack of 
spelling ; — 

george Washington was a little boy what 
onct lived in Virginny what had a nax give 
him by his old man. Wen george he got the 
nax he cutted a tree what had cherreys up on 
it and eat the cherreys he and a nother boy. 
When georges old man foun out what george 
an the nother boy done, he called george too 
him an he 6ais,Reorge Washington who cutted 
tha bark ofen the cherrey tree ! george sais i 
did Tha old man sais you did george sais i did 
i cannot tell a U. Why cant you tell a li 
the old man. Coz sais george if i tell a li 
this here fellerl blow on me an then ill be 
spanked twict. thats rite sais the old man 
ver yer git in to trouble tha esyist way 
out is tha best. 

8. The public need of a business college, 
aud the spirit and manner in which the 
piiblic announcements and advertisements 
of these instiiutions shall set forth their 
claims for patronage and support. 

y. Civil government as a study to be pur- 
sued by a bufiiuoss college student. 

10. Theextent of nrilhmetio embraced in a 
business colk-ge course. 

11. The minimum amount of commercial 
law belonging to a business college course, 
aud how shall it be taught. 

Vi. Political economy in the business col- 

i:l. Phonography, a business college study. 

14. The importance of penmanship in a 
busiuess college. 

1"'. The relation of ornamental penmanship 

ll>. Th..' discipliueof business colleges. 

17. Busiuesii honor and morals. 

18, Intercommunication by students of 
different colUges. 

1. Initiatory methods. 

2. Journalizing. 

8. Busiuess pmctico. 
4. Banking. 

R. Peumauship -the members of the asso- 
ciatiou silting as a class of beginners. 

I>. Penmanship— the members of the asso- 
ciation sitting as au advanced class in a pubhc 

7 The essential points of business penmon- 

6, Penmanship— class drill in movements 

9. Blackboard exercises in penmanship. 

Egyptian Writing, 


Writing was as old in Egyjjt as architecture 
and sculpture. The papyrus reed furnished 
the most ancient material for paper in the 
days of the oldest monuments. The dry cli- 
mate has preserved a great number of ancient 
rolls, of which most are religious, aud of these 
again the greater part copies of one book, 
the "Ritual," which French scholars call 
the " Funereal Ritual " and the Germans the 
"Book .if the Dead." It is a work evidently 
compiled from time to time, divided into 
sections, origiuaUy separate books, aud chap- 
ters, each chapter being usually illustrated by 
a represenUition of its chief subject above 
the text. Part of this book bos b'en found 
of the dote of the eleventh dynasty (B. C. 
2000). aud, according to its own statemtuti 
which derives collatenil support from a more 
general assertion of Mauetlio, one chapter was 
discovered in the time of the great pyramid 
>'uildiug kings of the fourth dynasty. There 
con be no doubt that the greater part is of 
extreme antiquity. 

Two great difficulties assail us in the en- 
deavor even to construe this book. It was 
held to be specially advantageous to the mum- 
mified Egyptian that a copy should be depos- 
ited in his tomb. CousequenUy it became ' 
the custom to write these copies in great 
numbers and. as they were not intended to be 
,d, the scribes were careless in their copy- 
;. Hence arise a multitude of errors which 
every step embarrasa the student. The 

I of the Lower Hemisphere," describing the 
journeyings of the soul after death through 
twelve zones corresponding to the twelve 
hours of the nocturnal sun. This book was 
in fashion at the period to which most of the 
tombs of the kings (nineteenth and twentieth 
dynasties) belong, and their pictures afford 
the illustrations of its chapters. — C(;n(«m;)o. 
i-ary Heoieu!. 

Vanquishing a Book Agent. 

Yesterday evening, says the Virginia (Nev.) 
Chronicle Professor Stewart went into the 
Delraouico restaurant and asked Andy, the 
irrepressible head steward, to bring him 
some stuffed mutton and parsnips. No soon- 
er had the Professor fairly seated himself at 
one of the small tables than a book agent J 
came in aud took the other side of the board. 
The two men were strangers, but, as a matter I 
of course, this book pedler couldn't keep still, 
and presently made some conversational ad- 
vance to Stewart. ' 

" Are not these meteorological disturb- , 
ances somewhat peculiar for these latitudes?" 

The Professor paused a moment, as he was 
mashing a potato, and replied ; — 

"Guess it's about the same thing every 

" In seasons of atmospheric depression al- 
ternating with unexpected boreal excitements 
and rapid changes resultant on sudden ac- 
cumulations of moisture, such dispositions 
of the storm belt are not, in my opinion, 
entirely uncalled for." 

■' Exactly,'' remarked the Professor, lifting 
a fly out of his coffee. 

The late George Bidder, the London en- 
gineer, once known as "the wonderful cal- 
culating boy." at the age of eight, could an- 
swer almost instantaneously how many pence 
thereare in £868,424,121. Zerah Colbum was 
another "lightning calculator" of the same 
generation. Once he was asked to name the 
square of 909,999, which he stated to be 990, 
90S,WO,001. He multiphed this by 49, and 
the product by the same number, and the to- 
tal result he then multiplied by 25. He raised 

the figures to the sixteenth power with ease, 
amed the squares of 244.999,755 and I,- 
'98,775. He instantly named the factors, 

941 aud 2G3, which would produce 247.483. 

He could discover prime numbers almost as 

soon as named. In five seconds he calculated 

thecuberootof 413, 733. 348. G77. 

A remarkable convict in the Rhode Island 
State Prison is David Peters, a colored man 
who in 18G9 received a fifteen years' sentence 
for assault. He was ignorant, but when al- 
lowed the use of the prison library he soon 
made astonishing advances in learning. He 
mastered arithmetic, algebra and geometry, 
took a course in logic and rhetoric, and then 
turned his attention to languages. He ac- 
quired a fair knowledge of French, German, 
Latin and Greek, aud then took up jurispru- 
dence. He is now reading law, and for a 
change studies Hebrew. He delivered at a 
Thanksgiving celebration in the prison a year 
or two ago an oration which was pronounced 
a remarkable production. 

One of the finest puns was made by Ers- 
kine. Seeing an old tea chest, he wrote on it 
the Latin inscription, " Tu d(ice«." This bit 
of classic lore, when properly translated, 
means " Thou teachest." 



WlUibold Htt 


an we 

WUUtmi ft P«okard'« Oiildo. retails for 
For tweWe subnorlbo™ aad f 13, we wl 
of Amen' Oompendlum of OrDaiuenUl 
price IB. The Btitio bound In Rllt wl 
•IgbUpn subBnrlbera snd $18, prlro t7.S 

NEW YORK. JUNE, 1879. 

Spdoimsn Copies of the Journal. 

To each of our regular subscribers we this 
month mail hu extra copy of the Journal, 
whicb tber arc raquested to reach to some 
friand most likely to become interested in 
and subscribe for it. AUbough oui 
oubscription list is large and increasing, 
it is yet far short of what it should be; there 
are many thousands of tenchers and pupils 
of writing throughout the country who 
should and would rendily subscribe were 
tho matter properly presented to them; will 
not our frienda. who receive an extra copy, 
each do us the favor to use it with their best 
efforts to induce an additional subscriber? 
The efTort will cost each but a trifle, and 
will make a splendid agRi'egatc for us. 

Wo also mail several thousand copies of 
the present number as specimens to teachers 
anil others most likely to be interested in its 
Bpccialty. whose earnest attention is invited 
to the claims of the Jouhnal, for their pa- 
tronage as an ailvocatc and guide to the 
fluoco^wful tenuliing and practice of writing. 
To all who wish to more fully test its merits, 
we will mail the leren remaining numbers of 
Vol. Ill, with the splendid premium of the 
Lord's Prayer, 10x34, for fiftycents. The pre- 
mium alone is worth twice the money. These 
seven numbers will contain all information 
relating to the second Penmen's Convention 
to be held in August, and a full report of its 
proceedings. Each number will also contain 
one or more illustrations with gems of pen 

Luck is a good thing, but one cannot 
always afford to wait for it. Pluck is a 
belter thing, because it is always ready to 

Impositions and Impostors. 

w articles have appeared in the col- 
i of the JocRXAl. which have elicited 
any and earnest commendations, as the 
nunication, with editorial comments 
on, in the last issue, under the heading 
Dead Beats." It touched many who 
bad been made tender by numbers of simi- 
fraudulent or begging postal cards. We 
know from a personal experience of many 
as a conductor of a business college, 
that proprietors of these institutions, who 
■e themselves, or who employ penmen of 
putc, are literally bored out of all patience 
by applications, under all sorts of pretences, 
for specimens of their "best plain and orna- 
tal penmanship," right from the pen. 
:e we began the publication of the Jour- 
, dead-heads and frauds have been our 
greatest plague; no one. not having had a 
imilar experience, can imagine the extent, 
lumber and phases of the genus dead beats 
rid dead heads. It is actually sufficient, 
pere all applicants favored to the full extent 
of their requests, to consume our entire 
; and resources. Some apply almost 
thly by postal card for specimen copies of 
the Journal, others beg or secure by fraud, 
specimens of penmanship from other and 
superior writers, which they send to the 
Journal to be noticed as their own. Among 
the specimens thus sent by one person, no 
less than sis different penmen who have ex- 
amined the collection in our scrap book of 
specimens, have recognized their own hand- 
iwork. Requests for criticisms of writing 
upon postal cards, and answers to one-sided 
questions, in the columns of the Jouhnal, 
by persons who apply by postal card for the 
subsequent number to learn if their modest 
request has been granted, are multitudinous. 
We do not, however, infer that all these are 
essentially dishonest or mean, but many are 
thoughtless young persons, who having nev- 
er employed their time 
manner to teach them i 
ue. do not realize that i 
iiccount to others than 
They imagine that the specimen 
whicb they usk will require but a few n 
ments or a trifle of money, whicb they, 
most instances would give just as freely 
they ask it from others, but they forget that 
the same reason that leads them to ai 
specimen from a penman whose rare skill 
has rendered him famous, leads hundreds 
and perhaps thousands of others to solicit 
I he same favors, sufficient in the aggregate 
lo weary and impoverish him were he to at- 
tempt a response. We are sufficiently char- 
itable to believe that by far the larger num- 
ber belong to this class, but our niuutle of 
charity is not sufficiently ample to take all 
within its folds. Persistent and well laid 
schemes to defraud, in some instances furn- 
ish evidence of moral obliquity not lo he 
gainsaid, overlooked or forgiven, short of 
seeing works meet for repentance. The lat- 
ter class we do not regard as sufficiently 
promising subjects for missionary labor to 
warrant our efforts in their behalf, but we 
trust that iheformerclasswill be sufficiently 
wise to take these gentle hints, and "come 
right over." 

n any occupation or 
3 importance or val- 
me can be of more 
t is to themselves. 

STirpriBing to witness how few really good 
re there are, and how indifferent are 
most teachers and school officers respecting 
the proper instruction in writing. We think, 
however, that the signs of the times are im- 
proving in this respect. 

Writing in Normal Schools. 

It is to the normal schools of the land that 
we look for models of successful instruction 
in our public as well as private schools, yet 
so far as teaching writing is concerned, if 
we are to judge from the results obtained 
by teachers and pupils in most of our nor- 
mal and public schools, the success as s rule, 
is not remarkable; indeed, so far as we 
know, very few of our normal schools are 
employing really representative teachers of 
writing, or attaching anything like due im- 
portance to system, and modes for skillful 
instruction in this important but badly neg- 
lected department of education. It is with 
pleasure, therefore, that we note exceptions 
to this rule. For several years past the State 
Normal School of New Jersey has employed 
a most efficient and skillful teacher of writ- 
ing in the person of Professor D. H. Far 
ley. We recently examined specimens of 
writing by one hundred different pupils in 
this school, which are indeed remarkable; 
their aggregate degree of excellence was the 
highest we have ever seen for so large 
a number of pupils. If all our normal 
schools could show equal results we should 
look for a new crop of teachers who would 
not disgrace the schorl room with their own 
awkward writing and utter 
teaching it. 

ad suggestions, then inclose $1.00. 

confident that many of our aspiring 
young writers would find this a very profit- 
able investment. 

Bad Penmanship. 

Anecdotes of bad penmanship are again m 
order. The firjt Napoleon had so little mas- 
tery over his pen that his letters from Ger- 
many to Josephine were at first sight taken 
for rough maps of the seat of war. John W. 
Brooks, the railroad manager. wrot« to a man 
living on the Michigan Central route, threat- 
ening to prosecute him forthwith, unless he 
removed a barn he had nm upon the com- 
piny's property. The recipient did not read 
the letter, for reading it was impossihle, but 
he made out the signature, and arrived at 
the conclusion that the manager had favored 
him with a free pass along the line. As such 
he used it for a couple of years, no conduc- 
tor on the route being able to dispute his 
reading of the document. H. W. Beecher 
can hardly be considered a model scribe, see- 
ing that one of his daughters owned that her 
three gxiiding rules in copying his manu- 
script were that if a letter was dotted it was 
not an i ; and if it was crossed it was not a t ; 
and if a word began with a capital it did not 
lorace Greeley's dis- 



aU 1 

member was used as a recommendation of 
character, which brought the bearer honor 
and position. Theodore Parker, who was 
about the worst writer hereabouts within the 
last thirty years, took the premium when at 
school for the best penmanship. 

^ The Value of Good Writing. 

It is safe to say that no other one aocot 
pUehment will so greatly and readily aid 
lady or a gentleman seeking employment as 
good hand-writing. It is an accomplishment 
that always speaks promptly and well for its 
possessor, opening many ways for a beginning, 
and when supported by other valuable attain- 
ments, united with industry and integrity, 
carries its possessor forward and upward to 
places of profit and distinction. Many of 
our most prominent business and prof >ssional 
men are indebted for iheir first position and 
early success to a good hand-writing ; and 
how many applicants for places as clerks owe 
their rejection to an awkward hand-writing it 
is impossible to tell. WTiere applications for 
positions are made by mail, those written in a 
good hand alone receive consideration. A 
cood or bad hand turns the scale, and opens 
the way to success to the one. and securely 
bars it to the other. When we thus reflect 
upon the importance of writing a good hand, 
and the ease with which it may be acquired 
by the proper study and practice, it is indeed 

How to Profit by our Writing Lessons, 
For the benefit of the many who are en 
deavoring to improve their writing through 
the aid of the lessons now being given ii 
columns of the Journal, we ventur 
offer the following suggestions; 

Many pupils fail to become good wrilers 
from want of sufficient patience to study 
and practice upon one thing until it is thor- 
oughly mastered, before taking up some- 
thing new; the real secret of success, in all 
things, is absolute thoroughness. 

If each reader, who seeks, to profit by 
these lessons, will bear this in mind, and, by 
study and practice, make himself master of 
all that is given in each lesson, which he 
can easily do. he will, at the end of the 
course, have a thorough knowledge of writ- 
ing and the ability to write at least a good 
legible hand; and if he really has a genius in 
that direction he may become an accom- 
plished writer and teacher. The one thing 
essential is to master the lesson of each 
month. And^bear in mind that we have on file 
specimens from about one thousand readers 
and the one who presents the best specimen 
of improvement at the close of the lessons 
will get a handsome premium, and have the 
honor and pleasure, to say nothing of the 
advantage, of being the best one in a thou- 
sand, and how his name will shine in the 
columns of the Journal. Remember, that 
toil is the price of excellence. 

r faults, of which 

Instruction by Mail. 

We arc in receipt of a large number of 
communications soliciting instruction in 
writing by mail, which we have neither the 
time nor inclination to give, certainly not in 
the form, nor to the extent to be called in- 
struction; but as a large number of these 
communications come from persons who are 
already well advanced, being 
writers, yet having 
they are either unconscious, or did not know 
just how to remedy, we are led to believe 
that we can do such persons considerable 
service by criticising their writing, pointing 
out its faults, and offering advice for their 
correction by mail, and especially to those 
who are seeking to practice from, and im- 
prove by the course of lessons now being 
given through the columns of the Journal. 
Such as desire to trj* the experiment, and 
will comply with the following directions, 
we will serve to the best of our ability: 

Write the specimen for correction upon a 
letter sheet in your best and most perfect 
manner, writing not over three-fourths down 
the sheet, leaving at least one inch upon 
each margin, to give room to note correc- 

Marvellous Specimen of Pen Art. 

The attention of our readers is invited to 
Mr. Barlow's advertisement in another col- 
umn, of his remarkable centennial picture, 
a copy of which we have received. It is 
unquestionably the most elaborate and com- 
prehensive pictorial presentment of Amer- 
ican progress ever executed; to attempt to 
describe it would require columns of space 
in the Journal, which cannot well be spar- 
ed at this time. To it was awarded a diplo- 
ma and medal at the Centennial Exhibition 
of 1876, the highest premium awarded to 
penmanship in the art department at that 

Eibbe's Magic Lettering Tablet, 

We are indebted to Mr, Kibbe for one of 
these ingenious and practical doYices for aid- 
ing in the construction of the standard Ro- 
man alphabet, to which purpose it appears to 
be well adapted. We judge it to be of ser- 
vice, principally to the learner or inexpe- 
rienced letter writer rather than to the adept. 
We have, however, been too pressed with 
other duties to give it a sufficient study and 
trial to judge fully of its capabilities or real 
value, but, to say the least, we are favorably 
impressed with it. For more full inform- 
ation see advertisement in another column. 

\ Obituary. 

We_are deeply pained lo announce the 
death of Mrs. S. S. Packard, which occurred 
on the 28th instant. Mrs. Packard was ex- 
tensively and favorably known among those 
who have been identified with tho Bryant 
and Stratlon chain of colleges, by whom 
she was highly esteemed as a lady of rare 
merit, and to whom news of her death will 
cause unfeigned sadness. She was a woman 
of large heart and generous impulses ; an 
earnest and charitable friend, a devoted 
wife and mother. 

To Mr. Packard and the entire circle who 
mourn their irreparable loss, we extend our 

Seven Numbers of the Journal and a 
Splendid Premium for Fifty Cents. 
As an inducement to teachers, pupils and 
others interested in good writing to try the 
Journal, we will mail the remaining 
seven numbers of Vol. Ill with the Lord's 
Prayer premium, 19x24, for fifty cents. The 
premium is an elegant and valuable picture, 
and has actually been sold by agents at 
one dollar per copy. 


3 the columns of the Joubnai., regarding any 
epartmeiit of teaching or practicing writing, 
r upon any branch of practical education, 
re respectfully solicited. 

Art Edocation, No. 3- 

Tlio fact cannot be denied that bis position 
in tlie school of progress, (at least in art,) is 
at Iliefootof his class. The great lessons 
given th*': world by the different Universal 
Expositions, he seems very slow in learning. 
England, full of confident anticipations, 
challenged the world to a comparison of in- 
dustrial prodnctfl in 1851, and found, to her 
surprise and mortification, that in products 
involving skill and taste, she ranked below 
all her European rivals and above the Uni- 
ted StateH alone. 

The result aroused the government as 
from a lethiirgjc dream. Immediate and 
energetic action wn« taken. The Privy 
Council organized within itself a new sec- 
tion, called the "Department of Science 
and Art," having for its special object the 
popular di&scmination of science and art as 
applied to industry. 

In IfifiS, in furtherance of this object, the 
South Kensington Museum was established 
ai an original cost of $(J.000.0O0. and with 
an annual grant from the government of 

This is intended and arranged as a Nor- 
mal Art School, where students, selected 
for ability and fitness, are prepared for art 
masters in subordinate schools. Such schools 
were organized in all the important indus- 
trial towns of the country. Their progress 
was watched with eager interest and foster- 
ing cnre by the government. At the end of 
ten years of their existence, in 1862. Eng- 
land again invited the world to her exposi- 
tion. This lime she liad good reasons for 
confidence. Her lavish expenditure, wise 
and energetic management had produced 
commensurate results. The progress shown 
io the application of the arta of design to 
the industrial arts were so marked in origi- 
nality, skill and taste as to excite the aston- 
ishment of all her Continental neighbors. 
France, in particular, wns almost electrified; 
she found that she could no longer depend 
upon her ancient prestige. Her artistic su- 
premacy in the markets was in serious dan. 
ger from such progress by her ancient rival. 

The next year the Emperor appointed a 
large and able Commission, divided into sec- 
tions, to investigate the subject of technical 
education in particular. In 18G5 this Com- 
mission exhibited an exhaustive report of 
the situation at home and in all parts of 
Europe. They declared that " dmwifts,wh]i 
all ita applications totlie different industrial 
arts, should he considered as the principal 
means to be employed in technical instruc- 

The government immediately put into ac- 
tion tbe advice of the Commission, and the 
art instruction of PnuiLe, so long known as 
the most cflicient in Europe, was made 
much better still. The other European na- 
tions have not been idle ou thissubject. Im- 
mediately after the war with France, tbe 
Prussian Ministry of Commerce and Indus- 
try issued a circular, calling upon the au. 
thoritics of the principal industrial towns to 
'• follow the example of Prance in the orga- 
nization of Drawing and Industrial Schools. " 
Their attention was called to the industrial 
importance of these schrols. and to the fact 
that they form the true basis of the wealth 
nf France. Austria, and even Russia also 
took immediate action. 

The educational arrangements of Austria, 
which were pronounced by Hcrace Mann to 
be among the very poorest In Europe thirty 
years ago, ai-o to-day declared by Professor 
John D. Philbrick to be the best;— best in 
organization, course of study, and best in 
the character of their instruction. In the 
light of such facts, the seething activity of 
all Europe on the subject of art culture. 
The millions in enthusiastic drill witii im- 
plements of art for the championship in 
gratd Industrial tournaments, cau Young 
America stand by, an indifferent spectator 
and expect reasonably to escape Uie charge 
of dullness? Is there nothing that can aro-ise 
bis intercstT Let us present the case to him 
in dollars and cents. Take the example of 
France: France, with a domain smaller 
than Texas, produced for exportation in 
1874. according to VEeoiumCatf FVariMit, 
a total value of •775,550,60o! 

United Slates, according to the 

Bureau of Statistics. 693,000,000 

Manufd exports of France. 434,-513,800 

" Un'd States, 16,000.000 

America exports raw material and imports 
manufactured. France exports mostly 
skilled manufactures. It must not be sup- 
nosed that France is deficient in agriculture. 
In 180)) her total production of wheat was 
297,000.000 bushels, 67,000,000 more than 
was produced by the whole of the United 
States. Iler produce of potatoes, same 
year, was 275,000,000 bushels, which was 
155,000.000 bushels more than the United 
Slates. It was owing to this condition of 
things (to her culture in skill and taste), 
that when crushed and bleeding at almost 
every pore, after her defeat by Prussia, she 
could spring as if by magic from her pros- 
trate position, and so quinkly pay her for- 
feited milliards. Thus it is to be seen tlial 
Art Industrial Education is the basis of na- 
tional wealth and power. 


It is the nature of some folks to be awk- 
ward. Grace ie a quality which uo amount 
of persistence can ever drill into their souls 
to speak iteelf in conduct. They cannot 
learn it. It is beyond them. They are not 
devoid of ordinary comprehension, but they 
canuot learn this. You may study and study, 
and strive and strive to teach them the lesson 
of grace, but you caunot. It is a gift. It 
has its capabiUties of growth, development 
and vast infinitude of gain, but it is a gift. 
It must be implanted with tbe gift of life. 
It is as natural as the breath to some ; it 
never can be acquired by others. It is like 

sense, except the sense of grace, and the 
lack of this dulls the fineness of every other 
quality. She can do good work, and honest 
work, but it tacks the touch of nicety which 
should complete it. She is thorough and 
faithful, and even overdoes some things, but 
there is a stiffness of appearauce about every- 
thing she touches that fairly makes one's 
soul ache. And she canuot learn better. It 
is her way. She cannot set a chair back, or 
hang an article upou a hook, or do the 
simplest little thing without doing it awk- 
wardly. The very gift of sight is different 
with such a person than with another. The 
ffholb individuality lacks a woman's finest 
essential. You think it a habit that might be 
overcome. You suggest improvements aud 
the mode of making them, but you cannot 
change the order of nature. It is a fixed 
fact. IndividuaUty and originaUty are them- 
selves the finest of all graces, but they must 
be real quaUties and not affected. There 
must be a fouudation at tbe bottom of them. 
Imitation as an exercise for the culture of 
originality and development of new ideas is 
both wise and noble. Imitation, servile and 
parrot-like, is degradation. Lower than all 
degradation is thnt imitation which wins its 
name and fame by theft from auotber person's 
capital stock of thought, and auother person's 
grace of method, effort or nobility of con- 
duct. If we make a mistake, why not con- 
fess we did, and bear the blame of it? 
Surely we are not infaUible. Why then lay 
claim to another person's points of iufatli- 
bility. and thieve from him a greatness which, 
with us, could be merely an outside sham 
with emptiness and vacuity beneath it? 
Candor and honesty should stand for them- 

Writmg Lesson. 

In this lesson w 
the short letters. 

\y7^iy The letter n begins with left 
curve, and is connected by an upper turn 
to a straight line descending to ttasc line^ 
where it unites angidarly with second left 
curve, joined like the first to straight line, 
uniled by lower turn to right curve, and 
couliuued to head line on connective slant. 
Left curves parallel ; straight lines also 
parallel. Height, one space ; width, one 

^y j-y/y The letter m is the same as 
n, with first two lines repeated. Height, 
one space ; width, two spaces. 

y//" The letter o is formed by lines of 
the same form and slant as the third and 
fourth of n, and the fifth and sixth of lo. 
Height, one space ; width, one-half space. 

\/X^ The letter x is precisely like the 
last three lines of m or n, with the addition 
of a straight line one space in length made 
upward from a point at base line, equally 
distant from the two points of contact of 
left curve and lower turn with base line, 
and terminating at equal distance from 
upper turn and end of right curve. Height, 
one space; width between straieht lines at 
each extremity, one-half space. This letter 
I may be iikmIc without lifting the pen by 

and flounshmg combine ease, grace, artistic skill aud taste in an unusual degree. 

the gift of song or poesy, or the blessed gift 
of beauty. Some persons accustomed to 
every circumstance which adds to grace can 
never learn to do a graceful act. They Intend, 
perhaps, to do you a kindness, aud trample 
on your feelings. They wish to ask a favor, 
and come cringing after it in a manner the 
most insulting, or stride up and demand it in 
a manner equally insulting in an opposite 
sense. He who cringes in asking a reasona- 
ble favor insults the pride of the p^rty ad- 
dressed. The cringing implies expectation of 
refusal, whereas, if refusal be the expecta- 
tion, why should the favor be asked? Also, 
if the favor be reasonable, why not reasona- 
bly expect it will be granted? If one does 
expect a thing, why pretend the reverse? 
Also, if one has no right to ask a kindness, 
why stride up and demand it? Some people, 
with the best intentions, are born bunglers! 
They cannot say. or do, or conceive a phasant 
thing. This is how the good man too often 
finds his overtures in any direction scorned 
while the bad man -wins the fair lady," 
He knows ho^t to do it, that is all. He hides 
his viciousness under a seeming better than 
the reohty. The awkward, good man steps 
in his own hght. and puts it out with his own 
bungling. How can he help it ? he knows 
no better. He lacks tact. Many n woraon 
has good ability and discernment in eveij 

selves as angelic graces. Shame-facedness at 
honorable effort, even though subject to criti- 
cism, is toadyism. Perfection is before us 
aud above us to be struggled after, aud not 
to be picked up at every odd corner by every- 
body without an effort. Grace is to be sought 
and studied as a fine art, but iu whatever we 
do, let us be ourselves. Do not let us lie. 
Do not let UB steal. Do not let us make our- 
selves awkward with pretense, hypocrisy, and 
guilt. Let US keep the gruce of purity and 
the inborn grandeur of truth. In thought, 
word and deed, in labor and iu ambition 
toward success, let us be true. The grace of 
truth in the fine, clear eyes will atone for a 
world of bungling in acts, and the strength 
of honor will be to many a remedy for awk- 
wardness. Let us make the best of our 
circumstances and ourselves. 

Madoe Maple. 

Premiums Delayed. 

Owins to a slight delay in printing a new 
edition of the Lord's Prayer, it was not 
promptly mailed to a portion of the subscri- 
bers received during the last month; we are 
now well supplied and hope in the future 
there will be no delay. 

The best armor against temptation is to 
keep out of the range of its gims. 

retracing parts of it. It may also be formed 
by uniting a left and right curve direct to a 
left and right curve reversed. 

t^^ The letter o is formed by left 
curve commencing at base line and proceed- 
ing upward on connective slant to head 
line, where it is joined angularly to des- 
cending left curve, which is united by lower 
turn to right curve, joining left curve ot 
bead line. The letter terminates with 
horizontal right curve, one-half space in 
Ipogth. Height, one space ; width, one- 
half space. 

y^^^y The letter a commences at base 

line with left curve made 

at an angle of 

27". uniting with a left cu 

■ve, which, re- 

tracing the first one-fourth 

ts length, con- 

tinupsto base line, where it 

unites with a 

right curve, meeting the two 

left curves at 

top, from which point a straight line joins 
angularly, and proceeding to lower turn on 
regular slant is joined to a right curve, 
terminating at head line. Slant of oval 34« ; 
height of letter one space ; width, one space. 

y ._ The letter «" begins at base line 
with right curve extending to head line on 
connective slant ; it is there united by short 
turn to left curve, which, continuing down 
ward on regular slant, crosses the first curve 



one-third space from base line, to which it 
extends, and is there united to a right curve 
ending at head line. Height, one space ; 
width of loop, one-fourth space. 

ivitb a right 

'^^y. The letter e hegi 
curve extending upward nine-tenihe of a 
space, uniting angularly with short straight 
line merging into left curve, and uniting 
one-third space from head line, with right 
curve proceeding to head line, where, turn- 
ing short it joins left curve and continues 
to base line, and is there joioed to right 
curve oil connective slant, terminating at 
head line. Height, one space ; width, one- 
half space. 

' y^ X The letter r commences at base 
line with right curve, which continues on 
connective slant one and one fourth spaces, 
at which point a slight dot is made and a 
compound curve continued nearly vertical 
to the head line, where it is joined to a 
slrnight line on main alant proceeding to 
lower turn, which unites it to right curve 
extending to head line on connective slant. 
Iloight. one and one-fourth spaces; width 
at half tlie lieight, one-hnlf space. 

7^ The letter » begins with Mr curve 
precisely like r. uniting angularly 
with compound curve similar to 
stem, which diverges from the fi: 
until within one tlilrd space from base line, 
where, liy a liroad turn it touches the ruled 
line and continues upward, uniting by a 
light dot with first curve, from which dot 
the K'tter is retraced to the line and termi- 
nates wi(h right curve continued to head 
line. Height, one and ouc-fourth spaces; 
width, one-hnlf spaces. 

The pupil that shall never be satisfied 
until excellence has been attained, will 
practice, persistently and untiringly, all ex- 
ercises, letters or combinations tending to 
that result; and will not leave one for an- 
other simply for the sake of variety, nor 
because some other may be executed more 
easily, or with greater degree of accuracy, 
neither in the hope of receiving a higher 
mark from the teacher. 

In the preceding lessons, the exercises 
have been too numerous for immediate and 
satisfactory accomplishment, and are not 
given with any expectation that the average 
pupil will master them in the time of an 
ordinHry lesson, the design of this course 
being that each lesson shall be followed by 
practice for one month. Doubtless there 
are those among the number of our pupils 
who will not Ive content to confine them- 
selves so long to practice of so apparently 
limited scope ; but such pupils are not of 
those who arrive at excellence, neither is 
the result of this nractice so limited as may 
at first thought appear. Permit me to give 
a case illustrative of this point: While in 
Buffalo, in 1869. thR writer of this gave les- 
sons in ])emiianship to a gentleman over 
forty years of age, who occui-ied a respon- 
sible public position in that city, and whose 
good sense will be shown auou. A variety 
of exercises for free movement and forms 
for imitation were given him, and, among 
the latter, the capital stem. He seemed 
impressed with the importance of this par- 
ticular form, and although many other 
copies wore afterwai-d given, he clung tena- 
ciously to this, and for more than a month 
practiced nothing else. At the end of this 
time he had acquired great freedom of 
movement and certainty of producing uni- 
formly excellent capital stems; and not only 
this, but he, and the teaclier as well, were 
gratified and surprised to find that in this 
practice he had unconsciously gained the 
power to immediately and correctly produce 
other and dissimlar forms, and "he awoke 
one morning to find himself" not " famous," 
but a superior penman. 

It is related of Porpori. a once famous 
Italian teacher of voeal music, that he once 

Porpori reminded him of his 
The fifth year came— the same 
At the sixth they had 
Kome hints on articulativc 
pronunciation aud declamation were added. 
At the close of the sixth year the student 
supposed he had not vanquished the ele- 
raenta of the art, and was astonished when 
Porpori said, "Go. my son, I can teach 
thee no more. Thou art now the greatest 
nger of Italy and the worid " The stu- 
dent was Caffurelli. once thought by many 
have beeu all claimed for him by his 
iructor. The moral of this is, that even 
genius must he coupled with earnest effort 
to arrive at excellence. 

More About Dead Beats. 

Editor of the Vinmnn'a Art Journal: 

The prominent Colleges throughout the 
country have, no doubt, been written to in 
the same manuer. \>y the several parties re- 
ferred to in Mr. Cady's couimuuicatiou, as 
contained in your last issue of the Jodrnal. 
This single instance goes to show how Com- 
mercial College men are bamboozled into 
sending specimens of penmanship to indiv- 
iduals with fraudulent intentions, and to 
prove that this plan of scattering pen-work 
is unprofitable, send specimens to a postal 
card applicant, aud the result is that every 
boy in that vicinity will write for the same. 
It is a mistaken idea that the specimen will 
pass from hand to hand, and thus advertise 
the College sending them. On the contrary, 
the receiver of a penman's favor, having but 
Uttle taste or appreciation of the art, will take 
a casual glance at that which has cost time 
and effort to produce, and then cast it aside 
like a common handbill. 

A penman should put a value upon his 
skill, and instead of wasting it upon "thank 
you" jobs, should devote any spare time that 
he has, after his class-room duties, to profit 
by writing resolutioue, cards, itc, or in pre 
paring something for the Joobnal, in which 
case he will not be casting pearls before 
swine, but be letting his light shine for the 
benefit of the writing fratemitj- 

Institutions that make a pract; 'i of sending 
out specimens, not only follow^ injudi( 
practice, hut encourage the poat^l card 
ers to make a demand upon others who will 
not honor them, and thus saddle a uselei 
correspondence on them, which otherwii 
would not exist were it discountenanced by 
all. Our rule is, when worried for specimens 
of writing, to send a printed notice, stating 
that we will send a small specimen only upon 
the receipt of twenty-live cents. This fur- 
nishes a test upon the siucerity of the person 
making the request, though it is at the same 
time a tax upon ourselves, as that sura will 
not compensate us for the time aud trouble 
taken even in the production of a small 

The columns of the Joubnai. furnishes a 
place to let light in upon impositions uf this 
kind, and it is to bo hoped that others will 
the good example of Mr. Cady and 
give the Commercial College community the 
benefit of any knowledge they may have of 
"Deadbeatism " as he (Mr. Cady) styles it. 
Wm. H. Ddff. 

St. Louis, Mo., May 6, 187^. 
Editor of the Penman's Art Journal: 

May number at hand. The article headed 
"Deadbeats," is (mc^y aud to the point, al- 
though a few '* finishing t"uches" would 
have made It still more viduable to honest 
penmen. To my sorrow, I have to report 
that Mr. Jones and myself have both been 
"Ao/iorcrf" with the identical requests, aud, 
no doubt, others in this city have been 

basket ; but there may be an innocent and 
st-meoniug person, coming along, who 
may share the same fate of the guilty ones; 
and here is where the "rub " comes in — How 

e we to guard against such mistakes ? 

I should like very much to have you write 
up this matter fully in your paper, thereby 
rendering great good to a " plague-stricken 
fraternity." I am, as ever, yours sincerely, 


Numerous responses similar to the above 
have been received, the writers all having 
had the identical cards. We have seriously 
contemplated doing just what Prof. W. sug- 
gests, viz. : give the full names, address, 
pedigree and history of some of the well- 
known frauds in the profession. We kuow 
of several who richly deserve it, and it is 
proper that they should be known, that those 
liiible to become their victims may be upon 
their guard. We have ourselves within a 
short time past, been most meanly victim- 
ized by some who have managed to win an 
enviable notoriety as authors aud teachers ; 
and so long aa such knaves remain unexposed 
others are equally liable to be victimized. 
We are collecting some facts which will be 
peculiarly interesting to some of those fel- 
lows when we begin. We are nearly "ready 
for the charge." 

F. P. Preuitt, Kaufman, Texas, sends 
eral elegant specimens of copy writing. 

Mr. Gray, the forger, receives ten years 
for proficiency in penmanship. 

A. E. Degler, Warren, O., incloses an attrac- 
tive and well-executed specimen of flourish- 

B. Rusink. Gibbsville, "Wis., sends some 
very creditable specimens of flourished cap- 
itals and card writing. 

A. N. Palmer, Ni^w Hampton, N. H., sends 
a package of well-written copy slips, also 
grace fully, written cards. 

J. M. Willey, teacher of penmanship at 
Cobb's Business College, Painesville, 0., 
writes an elegant letter. 

J. W. Pierson, Mecca, O., sends several 
shps of copy writing, which for ease of 
movement, gi-ace and accuracy of form are 
rarely excelled. 

Jos. Foeller, Jr., Ashland, Pa., sends a 
photograph of resolutions engrossed for the 
7tL Reg. N. G. of Pa., which is a very credit- 
able piece of work. 

H. C. Kendall, principal of Normal Writ- 
ing Institute, writes a very easy and graceful 
letter, in which he encloses an elegant speci- 
men of practicol writing. 

P. Hammel, Cincinnatti, Ohio, sends speci- 
mens of business writing, which are models 
for ease and excellence; also, a very graceful 
specimen of flourishing. 

S. T. Malone, Boothsville. W. Va., sends a 
very attractive specimen of flourishing and 
drawing ; also numerous specimens of copy- 
writing, which are very creditable. 

F. J. ToUaud, who is enjoying marked suc- 
cess teaching classes at Maquoketa, Iowa, 
sends a superior collection of specimens of 
plain and ornamental penmanship, written 
with the left hand. 

T. C. Temple, a graduate of D. L. Mussel- 
man, is having good success teaching classes 
in the middle of Illiuois. He is a fine writer, 
skillfully executed specimen of 

G. M. Slusser is teaching writing at the 
Valley Normal Institute, Bridgewater, Va. 

F. O. Young the famous left hand writer, 
is at Camden, Me. He writes an elegant 

W. H. Kitto formerly of Plotteville. Wis., 
has gone to Soulsbyville, Cal,, where he is to 
act as telegraph operator and ticket agent. 

Prof. C. H. Pierce of Keokuk. Iowa, ia 
desirous of exchanging portraits with all th» 
penmen of the country. He hos received 
thirty eight during the past year. 

C. L. Martin, teacher of penmanship and 
phonography at Chaddock College, Quincy HI. 
also Secretary and Treasury of the college, is 
an aocomplished writer. His average speed of 
long hand is thirty words per minute, has 
written forty-eight words 1- gibly, per minute, 
for eight minutes on a trial of speed— who can 

do better. 

ntly bad the plef 

of i 

"dealt with " 
don't pay any 
let it gently eu! 
this bar'>faced 
too much for 
battery" on 

anner. Usually I 
such '■ stuff," and 
er into the waste basket; but 
"non-explosive" cheek was 
me, and I emptied an entire 
the writer — since then I have 

from J. W. Swank, who is the corresponding 
clerk of the U. S. Treasury Department. 
Washington, D. C. He eujoysthe reputation 
of being the best writer in the employ of the 
Government. Also a visit from M. V Cas.ey 
who is employed iu the same department, 

F. J. Tolland who is teaching large writing 
classes at Maquoketa. Iowa, is highly compU- 
mented by the press of that city, os well as 
by a committee of his pupils. Teachers in 
the pubhc schools commend and invite him to 
give a second course o^ instruction in that 
place. The Prof, writeswithhis left hand, and 
is a very skiUful penman. 

Prof. E. C. Allen, who formerly conducted 
the commercial department in the Brooklyn 
Polytechnic Institute, has leased, for a term 
of years, the Amenia Seminary, Amenia. N.Y. 
Prof. Allen is a graduate of Madison University, 
is a thorough scholar, experienced teacher, 
and a reliable gentleman. We cordioUy wish 
him success in this new field of labor, com- 

ensurate with his large personal merits. 

The Quincy (01.) Doily Whig of May 14th, 
says: "At the commencement exercises of 
LaGrange college, which were held a few 
doys since, the honory degree of Master of 
Arts was conferred on Prof. D. L. Mu^sel- 
, of the Gem City Business college. 
Prof. MuBselman is eminently worthy of tLe 
distinction, and the college will have no cause 
egret its action. He has devoted many 
years to the education nnd advancement uf 
and women and the title accor- 
9 been conferred upon 
son." From what we 
of Prof. Musselman we ctm most fully 
endorse the good opinion of the Whig. 

Mr. C. Claghom. proprietor of the Bryant 
& Stratton Business College, Brooklyn, has 
by request of the house of Daniel Slote it Co, , 
the largest blank book manufacturers in the 
country, estabhshed and assumed charge for 
them of a department of Business College 
supplies and school blanks. Although his 
College is in Brooklyn, its proximity to the 
house of D, Slote &. Co., which is located in 
the lower part of New York City, makes it 
easy to manage both enterprises. His first 
work has been to make up a set of blanks to 
accompany the revised edition of the Bryant 
& Strotton book-keeping, and he has pro- 
duced the most beautiful set of book-keeping 
blanks we have ever seen. Mr. Claghoru has 
had great experience :n teat bin):; iu, and in 
the management of. Busine^is Colleges, and is 
rendy to respond to any inquiries, not only 
with recard to the use of lilnuks. but upon 
any subject connected with busiuees educa- 



said to one of his most gifted pupils that if 

he felt the resolution to follow the plan he j been " let alone. " 

would suggest, he would evcntmdly become What I desire to say is, that such men 

a perfect singer. The student signified his | should be fully expoxfd, giving their history. 

assent. '■ Porpori noted on a sheet of paper ' pedigree and all, to serve as a lesson for 

the diatouic and chromatic scales, explained others who may resort to such underhanded 

the intervals, sustaining tones, shakes. ! ways of trying to achieve their object. 

trills and every feature of vocali2:ilion," ' I am daily bothend with requests for 

This was repeated the second year and the I specimens, under all sorts of pretexts, and 

third. The fourth year the student began [ generally give them the benefit of the waste | plaoa. 

L. Ricketts. who is teaching writing at 
Athens (O.; Normal School, writes a very at- 
tractive letter, in which he incloses several 
handsome specimens of plain writing aud 
visitiug cards. 

C. E. Cady. of Cady A, Walworth's Busi- 
ness College, Uuiou Square, New York, sends 
a package containing specimeus of writing by 
each of the fitudentain that insl.tution. which 
indicates more than the average degree of ex- 
cellence in writiLg. 

D. H. Farley, teacher of writing in the 
State Normal and Model School. Trenton, 
N. J-, sends specimens written by one hun- 
dred diS'ereut pupils in that school, which 
evince a remarkable degree of uniform excel- 
lence; indeed we have never examined so 
large a number of specimens, from one 
school, that exhibited so good an aggregate 
result. We have long re ::arded Prof . Farley 
a» one of our very best writers and teachers ; 
these specimens, as the result of his instruc- 
tion, serre only to confirm our high opinion. 
If the pupils in all our normal schools were 
under the tuition of equally skillful and suc- 
cfGsful teachers, we should hope to see writ- 
ing iu our pi)blic schools attain to, at least, a 
respectable degree of excellence. Evidently 
Prof. Farley is the right moo in the right 

F. O., Norwalk, O.— You write with un- 
usual eas*^ and grace; your leading faults are 
irregularity in size of letters, and not follow- 
ing the Uno, many of the letters being half a 
space above. 

I. J. T., Cranbrook, Ont. — Your writing 
for business needs no criticism. It is easy, 
graceful, rapid and legible. As ropy writing 
it would need more criticism than we can 
here give. 

F J. S.. EagleviUe, Conn. — A. H. Hinman 
is now leaching writing in the Bryant & 
Stratton Business School. Boston. We can 
send you the Williams &. Packard Guide for 

92.r>0. Twel 

Kelley's course in the Jouuvai,, eoding with 

the March Dumber 1S80. 

H. A. 8.. Syracuse. K Y.— Do you, or 
can you. give inrtruction hy mail? I am 
BDxiouH to improve my wrilinB. aod think 
a few liintii from you would greatly aid me. 
An*. — We have not attempted to give any 
inBtruclion by mail other tbun the few an- 
BWen* to qiieRtion* given in this column, but. 
owing to a large number of retjuestfl similar 
to yoara, we will, in future, criticise and 
make BuggeHtions for improvement, to the 
best of our ability, upon terms and conditions 
a« net forlh in an article upon the fourth 
page of the .Ioornal. 

S. O. H., Baldwin, Wis. — 1. When writ- 
ing. Hhould the back of the hand be turned 
upwards HO an to bu perfectly level, or should 
it be inchufd towards the rigiit? Ans. — 
In order that the nibs of the pen should 
be flat upon the paper, and each under 
the same d-jgree of pressure, which is neces- 
sary to give a smooth, shaded line, the 
wrist should be held in a honzoutal pos- 
ition; but few writers actually maintain that 
position, as it is too great a strain upon the 
musoles of hand and wrist, but the nearer 
that position is kept the better for smooth 
and graceful writing, owing to the great dif- 
ficulty of acquiring and maintaining that pos- 
ition. The oblique pen and holder has been 
introduced, and Homewliat extensively uRed. 
2. What is the properslaut of the p-'U ? Anit. 
—It should vary conmtlerably aciording to 
whether cue writes with the finger or muscular 
movement. In the finger movement, the 
poaitioD giving the greatest freedom and 
ease of motion is that which briugs the pen- 
bolder across the forefluger, about midway 
between the second and knuckle joint, this 
gives a slant of about fifty-five degrees, but 
since less is required of the fingers in the 
muscle or arm movements, and the pen 
having a greater degree of elope, moves 
more easily over the paper, and with less 
liability of catching and Bpattering ; the 
holder is usually allowed to cross the finger 
above th« knuckle joint, where it is also more 
easily held in position, this gives the pen a 
slant of about forty-five degrees. :j. When 
the museular uiuvement is used, should the 
aemi-extended Liters and the extended loop 

also be made with that movement? Ans. 

The combination movement should be used. 
Which is more legible and which cau bo 
rapidly, an upright or a slant- 

SpTciMEN LrrrtBsr rnoM Ames* Alphabets, 




ing hand? Upright" 
hut less rapidly execi 
written moht rapidly, 

ited. r>. Which c 

To the Friends of the Journal. 


to commend it to every one interested in 
penmnnahip throughout the country. There 
are Htill hundreds and tliouaands that have 
never seen it. I myself receive a great many 
letters from young people all over the country 
asking if such a paper is published. For the 
' leQt of such I propose to mail one thou- 

sand oopies of the i 
correspondents I kno 
writing, and hope to s 
names for you. If I i 
very glad, for I ku 

to to those of my 
to be interested in 
Lire a thousand new 
1 do this I shall be 
V you deserve all the 
success possible. Would this not be n good 
plan for other of our teachers and penmen 
to adopt 1 Truly yours, 

We think friend Gasktll's suggestion an 
excelloQt one. and shall Uike pleasure in sup- 
plying extra copies of cither the current or 
aome back number to those who will take 
the trouble to use them to our advantage 

An Offer. 

To the person who first journalizes cor- 
rectly the following tnmaaction. I will give a 
copy of the "Accountanta' Guide," a popular 
eyatem of bookkeeping, by M. K. .lolmson, 
late boukkeepeer for Field, Leiter & Co., 

Sold one-half of my business to John Smith, 
who beoomos a partner and shares equally in 
gains and losses. I have on hand merchan- 
dise valued at $0,000, store and fixtures worth 

Received in payment — cash, $5,000 ; his 
note for balance, $5,000. 

G. B. RxTiiBm. 

Omaha. May L'6, 1879. 

Penmen's Supplies. 

We invite the altention of penmen to our 
supply list on this page. Wc shall at alt 
times endeavor to servo penmen desiring 
anything in our line to the best of our abili- 
ty. Miiuy small articles upon our li t may 
seem to bo placed at a high figure, but this 
is necessary to cover the postage and expense 
of tubing or boxing necessary to protect the 
same in the niuils. When articles are wanted 
m quantity and can be sent by express we 
uaU be pleased to make special esUmateg 

pLainI, fLpVArioN.VifiW. 

The above cut represents specimen Icitcis from several pages of "Ames' New Rook c 
Alphabets," just completed, and now in the hands of the binder. It will be ready I 
mail on and after May 5. Sent post-paid on receipt of $1..50. 

Send Cash with Orders. 

All orders for books, merchandise, work 
or engraving to be sent by mail, must be ac 
companied with the fullamountof cash. If 
ordered to be sent by express, at least one 
half of the amount should be remitted, the 
balance C. O. D. 

On Saturday. May 2Uh, the students and 
faculty of the Eastman Business College, 
Poughkeepsie, went on a grand excursion 
down the Hudson and through New York 
Bay, stopping about five hours in this city. 
We return our thanks for the courteous invit- 
ation to be present, which pressure of other 
duties prevented our accepting. 

Somebody says very beautifully, " A good 
life is visible philosophy." 


by return of mill or by exprtas as stated, any article 
named Id lb» followlDR liat. 

By orderlnR from u», patrons can rely not only 
upon recolvloif B superior article, but upou doing so 

I. dmwg. pupet, : 

•>• A MERI 




Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


S. S. PACKARD, Publisher. 


OK and de 
rapocUve In 

Terms for tuitioa special. 



^Promtbe list Of patrons and"?up[^a!M 


Jafl. Brown of Brown Broihera, AugU; 
Ambrose Kingsland, Stephen H. Tyng, 
James Havemeyer, s, S. Packard, Hirum ] 


McClenahan A. Woodruff. 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 




Wblte Ink, per bottle^ by eipreia. '.!!'.'..!!! ','.'.'.',', 

David a Japan Ink, per pint bottle, by txprVsa. . 
Prepared India Ink, per boiMo, by exprees 

^'pencerian No. 1, eitra for flounshing 

Engroaalng Pens (or i.- r, , „, , ,. ,| . 
CTO-vQ-ilirpon, vers iji. i ,i, /., 

McLee'a Alphtbota 

Congdon's Nonnal Syatem of Flouri»hiiig!,'."."| ."| 

Paycon, Dimtun and Scribaer's Man ai!., 

Sptncerian Compendium • 


boanu, bj etp 

.uiylengUi, per yard. 

Commercial i 

Not a Revis 
?C T^. W 

I, but an Entlr. 

I-: r; r i-: 




Forged, Disguised & Anonymous Writing 

H^vhiB had over tliirty years experience, I am pre 

fully written on fine brlsl 
per doz. A beautiful spe.lmen 

LOW, Springville, H, Y. (Pleaat 

UNSDRPASSED Specimens of Bold Business Writ- 
^ ing aenl for •26c., by Madarasi. RocUestor, 

d IliploHiajt have b 
d luiernntioDul Lxlilbltloa«. 

Best known. Established. 1824 


Ornamental and Artistic 


Soule & Flickinger. 



e particular n 

; thoroughly teuglil. 

Ill Instruction In Designing and Ezecntlnp! Com- 

I acquire the power to auccessfuJIy eiecute work for 
reproduction by the Photo- Engraving or Phoio-LItho- 

1 engroaelug v'. 
8. Packard, I 




U. "W. KI.W'OKTH, 


Practical Penmanship. 

1 to elutity uplUla u RTANDABO • 

_ new <-r CURRENT BiylMjlMll. 

"Th* flmt to U«ue a PAPER devoted to penoaanslilp 

•Tb* flrst to popalmrlM TBACISO In oop7-booka 

■ Tin- Brit to dovltie s VERTICAL SCALE for writing 

rtt. flrit to denJonitr.!€ mithem.tlc.lly, tbe TRDK 

8LANT for wrlUog (1^7). 



The American Centennial. 


A Pod DrawlsK, The only ono awarded a Medal an 
Diploma Id the \rt Department ol tbe Centennial K) 
Uibltlua. and declared by tbe Art Director. Mr. Sm 

HIatory of tlio Century, contalni 

>aDd il 

iryAm-rlcsn aboiUd Uave OQ»,belug o 

$3 to $3"' 




Capital City Commercial College, 

JULY -y, is-yo, 

d oontlnuing aliweoka. 



McClenahan & Woodruff, 


Bcrlptlona. Bevel Rdfie 01 

t>OR 8ALE.-A v*-o 
I; No compotitli) 
biiatni^si tbrokigbout 
Julj- 1. «t a aacnfli-e. 


year. ^ 

a Bu 





■ ■ 



for Pen Alt 



Iitltariog and Pen- Drawing. 


It part' Will I be benefited by ttnch an in- 

Now you are abont*to ask your^')f tliu quMuL"- 


Lettefing lablet? 


The Analytical Alphabet 

As a Self-Instructor, 

Lady or Gentlemen, 

Boy or Girl, 

It Is Worth its Weight in Gold 

to every FenmaD. profesBl»iial or amateur, every 
Engraver, every Draugbtsman and all others wbo 


should placeit in the bauds of tbelr chlldreD. It com- 
bines amUHemont iiad iQfltructlon In a great degree, 


Special Inducements 

e Proprietors of Biiainess Colleges wbo wish t 

;ougli raliro.d era board, .n'd.-rtttpi'oper™" 
Bt. 8eiitlooDy«adro..on r«OTpt of Jl. 

promptly aud artistically ciecuted to order. 

Large Flourished Pieces 

A Specially. 

Resolutions, &c., 

TOBsed In tho beat style of the art. aod at prict 

Private Instruction 


llbt.i>cbcofpeiiman.l.lp BY MAIL. 

This Method 


Charges are Very Moderate, 


naloDtly on band, wbicb will be aent post-paid attl 
ict Pboto-llthogiapb of a LARUE an 

ejost received y 

ens of aouriehing 
.not be excehtd -John La^J^.V. y. 

e never seen excelled.— IT. McKtt, 
lost exquisitely beanllfol pieces of 


Every Variety of Pen Work Promptiy Executeti in Uie Most Perfect Manner 
Also, Coimsel given as Expert on Hand-Writing and Accounts. 


upUcatos In Elecii 


low pricee. Inclose etamp 

For Uiplomn!! and Spcci- 

st^\^^v%SY^^^'A^^^^clV\i^^'>^\^^vvv\^\^\\^^^^ ^^^"^S^ ^v<w 



rx^ Series of ^ 





uB^fi of bueineaa colleges, tbe 


By ! 

1 12.61 

106, by 

IvisoD, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

2 lit 138 n 

A 14 




New York. 



"s ' 



pie, a 


U."°B.' F. 








SprlDgneld, 0. 





50 ?oM,'™' 







W*Co™«. s^.TeSi 


TW. Isa »e« aud elegant picture.' showing all pr< 
Sent by mall on receipt of 25 cents. 


1 t. Union iSquirre, New Yi.rl 


What Everybody Wants. 

I receipt of prices annexed, I will sen 

be Lord's Praye 


he MarrioRO Cer 
he Family Keco 
itpeclueu Sheet 



BCh llj 


000 " >' 



TnoniPSON,I>a Fayette. Ind. 


Of»nptrior EKOLISE 


188 and 140 Qrand & 

Published J^onthly, at SOO Broad-way, lor Bl.OO per Ye 

"Entered at the Post Office of Neto York, N. 7., a^ second-clots matter." 


VOL. in. NO. 7. 

Builne-t OoUegea. occupying 

■ or Pcnmomod Builnex OoUegea. oc 



IS Broadwftj, (Room 70). New York. 



THOM\S MAY PEIROE, M. A., Prloclp*!. 
39 South Toutb Street PbUadelpbia. 


L. L. 8PBAO0E, 


Addis Albuo, Prinolpal. 





Book Sugraver, Bird and Puu FlourlshlDg, 




The Writing Class. 

What M the use of Analysis f 

The usti of Aualysis in penmausbip is for 
classiQciitiou, rnothod. criticisiu. 

Classificiitiou, in peniQansbip, consists iu 
gatherUig the letters of the alphnbet into 
groups of similar charactors. Tli^ uiaiu part 
of every letter in a group is the framework, 
principle, or law of construction of that 
p&rtiuular group. For instance, the Capital 
Stem forms the main framework of a large 
class of letters; on this one principle are 
built up the individual chnracterislics of each 
particular letter of the group. Thus classifi- 
cation groups the fifty-two seemingly diverse 
forms of the alphabet under a few well-de- 
flced principles. 

Method, iu penmanship, is a logical, sys- 
tematic, and progressive presentation of the 
art of writing ; such that the first efforts of 

the pupil are made simple and easy, and that 
each step is a preparation for the next succeed- 
ing one. Classification marks out the grand 
divisions of the script alphabet ; method ar- 
ranges, orgauizes, and systematizes the work, 
filling in all the details. 

Criticism, in penmantthip, is the applica- 
tion of kuowledgb r<ud judgment to a written 
form, to discover where it is wrong, and where 
to remedy it. Criticism does for a letter what 
proof does for a mathematical problem. It 
looks at each separate step, to detect any 
possible error which would be fatal to the ac- 
curacy of the final result. 

Sow does AtiaUsis accomplish this purpose f 
Analysis furnishes the basis of classifica- 
tion. It makes the main part of frame- 
work of each letter the standard of its con- 
struction. Aualysis having first searched out 
the framework of each individual letter, fiuds 
that there are but a few standard forms, each 
of which is the common principle of many 
letters. Analysis determines, as it were, the 
order of architecture to which each letter be- 
longs, and assigns to each its proper place. 

Analysis does not slop when it has deter- 
mined the general principles of the letters, 
but it also separates the letters into their ele- 
iiiuntnry pitrts. It thus goes to the founda- 
tion of penmanship, and opens up the entire 
subject. Method now has a chance to organ- 
ize this material into a complete system, and 
thus lay out a short, practical, and easy route 
to the ac(}ui6ition of a good handwriting. 

In criticising the letter, we must compare it 
with some staudard model which is before the 
eye.or else in the mind of the writer. To be of 
material assistance to the pupil in forming 
correct letters, each letter must be criticised 
in detail. If a letter is wrong, some elemen- 
tal part or parts are wrong ; and to correct 
the letter, such elemental part or parts must 
be corrected. Aualysis is thus able to scruti- 
nize every part of evei-y letter, and to guide 
the pen at every stroke. 

What must be Uie character of Aiuxlysia, in 
order to accomplish this purpose f 

It must contain all the main compound parts 
of the letters, in order to serve the purpose 
of classification. 

It must contain all the fundamental ele- 
ments of the letters iu order to serve the pur- 
pose of criticism. 

These compound parts must be classed to- 
gether, and the elementary parts classed to- 
^•'ther: and these two classes must be kept 
entirely separate and distiuct, in order to serve 
the purpose of method. 

Does Analysis serve a practical purpose »» 
penman»hip f 

In itself. Analysis is nothing, and if not a 
means to an eud, is absohitcty useless, no 
matter how logical and ingenious. The ob- 
ject iu view is to arrive at a legible and prac- 
tical handwriting by the surest and most 
direct route, since it is to be put to au imme- 
diate aud practical use. Analysis has classified 
the script alphabet iuto groups of similar 

i characters. When the pupil has learned one 
letltr, he has found the key to every other in 

j the group, and has but to build on a com- 
mon principle the individual characteristics of 

j each. This lessens labor and facihtates pro- 

I gress. But analysis does more than this. It 
has arranged the letters of the alphabet in the 

I order of their comparative difficulty, aud has 
ihus marked out a methodical and progress- 

I ive course, which is the surest aud only 

1 direct route to the final result. 

.Vnalysis has made the first steps iu the ac- 
quisition of the art so simple, that writing is 
now begun iu almost the lowest primary 
grades. In penmanship, primary writing 
especially should be arranged after the analyt- 
ic method. It does not follow that the why 
and wherefore of every step must be fully ex- 
plained, but the pupil should be led in the 
path laid out for him by science, and at a 
later stage of his progress he will be able to 
look back and appreciate what has helpedhim 
onward. The elemeutary aualysis is of incal- 
culable value to the pupil as a standard of 
comparison, and as au instrumentof criticism. 
It poiuts out the way at every step of pro- 
gress, aud is a conslant check upon wrong 
practice. It tells the pupil just what to do, 
just how to do it, aud just when it is done. 
In no other branch can criticism be more 
simply and advantageously applied than in 
penmanship, and iu no other can the pupil 
become his own best critic. 

To what extent should Analysis be caiTiedf 
The gi-and object of Analysis is criticism. 
Heuee, it should be carried just so tar as will 
serve the purpose of criticism. It is not 
sufficieut to stop at compound parts, however 
simple, because these are equally as suscepti- 
ble of analysis as the letters themselves. Nor 
should the division be carried so far as to des- 
troy the individuality of the elementary parts. 
But the analysis is complete, when it has 
identified those parts of the letter which are 
units iu its construction, and hence units of 

Any art, which is indeterminate and vague, 
cannot awaken enthusiasm. The analytic 
method, the outgrowth of analysis, is not a 
drowsy one, inviting to apathy. It brings 
life, light, and energy into penmanship, and 
stirs up the sleepers. Thought directs prac- 
tice. Every line is an iuterpretatiou of au 
idea. And the mind thinks out what the 
hand executes. — Primai-y Teaclier. 

Extravagance in Language. 

Extravagance in the use of language is a 
sign of iguorauce or imperfect development 
of the mind on the part of its Votary. It is a 
fault more common to the young than to the 
old, to the illiterate than to the educated, to 
barbaric than civibzed peoples. The ten- 
dency of children aud servants to fall into the 
error is so marked as to be proverbial, while 
the exaggerationsof statements by the savage 
and semi-civilized nations are no less charac- 
teristic. But they are not the only violators 
of the law of moderation in language. This 
fault is marked by many gradatious. and iu 
a modified form is only too general among 
ordinarily well educated aduJls, and is only 
less pronounced in public speaking and writ- 
ing, '.hau in private discourse and correspon- 
dence. How few speakers and writers are 
there who are careful to keep within the 
confines of precision ! How many mistake 
uncurbed iutenseness for effective strength I 
Yet the effects of extravagance in the employ- 
ment of language are the reverse of those sought 
to be obtained- It produces monotony, uui- 
formily, sameness, aud destroys expreraion, 
comparison, Ufe. By abuse, language loses its 
power, and statements their weight. It de- 
generates into cant and becomes enfeebled, 
so that in the time of need for inU-usity and 
strength, language is inadequate tJ express- 
ion, and its abuser is revealed its impo- 
tent slave. He who employs the strODgeat 

terms in treating of matters of trivial moment 
has no commensurate expression at command 
in affairs of the greatest concern. He is as 
one who underscores and italicizes nil his 
words and phrases; none are raised above 
their fellows, but all are reduced to meaning- 
less level. It is with words as with men— 
"familiarity breeds contempt." Certain 
words, phrases, and espressious should be 
heroes to nil men except to the valets of liter- 
ature aud declamation. If, like the shepherd 
boy iu iEsop's fable, we cry " wolf" when 
there is no wolf, like him, too, when the su- 
preme moment of necessity requires, men 
will not pay heed to our words. Remember 
that by habitual exaggeration of language 
we make it mean; by monotonous emphasis 
we render it feeble, and by abuse it becomes 
extremely difficult to employ it with effect. 

These considerations should teach us that 
temperance in the use of language gives 
weight to our assertions, force to our argu- 
ments, strength to our expi-essions. aud ef- 
fectiveness to our tongue and pen. One 
should never employ a comparative when a 
positive will answer, a superlative when a 
comparative is all which the exigency de- 
mauds. To deviate from this rule is to 
render the degrees of speech of no account 
and is a vicious practice. But the fault to 
which attention is directed needs deeper prob- 
ing than that which we have giveu it to 
cure aud heal up the festering sore. Kules 
for the use of language will prove ineffica- 
cious unless we first discipline our minds, 
for words are but the audible or visible ex- 
pression of thought. It is precision of thought, 
therefore, which should first besought. From 
our minds we should put away exaggeration, 
extravagauce and inexactuees, substituting 
in their place precision, moderation and ac- 
curacy. If the mind be thus disciplined the 
result will demonstrate itself in the spoken and 
written speech.— 5a« Francisco ChronicU. 

Strange Methods Employed in Transmit- 
ting Important Messages. 
The intelligence which enabled Cyrus to 
overthrow the Median monarchy was convey- 
ed iu the body of a hare sent him as a pre- 
sent. The instigator of the Ionian revolt 
against Persia sent his agent, a trusty Rlnve, 
with verbal orders to shave his head, when the 
necessary orders appeared traced on the skin 
beneath. During Mohammed's wars letters 
of this kind were frequently plaited in the 
long hair of female slaves. The lucdieeval 
fashion of ink which ouly became 
visible when held to the fire is well known ; 
but Cardinal Richelieu, surpassed even this by 
a device of a despatch whose alternate hues 
made an entirely different sense from that of 
the letter as a whole. One of the French 
chiefs of the Fronde war concealed an impor- 
tant letter iu a roasted crab. Warren Has- 
tings, when blockaded in Benares by Cheyte 
Singh, apprised the English army of his situ- 
ation by despatches written upon rolled up 
slips of parchment, which his messengers 
carried in tht-ir ears insteod of the quills 
usually worn there. The letter which recalled 
General Kaufmann to the relief of Somarcand 
when besieged by the Bokbariotea in June, 
18()6, was stitc'hed up iu the sandal of a loyal 
native. It is even stated— though the story 
certainly savors of a Munehauaenism— that a 
French spy, in 1870, carried a photographic 
despatch through the German lines in Iha 
hollow of one of Lis falso teeth. 

a wultb of tbonitbt-gro 

•truKHle U 
._ iTMltborU 
[J M«rcb of Urgor 

ImniorUl spirit ipcod* 

ImmorUl •ool-^lrtngl 
Tbfi cbllliDg blut of ICO 

Fur a>cb from doubt osoped. 
lUtli >klU defylDg Bpioe; 

Tbey tremble ko u 

Thoy couquer 

llitage at Love 
tbrall, tbcy win si 

Tbat wlDg* the (bought of man ' 

TUst ploughs the soul-tbouKlifs pe 
Is It Ibt ponlvd, spesr or book? 
la It lbs fell torpedo's fuse 

Butb prouder, ^rAndor ewsy. 

Whel Is the steel of llvlog life 

'Twixt uuaoeu frlouds ? The pen. 

Whenoo spesk the dead iu livlug Uoti 


e liquid gold 

I mlgbty, ' 
by purity ft>r 

Who is a Fa8seng;er? 

TLiH queiitioi) lias often been propounded 
iu railway bustuoss. Lawyers have shown 
iugouuity Olid nstuteness io raisiDg it iu mauy 
cases where it seems to have uo buKineH^. 
Oftt>ii it has au importaut bciiriug. For 
there are rules that a paiisseuger hurt by a 
collision ean recover daiuagea, but an employe 
or trespMser on tho train canuot ; that n com- 
pany is bound to protect itdpnsseDgere against 
violence and injury from other passengers, 
but not against misconduct of rowdies who 
force their way on a train ; that a passenger 
is entitled to so much baggage, and the hke. 
All such rules uiako it often n nice question, 
Who is a passenger 'i 

K dead head or stow-away is not a pattficu- 
ger, and if he is hurt iu a collision or train- 
\vreclc he gi.>t« no damages. But it is uut 
every one riding without paying fare who 
comes under this rule. The question is not 
whether ihv person paid fare, but whether 
the company had come under an obligation to 
carry him safely, l^ike a case of some one 
who is riding on u pass given him because he 
was going on the company's business. The 
stockholders of a company once sent oue of 
their number to make au examination of the 
road, and the president took him into a spe- 
cial c«r free of charge, and they ran up the 

road to see how it looked, and a down 
ran into the special car and smashed the in- 
vestigating stockholder. He sued for damages, 
which the company disputed, because he was 
not paying fare. In another case an inventor 
of a patent car-coupling was negotiating at 
Portland with oflSeers of a railroad to adopt 
it. and they asked him to go up to Montreal 
and see the superintendent about it. and gave 
him a pass. On the way he was hurt by the 
car running ofT the track, and the company 
refusfd damages becauKe he was riding free. 
Iu both these cases the UnitedStatesSupreme 
Court held he was a passenger. The company 
had undertaken for considerations satisfactory 
to them to carry him, and was bound to carry 

The popcorn boy's case is like these. He 
was a Mossachusetts boy, who rode back and 
forth on the Vermont and Massachusetts 
llailroad to Hoosao Tunnel, on an agreement 
that he should have Ihe privilege of selling 
orn on the trains, and shoiUd pay $;)U a 
quarter and carry round ice-water for the 
pahseugeri. Of course, he did not buy tickets. 
The train went through a bridge, and the pop- 
boy was drowned. The court held that 
he hud all the rights of a passenger to be car- 
■d safely, although he did not pay fare, 
tc same sort of a decision was made in CaU- 
foruia iu favor of a bar-keeper on a steam- 
boat, lie traveled back and forth without 
buyiug tickets, but paid $2n(l a month for 
the privilege of keeping bar and use of the 
3om. The court held this made him a 

A baby may be a passenger. The Great 
Western Railway in England has the rule that 
children under three years of age go free ; chil- 
dren between three and twelve must pay half 
fare. Mrs. Austin, carrying her little child.took 
a trip, in which the ti'aiu was wrecked, and the 
child's tegwas broken, and a suit was brought 
in his behalf. It then appeared that the mo- 
ther bought a ticket for herself, but did not any for the child. Vet the child 
two mouths more than three years old, 
and ought, by the rule, to have paid half fare. 
But the ticket-seller and conductor did not 
ask for any fare, nor inquire how old the 
child was, and the mother did not make any 
false statement. The company thought these 
facts were a good defense ; they ought not to 
be deemed to take any risk as to the child un- 
less his fare was paid. But the court said : 
Not BO, The company undertook to carry the 
child, and were bound to cftri-y it safely. If 
they wanted fare they should have asked for 
it, or they might sue the mother for the fare. 
The child was not to blame. 

Quite a number of cases of this sort have 
arisen upon what are known as "drover's 
passes." Out West, where droves of 
cattle, hogs, sheep, or other live stock are 
sent to market over long railroad routes, it is 
common for the owner to go or send some 
one on the train to watch the animals, and 
water and feed them on the way. This attend- 
ant pays no distinct fare. Freight is paid on 
the auimals, and that covers the charge for 
carrying the man. Very generally these pass- 
es contain a stipulation that the traveler as- 
sumes all risks of accident, and if he is hurt 
even by the negligence of the persons in 
charge of the train, he will not demand dam- 
ages. Butthecourtshave held these drovera'- 
pass persons are passengers. The freight on 
the live stock is their fare, and tlie company 
is bound to use due care. And as to their 
stipulation, that may protect the company 
from damages for a mere accident, but not 
for negligence. The law will not allow com- 
panies to agree beforehand that they may be 
negligent, That would be too much like the 
Pope's indulgence in Luther's time 

But all these cjises are founded ujion the 
idea that the company hud somehow or other 
undertaken to carry the persou who was hurt. 
In cases where he got upon the train by mere 
mistake, or ovcniight of the conductor or en- 
gineer, he hati been held to ride at his own 
ri&k, although perhaps he was allowed to ride. 
How about travelers who are eomiug to a 
train or are walking away from it after a ride. 
In one case the company ran a stage from the 
heart of the town to the station to bring i>aiss- 
engers. This ride was frei, Mr. Buffet 
wished to travel by the cars and he took seat 
iu this stage to he carried to the depot. He 
expected to buy a ticket when he got there, 
but on the way, by the negligence of the 

driver, the coach came to grief and he was 
injured. The company thought their risk did 
not begin until he bad bought his ticket ; but 
the court thought he could recover for the 
failure to carry hiui safely by the coach. And 
the passenger's right to be carried safely con- 
tinues until he has had fair time and chance to 
leave the station and grounds of the road at 
the other end of his jovimey. If another train 
carelessly runs over him before he has had 
time to get across the tracks from his car, 
or if there are holes and pitfalls in the plat- 
forms in which he trips and is hurt, the com- 
pany cannot refuse to pay damages on the 
idea that he ceased to be a passenger when he 
stepped out of the car. 

There have been some cases about rowdies 
and trespassers upon trains. In general, a 
railroad is bound to carry all persons impar- 
tially. But there are exceptions. It has been 
held that a person who is so drunk as to be 
annoying and disgusting to other passengers 
has not the right of a passenger to ride — the 
conductor may refuse to take him, although 
be has a ticket. But if the company consents 
to take him, they are bound to carry him as 
carefully as they must a sober man. In Ne- 
braska a man sued a company for refusing to 
take him as a passenger after he had bought 
a ticket, and the company proved in defence 
that he was a notorious gambler, and was 
riding back and forth in search of persons 
whom he could fleece at cards. The judge 
said this was a good defence. A company is 
not bound to carry one whose ostensible busi- 
ness is to injure the line, one fleeing from 
justice, one going upon the train to commit 
assault or theft, or for purposes of gambhng, 
or a person afflicted with contagious disease 
by which other passengers would be endan- 
gered. ^iV. Y. Times. 

Reminiscences of Napoleon. 

In 1810— that memorable year when Rome, 
Amsterdam, Dantzic, Antwerp and Paris were 
cities of the same proud empire. Napoleon 
had brought his young bride to Brussels, and 
was received with great enthusiasm and pomp. 
On the morning after his arrival, he reviewed 
the troops of the gaiTison in the Alice \ erU\ 
and as the different regiments deflled before 
him, remarked a grenadier, who bore the 
chivronn of a serjeaut^major. Tall and ereut. 
his black eyes blazed, like stars, from a face 
bronzed by twenty campaigns, while an enor- 
mous moustache rendered his appearance still 
more formidable, or bizarre. 

When the line was re-formed, the emperor 
rode up to the regiment of grenadiers, and 
called the sergeant to the front. The heart of 
the old soldier beat high, and his cheeks 

"I have seen you before," said Napoleon, 

"Noel, BIT," he answered with a faltering 

" Were you not in the army of Italy ?" 
"Yes, air; drummer at the Bridge of Ar- 

" And you became a serjeant-major ?" 

"At Marengo, sir." 

"But since?" 

" I have taken my share of all the great 

The Emperor waved his hand, the grena- 
dier returned to the ranks, and Napoleon 
spoke rapidly to the Colonel for a few mo- 
ments — the quick glances of his eyes towards 
Noel showing that he was talking of him. 
He had been distinguished for his bravery in 
several battles, but his modesty had prevented 
bis soUeiting advancement, and he had been 
overlooked in the promotions. The Emperor 
recalled him to his side. 

" You have merited the Cross of the Legion 
of Honor," said he giving him the one he 

The grenadier, who at this moment stood 
between the emperor and the Colonel, could 
not speak ; but his eyes said more than 
volumes. Napoleon made a sign, the drums 
beat a roll, there was a dead silence, and the 
Colonel turning towards the new knight, who 
with trembUng hands was placing his cross 
upon bis breast, said with a loud voice ; 

"In the name of the Emperor, respect 
Sergeant Major Noel_a3 sub-Ueutenant iu your 

The regiment presented arms. Noel seemed 
iu a dream : and only the st^m immovable, 
features of the Emperor prevented him from 

falling on bis knees. Another sign was made, 
the drums beat, and again the Colonel spoke. 

In the name of the Emperor, respect sub- 
lieutenant Noel as heutenant in your ranks.' 
This new thunder stroke nearly overcame 
the grenadier : his knees trembled ; bis eyes, 
that had not been moist for twenty years, 
filled with tears, and he was vainly en- 
ring to stammer his thanks when he 
heard a third roll of the drums, and the loud 

e of his Colonel. 

In the name of the Emperor, respect 
Lieutenant Noel as captain iu your ranks." 

After this promotion the Emperor contin- 
ued his review with that calm, majestic air, 
which none who beheld him ever forgot ; but 
Noel, bureting into a flood of tears, fainted 
in the arms of the Colonel ; while from the 
regiment came a loud, united shout of Vive 
I Empereiir ! 

The Value of Autographs. 

Mr. Mason, the numismatist, of Philadel- 
phia, is also authority on the value of auto- 
graphs. The letters which command the 
highest prices are those which are termed 
"autograph letters signed," being such as 
are written entirely by the signer. Of the 
autograph letters of the President's those of 
Washington and Liuculn lead, Washington's 
bringing from S.'i to ^2'i, and Lincoln's from 
S4 to $20. The most ever paid for a letter 
of George Washington was $1I», for one 
written iix days before his death, and sup- 
posed to be his last. Letters of Zachary 
Taylor are worth from $5 to $10 ; of John 
Adams from $3 to $10 ; of James Madison, $3 
to $5 ; of Andrew Jackson and W. H. Har- 
rison, $2 to $4; of James K. Polk, $1.50 to 
$3 ; of Thomas Jefferson, $1 to $3 ; of J. 
Q. Adams, $2 to $3,50; of Johu Tyler, $1 
to $2.50 ; of Franklin Pierce and James Bu- 
chanan, 26 cents to $1 : of U. S. Grant and 
R. B, Hayes, 25 to 50 cents, and of Millard 
Fillmore, 2i cents to 36 cents. Of the signers 
to the Declaration of Independence, Thomas 
Lynch, Jr.'s, autogi'aph is the most valu- 
able, being worth from $50 to $100 : then 
George Gwinnett's $25 to $50; Stephen 
Hopkins', $20 to $25 ; Lyman Hall's and 
John Hancock's, $10 to $25, and so on, all 
of them bringing good prices with the ex- 
ception of Robert Morris', which is quoted at 
from Ift cents to 20 cents. Kosciusko's sig- 
nature is worth from $5 to $10; Edward 
Bruddock's from $4.50 to $10; Comwallis' 
from $3 to $G, and Burgoyne's from $3 to 
^i^.— Boston Tra/iHcript. 

Turkish Writing. 

Owing mainly to the scarcity of printed 
books -though the supply in Turkey is now 
much larger than it was forty years ago— this 
particular art of writing is oue of the most 
important branches of study throughout the 
East. Its difficulty is greatly compUcated by 
the numerous varieties of penmanship in use. 
Of these there are no fewer than six — that 
called the neum'k, which is the base of all, and 
which is employed for the transcribing of the 
Koran and the other sacred books ; the soului, 
which is used in iuscrip^us for the interior 
of mosques and the fact^dillffldes of gates, fouu- 
taius, hospitals and other public buildings; 
the dewani, employed for firmans and other 
official documents ; the rik'a, or current hand 
for ordinary correspondence ; the talik, or 
Persian character reversed, used in legal docu- 
ments ; and the siaktth, which is peculiar to 
the ministry of finance and its provincial sub- 
departments. These various styles are nearly 
as distinct as so mauy different systems of 
shorthand, and it often happens, there- 
fore, that even an educated Turk, who 
can write, it may bo, two or three of them, is 
as much at sea with the others as a practition- 
er of Gumey would be with a page of Pitman. 
A kiatib, therefore, who can read and WTite 
the whole is, not unfairly, considered accom- 

Hindoo scientists claim that the earth is 
4,000.000 years old. Ancient William Allen, 
of Ohio, says the earth is in better repair to- 
day than it was four years after it was made, 
and he doesn't see why it should not last 
4.000,000 years longer. 

Angelic natures never deride, or there 
were derision in heaven at eight of the dis- 
cord between men's perception and practice. 


Berc/t of all rfuoa mn 


Wli«nsb«U, badly Blmo 

Tb^Jb'wi^iJoatbMt, Inno. 

"Cwme bltb«r, my eblld, 
Thon art willing, I»e:" 

••Come, now. ngbl on my kn 
Tba ap^lTuicM. you «e« are m 
The down Niroku are hta.vj a 


For tbo way tb«t the aw 

ul bo^y 

And deprtvfd of IiU w 
Tlulaniallboy. wboji 


^ Why tbU wonderful Joy?- 

■' youTo whlpplnu-ha. ba^lhe wrong boy." 

//. C. DodQe. m DtUoil PrtA Prest. 

Engrossing versus Floorishing. 

>So much has beeu naid duriag the past few 
months iu rugiird to flourihhiDg, thnt it may 
Koem folly for mo to bring the subject to the 
notice of my brothers iu pen (irt ngtiin. While 
I do not believe that Ilouriebing in of much 
benefit, either to the pupil or teacher, I do 
maintain that the ('olleges that Bend out the 
moHt and beut HpocimeDx of that class of work 
do oujoy more vt the |iublic patronage than 
tliotju who do not. During the past few years 
I have been over a considorable amount of 
ground— in fact, some fifteen States— and 
havo had an abundant chance tu note the 
elTeot that different styles of penmanship 
have upon people in different parts of the 
country. I have fouud that peuinuuship is 
like every thing else : iu one part of the 
onuiitry they bclii-ve in one thing, and noth- 
ing can change them ; whereas in another 
part it is entirely the opposite. While flour- 
ishing is a bninoh of the art which, in iteelf, 
will not make many of our penmen rioh, I 
think that it should n-ot he entirely disre- 
garded liy them. 

If a penman is in a locality where there is 
considGrable engrossing to be done I advise 
him to drop flounshing. We well know our 
large cities are the places where the most of 
our ongrossiug is wanted, and also where a 
great many of our penmen direct their efforts 
to fill their pockets with the dollars of our 
dads by doing thot class of work. I have 
hIbo noticed that the strongest objections 
against flourishing comes from these places. 
Now, then, to the penmen who is not blessed 
by being iti one of these cities, and who de- 
poudN upon the patronage he can secure for 
the roUtige for /li/i dollara. I say flourish! 
Why is ittlmtoDeof the leading colleges of 
tbi< Wi'st jjfiiue the most of its two or three 
hiiiidred scholars each year; one reason is, 
simply becmiae it has the reputation of send- 
ing out more and better flourished Bpeciroens 
from their pwpils than any other college in 
the country, they see the benefit arising, keep 
on sending them, and get their pupils. 
I do not claim that it in the best plan to use 
in every part of the country. I have not been 
over the whole of it, but for the majority of 
the places I have been iu, I knoic it to be the 
best. I have fouud that flourishing in the 
large eastern cities, and iu most of the west 
eru, is not of much account; but where a 
roUege draws it« support from rural towns, 
there is no better way to advertise than by 
its flourishing, (f it is nuprrior. Many and 
many a time I have seen young meu com- 
pari' specimens received from colleges, aud 
make up their minds to go to the one that 
sends the best. Why is it? It is because the 
.\mericau boys of the present day can sec be- 
yond; and they say, if they can afford a first- 
class penmauship department their other 
dvpartmcuts must be the same. To those 
who have higher views I will say, do as bttle 
flourishing as you passibly cau, and put the 
most of your time to engrossing pen draw, 
ing. and in your teaching. 

If I have AvritU»u any tUiug in thia com- 
uiuuication that does not coincide with the 
views of my brother peumeu, I humbly await 
their criticisms. 

Wonders of the American Continent. 

The greatest catAract in the world is the 
falls of Niagara, where the water from the 
great upper lakes forms a river tbree>fourths 
of a mile in width, and then being suddenly 
coDtruct«d, plunges over the rock in two 
volumes to the depth of 175 feet. The 
greatest cave in the world is the Mammoth 
Cave of Kentucky, where any one can take a 
voyage on a subterranean river and caich 
fish without eyes. The greatest river in the 
world is the Mississippi, 4,0(10 miles. The 
largest valley of the world is the valley of 
the Mississippi. It contains ri.OOO.OOOsquare 
miles, and is one of the most fertile regions 
of the globe. The greatest city park in the 
world is in Philadelphia. It contains 2, 700 
acres. The largest grain port in the world is 
Chicago. The largest lake in the world is 
Lake Superior, which is truly an inland sea, 
being 430 miles long and 1,000 feet deep. 
The longest railroad at present is the Pacific 
railroad, over .'1,000 miles in length. The 
greatest mass of solid iron is the Pilot Knob 
of Missouri- It is 250 feet high and two 
miles in circuit. The best specimen of Grt- 
cian architecture in the world is the Girard 
College for Orphans, Philadelphia. The 
largest aqueduct in the world is the Croton 
Aqueduct, New York. Its length is 40^ miles, 
aud it.s cost .'?:2,500,000. The largest de- 
positji of anthracite coal in the world are in 
Pennsylvania, the mines of which supply the 
market with millions of tons annually and 
appear to be inexhaustible. — Conl Trad^: 

Inunense Size of the Pyramids. 
A United State;; Naval Chaplain who has 
recently visited the great Pyramid of Cheops 
in Egypt, waded iu the deep sand fourteen 
hundred feet before he bad passed one of its 
sides, and between five and six thousand feet 
before he had made the circuit. He says, 
take a hundred New York churches of ordi- 
nary width and arrange them in a hollow 
square, twenty-five on a side, and you 
would have scarcely the basement of this 
pyramid ; take another hundred and throw in 
their material into the hollow square, and it 
would not be full. Pile on all the stone and 
brick of Philadelphia and Boston, and the 
structure would not be as high and solid as 
this greatest work of man. — One layer of 
blocks wa3 long since remove to Cairo for 
building purposes, and enough remains to 
supply the demands of a city of a half mil- 
lion of people for a century, if they were 
permitted freely to use it. 

District-Attorney Phelps, in the course of 
his admirable address recently delivered be- 
fore the Psi Upsilon Fraternity at New Haven, 
urged yoimg men who were anxious to exert 
an influence in public affairs, to make a special 
study of such subjects as pauperism aud 
crime, political history, the legislation of 
States, local government, and, abovA all. 
political biography. He ridiculed two sorts 
of dandies— the literary and the social. '■ Cul- 
ture with the firet," he remarked, "means to 
dawdle about clubs aud to fill vapid ears with 
equally vapid talk about art and literature 

The above out is photo-engraved, one half the size of the original, from a floiu-ish 
executed by A. A. Clark, teacher of writing in the public schools of Cleveland, O. Prof. 
Clark is an accomplished penman and teacher. His specimens are models of grace and 

Warning to Newspaper Stoppers- ' 

We appropriate the good warning from 
Truthful Errhaufje: "A ceriain man got 
mad at the editor and stopped his paper. I 
The next week ho sold all his corn four cents 
below market price ; then his property was j 
sold for taxes, because he only heard of the I 
convention three days before it adjourned ; '■ 
he lost ten dollars betting on MoUie McCarthy 

days after Teu Bi-oeck had won the race ; ; 

was arrested and fined eight dollars for 
hunting on Sunday, and he paid $300 for a 

f forged notes that had been advertised 

weeks, aud the public cautioned not to ■ 
negotiate them. He then paid a big Irishman, 
with a leg bke a derrick, to kick him all the 
to the newspaper office, when ho paid 
four years' subscription in advance, and made i 

editor sign and swear to an agreement to ' 
knock him down and rob him if he ever or- 
dered his paper stopped again." 

ver to dine without a 
ever reaches further 
lor does his enthu- 
languid approval of 
e in the street or on 

Let Your Light Continne to Shine. 

To the many earnest and skillful teachers, 
authors aud workers in our profession, who 
have so liberally favored the Jovrnal with 
valuable articles and illustmtions from their 
pens, we return our most earnest thanks, 
and trust that in future their W^Ya will con- 
tinue to yhine with increasing lustre through 
its columns, while we hope in the future 
to add many brilliant contributors to our 
present list. 

You need not tt-U aU the truth, unless to 
those who have a right to know all. But let 
all you t«ll be the truth.— ^orrtw Mann. 

and music and nothing, having few ideas 
themselves, and conveying none to others; 
continually trying to measure the ocean in a 
half.pint pot. The other is the social dandy, 
whose idea of culture is i 
dress-coat. Hia activity 
than the billiard-table, 
siasm rise higher than 
a pretty face or fine vo 
the stage. These are the creatures who talk 
of politics as inconsistent with cultiure and 
refinement, aud above the healthy, honest 
meaning of the words. True culture never 
avoids a duty, however disagreeable, nor does 
true refinement suffer by any necessary con- 
tact with anything. " He deprecated hyper- 
critical judgments on either pohticians or 
political methods. "You say," he exclaimed, 
"that the debates in Congress are unseemly, 
and sometimes disgracefiU, but contrast them 
with the sessions of a Presbytery!" He re- 
marked that an obntacle to the advance of 
young men in pohtical life is the arrogance 
which too many of them affect in their rela- 
tion to public affairs. They are too apt to 
assimie that because they are well read and 
cultivated that they may be at once assigned 
to command without ever carrying a musket 
in the ranks. From old soldiers hot, dusty 
and begrimed with battle, the brightness 
of the new uniforms commands but slight 

All orders for books, merchandise, work 
nr engraving to be sent by mail, must he ac 
companied with the full amount of cash. If 
ordered to be sent by express, at least one 
half of the amount should be remitted, the 
balance C. O. D. 

How Rich Men Began Life. 

Comthus Vanderbilt began life with a sail 
boat running between Staten Island and New 
Y'ork. carrying gnrden stuff to market. With 
two or three thousand dollars raised from 
this source, he entered upon steadily in- 
creasing enterprises until he amassed the en- 
ormous sum of $100,000,000. 

(ieorge Law, fdly-five years of age, was a 
day-laborer on the docks, and now counts his 
fortune at something like $10,000,000. 

Robert L. and Alextmder Stuart, the noted 
sugar retimrs, in their boyhood sold molasses 
candy, which their widowed mother had made, 
at a cent a utick, aud to-day are worth proba- 
bly $5,000,000 apiece. 

Marshall O. Roberts is the possessor of 
$4,000,000 or $5.000,UU0; yet until he was 
twenty-five he did not have $100 he could 

Horace B, Clafliu, the eminent dry goods 
merchant, worth, it is estimated, $13,000,000 
to $15,000,000, commenced the worid with 
nothing but energy, determination and hope, 
aud see how magnificently he has invested 
them. — Exchange. 

Wonderful Precocity. 

The most noted case of childish precocity 
is perhaps that of Christian Henry Heinecker, 
boiTi at Lubec iu 17:31. He could talk at 
ten months old ; when he had completed his 
fii-st year he could recite the leading facts in 
the Pentateuch, and a month later had ac- 
quired the rudiments of aucieut history, geog- 
raphy and anatomy ; bad teamed the use of 
maps and 8,000 Latin words. When two and 
a half years old he could answer almost any 
question iu geography and history, aud be- 
fore his death, which occurred in 1724, at 
the age of four years and four months, had 
learned divinity, ecclesiastical history, and 
other branches of knowledge, and spoke 
Latin, French, German and Dutch. About 
a year before his death he harangued the 
King of Denmark, to whom he had been pre- 
sented. In his last moments he displayed 
the utmost firmness, aud attempted to console 
his grief-Ktricken parents. 

A Double Negative- 

Ten years 

With tears, 
You said, 
" Dear Ned, 

"No! No!" 
I fled— 
Heart dead. 

You know, 
And Jessie, you i 
You would 

Not wed — 
You could, 

'Tis said ; 
I could have, too, 
But tears 

Were shed. 
Ten years 


With tears, 

' ' Dear Ned, 

"No! No!" 
You fled. 
Dear Ned, 
Mon beaul 
How foolish you ! 
Could not 
You press? 
Coidd not 
I'ou guess 

With tears, 
Meant " Yes I" 
Ten years 


The empress of Austria was filled with 
wonder on meeting Mr. Kavanagh, M. P.» 
for county of Carlow, with the Kildare 
hoimda. He was born without legs or arms. 
In place of legs he hus six inches of muscular 
thigh stumps, one being an inch shorter 
than its fellow, while his arms are dwarfed 
to perhaps four inches of the upper portion 
of these members, and are unfurnished with 
any termination approaiihing to hands. Yet be 
is a beautiful caligraphist, a dashing himts- 
mau, an arti>«tic draught^^man, and an uner- 
ring shot, an e.\pert yauhtsman and drives 
four-in-hond. In writing he holds the pen 
or pencil iu his mouth and guides its course 
by the arm stumps, which are sufiSciently 
long to meet across the chest. When bimting 
he sits in a kind of saddle basket, and bis 
reins are managed with surprising expertness 
and (if\ae.—New York Bun. 

The virtue of patience bears such a pre- 
ponderance in the things of God that we can 
neither fulfil any precept nor do any accept- 
able work without it. — TertulUan. 

PablUhrd Monibtr «i 81.00 p«r Vear. 

D. T. AMES, Editob ajid J-hopiuctob, 
308 BroadwBT, New Tork. 
8lD)[l« eoplM of JorttKAb «odI od rrcMptot leu 
cf dU, SyvcimeD copka fonuibed l« AgeaU free. 

1 Coin mo IIB 00 f»l oo' |«5 OO' tli" 00 

H " ?™ »« 3^2" «; «; 

perHion > 
ffer tLe fol 




w flnbsrrib 

er, or re 

□ en&l, an 

U leod a 

copy of 

tbo Lord 

CoDdoo's Normal Hyatem of I.etlertni 


11ire«nani«B ond f3 wo will forward Ibe large 


ennUt Ptcturr, nlze 28x40 iDchea, retail! tor fi. 


»t^\en nnmea and ST wo will forward a covy of 


mH A Pacbard'a Quide. retalla for {3.00. 

Df A 

nea' CompenJIiim of Ornamental Penmanship. 


in. Ttia same bound In Rllt will be sent for 


een anbuoribpTB and $18, price f T.SO. 


twelve nnmeaand fia, we wUl forward a copy 

of W 

lllama A Packard's Oema of PenmuDEhip, retaUM 

All communloatlona deaigred for The ] 
publication, SOS Broadway. N«w York. 

NEW YORK. JULY, 1879. 

The Convention. 

In al)0\it one month, August 5th, the sec- 
ond Biisi-iess College Teachers' and Ppq 
men's Convculion will assemble at Clcve 
land, Ohio. Il is to be hoped that there 
will be a large assemblage embracing all 
the live and active workers in every depart, 
meut of education which will come before 
that Convent ion. That there will be a large 
and untlmsiastic gathering we feel assured, 
and that through the experience gained 
at the previous Convention, the present 
liiorough organization and the well-directed 
efforts of able managers, a much greater 
success may be reasonably anticipated than 
at the previous Convention. Last year our 
wes'.ern brethren were very slimly repre- 
sented, no one being prtscul from cither 
Oiiicago, St. Louis or Ciucinnati, from each 
of which cities there should be half a score 
at least this year. 

Thero can bo no well-founded complaiut 
that the location is not central or in any man- 
ner unfavorable to auy section of the coun- 
try; indeed no more central or favorable lo- 
cation could have been selected. We em- 
brace this opportunity to especially urge all 
teachers, authors and persons especially 
interested in business education or penman- 
ship to be present, and to come prepared to 
contribute in some manner to the interest 
and success of the Convcatiou. This may 
be done cither by exhibiting results of their 
teaching, explaining the methods by which 
they have been nltuiuedi by the exhibition 
of specimens of practical and artistic pen- 
manship by teachers and professional pen- 
men, of their owu and pupil's execution; 
also by careful preparation to discuss any 
one of tho topics, published in the last 

number of the Jocrsal, and embodied in a 
circular which can be received free by any 
^■ho has not already done so. by ad- 
dressing J. E. Soule. Secretary of the As- 
sociation, Philadelphia, Pa. Not only will 
all attendants profit largely by such a com- 
on of ideas and methods, but tbey will 
also derive great advantage and satisfaction 
from a new and extended acquaintance 
th their brethren and co-workers through- 

t the country; all will thus work more in 
unity and good fellowship toward a general 
upbuilding and popularizing their chosen 

Every teacher, in any department of edu- 
cation to be considered at the Convention, 
should feel that to be absent will be not only 

great loss but an actual misfortune. 


unavoidable, among several 
thousand subscribers, that there should be 
each month who fail to receive their 
, and we naturally expect, more or 
plaining postnl cards, in which we 
been disappointed. In most cases 
these have been just, and couched in proper 
and courteous language, while others have 
been not only uncalled for, but impertinent 
and insinuating. One gentlemanly writer 
asks: " What has become of Tue Journal? 
Has it suspended ? Has it proved to be an- 
other failure ? I have not seen a copy in 
over two months." Imagine our suprise, on 
referring to our subscription list, to find 
that the name of our indignant and greatly- 
injured friend bad never graced that list, 
but that wc had mailed him gvatuitou.tly 
several specimen copies. His card gives 
unmistakable evidence that we have sown 
some good seed on very unpromising 
ground. Others have allowed their sub- 
scription to expire, and then sent indig- 
nant notices that they have not received 
their paper; and, iu some instances, when 
notified of the cause, have insinuated 
that we were over careful to be afraid 
trust them for the amount of one dollar, 
if we knew thatr they desired to be trusted. 
Wc arc pleased, however, to state that these 
reprehensible complaints an^ comparatively 
few ; most are proper, and gladly received, 
not that we are specially gratified by such 
mistakes, but having occurred, we are glad 
to know of them promptly that we may do 
our best to apply the proper corrective. 

We wish it to be distinctly understood 
that The Joxjenal is mailed to every sub- 
scriber the first week of every month, only 
once being as late as the 9th of the month. 
We shall be obliged to any person cntilled to 
receive Tub Jodbnal, who does not do so 
on or before the 15ih of any month, to at 
once notify us of such failure, that we may 

Vacations In Business Colleges. 
For many years after the establishment of 
business colleges, it was the almost univer- 
:ustom to advertise " annual sessions," 
vacations." That method was render- 
ed necessary under the life-scholarship plan, 
OS students entered at any time for an en- 
tirely indefinite period, there would be no 
time at which a college could close its 
doors for a vacation without incommoding 
more or less of its patrons ; but of late 
years many, and we believe the most sensi- 
ble conductors of these institutions, have 
ceased to issue an unlimited or life-scholar- 
ship, receiving their students for a definite 
period, and with reference to dosing their 
rooms at stated times for vacations. "All 
work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," 
will it not also make a worn out. dull and 
stupid teacher ? We do not sec any good 
reason why teachers in business colleges 
should not enjoy tbe usual seasons for rest 
and recuperation granted to teachers in all 
other educational institutions, and in most 
other pursuits. We think it a short-sighted 
policy that keeps up the old plan of "life- 
scholarships" and " annual 
business college. 

a the c 

King of Clubs. 
On June 26, we received from Professor 
Gaskell, Principal of the Bryant and Strat- 
ton Business College, Manchester, N. H.. 
a sincle club of thirly-sU subscribers to TuE 
Journal, and he has since sent twenty 
more, making fifty-six names within two 
weeks. That is tbe largest list of sub- 
scribers ever sent in one month to Toe 
Journal; anything like an equal number 
from each one of the business colleges 
of the country would materially in- 
crease the number of the readers and the 
resources of The Journal; and would it not 
pay proprietors of these institutions to exert 
their influence to increase the circulation of 
The Journal t It will do much toward 
awakening an interest in good writing and 
every brunch of business education, and the 
wider spread and more genenil tbe interest 
created iu these branches of education, the 
greater will be the corresponding patronage 
of the institutions in which they are taught. 
A hundred thousand copies of Thk Journal 
mailed monthly throughout the country 
would at once double the patronage of the 
business colleges. Yet there are some few 
proprietors of these institutions who appear 
to be in fear that The Journ.u. will circulate 
among their pupils and patrons. We suapcct 
that in such instances it sheds an uni 
fortable degree of light upon pretended 

Specimen Copies of the Journal. 
Thus far, since the publication of The 
Journal, it has been our habit to mail 
specimen copies to all applications by postal 
cards, of course free, and we did not realize 
the extent to which we were being imposed 
upon, until recently we caused an alpha- 
betical list to be made of all such applica- 
tions, when to our surprise we found six 
cards requesting specimen copies from one 
individual, five each from several, four from 
others, while those who had applied two 
and three times were very numerous. For 
the benefit of these liberal and earnest 
friends, who have thus so liberally patron- 
ized us, and to enable tbem to save their 
postal cards in the future, we would state 
that we now have conveniently arranged 
the names of all who have been supplied 
with specimen copies free, and that their 
cards will not 'in future be considered a 
good and valid consideration for The Jour- 
nal and postage, but will only contribute 
to swell the contents cf our well-filled trash 
basket. Save your penny by sending a 

A Remarkable Counterfeit. 
The Secret Service Division has. through 
the Assistant United SlatesTreasurerat New 
Orleans, been placed in the possession of a 
counterfeit note of the denomination of $20. 
on the legal-tender issue of the series of 1875. 
It has been executed entirely with a pen, and 
so thoroughly excellent is the workmanship 
that the average merchant would be de- 
ceived into accepting it. The geometric 
lathe work on the back will not deceive an 
expert, nor will the lettering in the bordtr 
on the face of the note. The portrait of 
Hamilton, on the left end face of the note, 
is very fine, when the method of execution 
is taken into account. The signatures of 
John Allison. Registrar, and Jno. C. New, 
Treasurer, are perfect. The average work 
on tbe counterfeit, as compared with that of 
the genuine note, places the former beneath 
criticism. The fibre paper has been imitated 
by distributing fibre over the plain portion 
of note on the back, and covering it by a 
strip of fine tissue paper. It is on the whole 
a very remarkable production, and if the 
counlerleiter received the face value of the 
note, he was poorly remunerated for his 

Complimentary to American Penman- 
Hon. Joseph Wright. Ex-Mayor of Mac- 
clesfield, England, and a prominent silk 
manufacturer, was, a few months since, pre- 
sented by the silk manufacturers of Pater- 
son, N. J., with a complimentary address, 
which was engrossed at our office. In his 
letter acknowledging the receipt of the ad- 
dress, Mr. Wright says: ''I have seen many 
3uct things in this country, but nothing ap- 
proaching this for skill and taste." 

"We shall see you at thu Convention," 
is what they all say. We hope so 

The Essentials of Business Writing. 

The fimt essential in business writing is 
legibility, secondly, rapidity of execution, 
thirdly, RTBce and symmetry. To be legible 
letters must be well formed and properly 
spaced, and be absolutely free from all 
superfluities. To be rapid the writing must 
not exceed tbe medium size, and the simplest 
t>pe of each of the letters must be chosen 
and uniformily used, as a constont and fre- 
quent repetition of the same forms will im- 
part to tbem special ease and accuracy as 
well as rapidity. It is this habit of ease and 
simple uniformity more than anything else 
that distinguishes a buBiuess man's writing 
from tbe vacilating and complex forms of the 
school boy. 

Problem in Bookkeeping. 

An error occurred in slating the problem 
given 'ly Professor Hathbun in the last 
;. It should have read : ' ' Sold one-half 
of my business to John Smith, who became 
a partner, and shares equally in gains and 
ises. I have on band merchandise valued 
$12,000; store and fixtures, $8,000; re- 
ceived cash, $5,000; his note for balance, 
|5,000." Those who sent a solution to the 
statement as it appeared last month, are re- 
quested also to send a solution of it as stated 
above. To the person first sending a correct 
journal entry of the same. Professor Rath- 
bun oromises to mail a copy of the "Ac- 
countants' Guide." a popular system of 
book-keeping, by M.B, Johnson of Chicago. 

Display Cuts. 
We wish to remind teachers and managers 
of schools and colleges of our excellent fa- 
cilities for getting up all manner of display 
cuts for circulars, catalogues, &c. . &c , upon 
relief plates, which can be used the same as 
wood engraving upon a common printing 
press, also by photolithography, diplomas, 
testimonials, college currency, circular let- 
ters, &c., &c. Specimens presented on ap- 
plication. Parties having pen drawings 
which they desire to have reproduced, 
either by photoengraving upon relief plates 
or upon stone by photo-lithography, are re- 
quested to procure our estimates before giv- 
ing orders elsewhere. 

Sitaations and Teachers Wanted. 

Now is the time that teachers and em- 
ployers are seeking to enter into engage- 
ments for the ensuing year. To facilitate 
each in their efforts, we shall henceforth re- 
ceive advertisements under the above special 
heading for ten cents per line of space each 
insertion. Eight words make a line; twelve 
lines one inch. Allowance must be made 
for words and lines to be displayed. 

The August Ntimber of The Journal 
will be issued so as tobe mailed on or before 
tbe first day of August. It will, therefore, 
be necessary for all persons having matter 
which they desire to have appear in either 
the advertising or reading columns to have 
the same in our hands on or before the 25lh 
day of July. We shall endeavor to have The 
Journal in tbe hands of all subscribers be- 
fore the Convention. 

Our Teachers' Agency. 

We again call the attention of teachers 
wishing situations to teach auy of the busi- 
ness college branches, and proprietors de- 
siring to procure the services of good teach- 
ers in any department, that we will aid them 
to the best of our ability, on the receipt of 
their application, accompanied by a remit- 
tan..e of $3.00. 

Fine Card Specimens. 
We have received an elegant 
of blank cards from the N. E. Card Co., 
Woonsocket, R. I., embracing plain, gilt, 
fancy, &c. Their stock is varied, and (irst- 
closs in quality and style. Orders are filled 
promptly, and at a reasonable price. 

The second Business Colluge, Teachers' 
and Penmen's Convention will meet on Au- 
gust 5th, at Cleveland, Ohio; a large assem- 
blage and interesting proceedings are 

Ii Floaruhinfc a "True Art"? 

ir it he decinr-d a mnltcr of doubt that 
flourishing i:* a "true art," the question 
may he heat dRtcrmined hy considering the 
meaning of the tfrm " art." Art ha-^ a very 
extended signification, and in properly ap- 
plied to many Buhjcctfl. Among thoHe the 
"art of writing"; even pkiin writing is 
justly entitled to a conspicuous place. But 
writing, like many of the products of hu- 
man Industry, is as utisccplihlc of decora- 
tion or cmhellisliment as a temple, a house, 
or its furniture, machinery, pottery, jew- 
elry, or anything the beauty of which can 
he enhanced by the application of cultivated 
■kill and taste. Some form of what is 
termed "flourishing" seems the most ap- 
priatc ornament for maouncript. It would 
be entirely out of place to use pictorial 
mailer with writing, unless it were lo eluci- 
date or illustrate the subject. There is no 
doubt that the highest artistic skill and 
taste can he as appropriately employed in the 
embellishment of a piece of writing, as in 
the decoration of architecture or furniture. 
Raphael employed his almost divine skill 
not only in designs for tapestry, hut in pot- 
tery and other of the induslrinl arts. 

Writing may almost be valued as the cor- 
ner stone of the fabric of civilization. To a 
great extent it may be used in its plainest 

But according to the gravity or dignity of 
the subject, it will be proper to add to it the 
skill of the decora 

forms have been generally modiliid, convto 
tionatly. to adapt them to the subject to 
which they were applied. 

For penmanship, the material used for or- 
namentation should be spcciall} convention- 
alized and specially adapted to the subject, 
Asan illustration of the value of artistic skill 
applied to penwork, we may cite the exam- 
ples of mediwval work, before the art of 
printing was discovered. That was a period 
in which the knights of the quill and their 
skill were duly appreciated. It might then 
be truly said — 

An we bellove tnd almoet kU we knot*." 
Theu penmen were generally artists and 
artists were generally penmen. The greatest 
artistji made the pen their favorite instru- 
ment for first presenting to the eye the divine 
inspiration and the grand conceptions of 
their meteoric genius. Even Michael An- 
gclo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, as well 
as other eminent artiste, made their first 
sketches with a pen. 

At a recent sale by auction of the great col- 
lection of Didot, the celebrated printer at 
Paris, manuscript works sold us high as 
$15,000. Forty-five ornamental manuscripts 
and missals realized it is said about $100,000. 


to the columns of the Jocbnai,, regarding any 
department of teaching or practicing writing, 
or upon any branch of practical education, 
are respectfully solicited. 

The letter t btgiiis at 

on connective 
U-^' slant one space, and continues 
upward on main slant another space, from 
which point a diminishing shade traverses 
the upper half of first line, and continuing 
in direct line unites with lower turn to right 
curve, extending upward one space on con- 
nective slant. A straight line one space in 
length crosses the shaded line horizontally 
at three-fourths the height, one-third of its 
length being on the left and two-thirds on 
the right. 

The letter d combines the first 

/ three lines of d with the sec- 

^^7^ ond and third of (. The oval 
should not be shaded. Height, two spaces; 
width from oval to straight line at biuse line, 
one space. 

The letter;) begins at base line 
with right curve extending 
two spaces in a direction more 
nearly vertical than the con- 
nective slant, uniting angularly with straight 
line, proceeding one and one-half spaces be- 
low base line, then retracing to base line and 
finishing with third, fourth and fifth lines 
of n. Shade from base line* to bottom of 
letter by increasing pressure. "Width he- 
ight lines, one space. 

The letter r/ is formed by the 
first four lines of a. the fourth 
line being continued one and 

I photo engraved from pen and ink copy, executed by Charles RoUineon, 
assistant in our office. Mr. RoHinson is a skillful and promising young artiEt ; 

who has for some three years past been 
n pen lettering he has few equals. 

Cardinal Wiseman, in an address to an as- 
sociation in Manchester, England, in 1853, 
on the relation of the fine arts to the indus- 
trial arts, said, "that it was highly impor- 
tant the two should not only go hand in 
baud, but that the two should be joined in 
the satne individual, Dr. Waagen, Director 
of the Royal Gallery of Berlin, when con- 
Bultcd by a Committee of the Bouse of Com- 
mons, in 1835, }ipoD the improvement of the 
"Arts" and Manufactures, said "it was 
necessary to bring about the condition of 
things that existed in the time of Raphael, 
that artists should be more workmen and 
workmen more artists." It is necessary to 
bring a closer connection between tlie beau- 
tiful and the productive art. 

The Cardinal said, " The art required to 
enhance the bmuly, nnd consequently the 
taiu« of the productive arts, is not low art, 
but high art, and the very highat art." The 
subject of the connection between pluSu and 
ornamental writing, or flourishing, is too 
extended for the space at our command in 
this number. The important points can be 
but barely alluded to. 

Plain writing must be classed among the 
industrial arts. For ornamental or decora- 
tive penmanship, the same condition of 
things is desirable as for the industrial arts 
generally, viz.. the combination of the ar- 
tist and the penman in the same person. 

For the decoration of architecture and the 
mechanic arts gvueniily. when the objective 
material employed bos been derived from 
natural forms, animate or inanimate, these 

Writing Lesson. 

We group the letters already given that 
their similarity may be more apparent. 


We observe that they arc all of the height 
of I. except two, and arc consequently one 
space in height, the letter i being the unit 
of measurement; the exceptions, r and s. 
extend one fourth space higher- 

The initial lines are made upon a slant of 
30**; the terminating lines have the same 
slant, except those of the o, o and w^ which 
are made hori/.ontally. The straight lines 
of the m, n and te are also connected by 
curved lines having the same slant. All 
the straight lines, except the crossitg of J:, 
are upon a .-slant of 52*. Kone of the letters 
of this group are shaded except a; and 
there is no retracing parts except in a and n. 

Having practiced the above thorl letters 
with especial reference to their similarity 
in height or slant of lines, we may examine 
and reproduce the four letters t. d, p and g, 
called aemi-extended letters, 

tending upward to the base line and merg- 
ing into a left curve, continuing on connec- 
tive slant to head line. Width from point 
of oval to intersection of straight line, with 
base line, one space; width of part below 
base line, one-third space. 

To form these four letters creditably re- 
quires much careful practice and close 

In making the shade of t and d, a pressure 
upon the pen to open the nibs sufficiently to 
produce the required width of shade in 
widest part, should be given before moving 
it downward in forming the letter, that the 
shade may be bounded at top by a horizontal 
straight line, instead of curved line, or point 
at top and bulge below. 

The shade of p is the reverse of that of t 
and d, ond may be considered a wedge with 
thick end downward, while that of I and d 
has thin edge downward. -In making the 
shade of p, stop the downward movement 
as abruptly as possible, that the lower 
boundary may be a horizontal line. See, 
also, that the straight lines above base Hoc 
are precisely parallel. In moking rf and y, 
be careful to unite the oval to the straight 
line by a point only. 

The question is almost hourly asked m*^, 
"How long will it take me to learn to write 
a good hand ?" This question is, of coui 
utterly impo-sible for any finite mind lo 
swer, and i am not of those who beli 
there is any one on earth or under who c 
or could, (to use the language of Foster, 

or write like a Spencer or a Flickcnger, 
The learner must himself, or herself, do the 
work, and "bear the burden and heat of 
the day;"' and the time required must ever 
depend upon the tact and the energy of the 
pupil. And let no tyro imagine that with- 
out these elements of success (if with) it can 
be possible — 

What Will the Convention Amount to? 

Editors Penman's Art Journal : 

Withiu a little more than a month the 
second meeting of the " Commercial Teachers 
and Penman's Association" will be held at 

This meeting was appointed after a full and 
fair dehberatiou by representative teachers 
from different parts of the country, with the 
full belief that the time, place and circum- 
stance would best answer the high demands 
of our specialty. 

The Convention held in New York last year 
was an experiment, and at the same time a 
success. Under the circumstances, it was 
next to impossible that the work — which, in 
the nature of the case, had to be to a great 
extent extemporaneous and unconsidered— 
should be wholly satisfactory. The most 
that could be reasonably expected, was the 
bringing together of a number of earnest, 
faithful teachers, iu closer relations than the 
mere professional ones existing, and a com- 
parison of views and methods bearing upon 
our common work. It is but the simple 
t th to say that these ends were fully met 
and that those who accepted the call in 
good fa th and joined in the work of the con- 
vent on left with the feeling that time and 
money ha i been judiciously spent. 

Under this view, the adjournment to Cleve- 
land was in actual necessary result, and there 
can be no doubt that those who voted for 
s oh adjournment, did so with the feeling 
that w th a year's preparation, and a more 
defin te den of what can really be acoom- 
pl shed m a four day's deliberation, the con- 
vent on of 1879 woiUd prove a great advance 
on that of 1878. 

The t me is now at hand when the ground 
of these hopes will be tested- 

There can be no doubt that those who have 
had the n alter in charge have wrought with 
energy and inteUigence and .the work of the 
Convent on as foreshadowed in the topics 
presented for consideration would seem to 
be place i beyond contingency. Is there 
reason to believe that these expectations will 
be met ( There are, within reasonable cal- 
culation, one hundred live, earuest teachers 
who can attend the Convention, and who will 
do it if they can be assured that it will pay 
them. Aud the only pay they ask is addi- 
tional knowledge and preparation for their 
work. Will it be possible for this olase of 
teachers to gather from the deliberations and 
exescises of the Convention this substantial 
investment? There should be but ono pos- 
sible answer to this question, and if the 
labors of the Eexeutive Committee are appre- 
ciated, and the ground they have laid out 
occupied there can be no doubt upon the 

One fact stands out prominently, both in 
the conclusions of the Committee and in the 
opinions of those who are most in earnest 
as to the outcome ; and that is. that the time 
of the Convention should be given to prac- 
tical discuBsions of the best methods of 
school work — that for once, there should be 
IcBS consideration given to discursive papers, 
however carefully prepared and however 
interesting, and new to the actual proccess 
of the class-rootn as practiced daily by those 
who apeak thereof. 

If this plan is followed, and every mem- 
ber of the Convention comes to its work with 
willingness not only to listen to what others 
may say. but to talk himself whenever he can 
thus add to the general stock of knowledge, 
the <iueBtiou then asked as the tittle of these 
remarks will be answered in a way that will 
send UK all home with our htart.s beating 
warmly for the work which is before ua, 
and every pleasant rememberance of the 
Convention of 1879. " So moto it be." 

Tours respectfully, S. 8. P*ckapp. 

New York, July 1, 1879. 

A. E. Deglcr. Warren. 0., incloees a very 
crrdiUiMc Hpecimen of flourishing. 

li. M. Iiat<?B, teacher of writing, Ellinffton. 
N. Y., wrilei* a graceful letter ia which he 
^nclones Bcvrral well written card specimens, 

F. O. Voting, Camden, Mp., thii somewhat 
famoufl left-hand writer, nends a very attract, 
ivu and wl>11 executed specimen of flounBb- 

E, I> Burnett, La CroBsft, Win., sends sev- 
eral specimens of writing and flourishing 
which show that he is alill improving ; he 

h. L. Tucker, teacher of penmanship at 
Troy Conference Academy, Poultney, Vt.. 
aenda several very creditable specimens of 

Job. Foellcr, Jr., Ashland, Pa., sends a 
photographic copy of a set of resolutions en- 
grossed for a Are company ; the work is skill- 
fully executed. 

C. H. Hills. Mansfield, O., incloses several 
slips of business writing and a package of 
cards which for elegance, ease and grace, 
are rarely excelled. 

A. A. Clark, teacher of writing in the pub- 
lic fichool« of Cleveland, Ohio, sends a g^m 
of oft-hand flourishing, ft cut from which will 
be found upon another page. 

Several elegant sjiecimens of card \vriting 
and a gem of flourishing have been received 
from C. W. Rice, who is at the Spencerian 
Business College, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Uriah, McKee, teacher of writing at the 
Oberlin (O.) College sends specimens of 
writing executed by several of his pupils 
which show remarkable proficiency. 

A. H. Ilftkin, Tully, N. Y.. sends a compli- 
cated and attractive specimen of flouriBhing 
and drawing. It is somewhat overdone: with 
one-half the work it would have presented a 
better appearance. 

AnswerB to 


In this column, for the future, will appear 
only Buoh communications, and answers there- 
to as we shall deem of general interest or im- 
portance. The custom of criticising the 
writing of individuals will be dicontinued 
partly because such criticisms are not of 
geneml interest to our readera but principally 
from the fact that since the circulation of the 
JoriiNAL has become so large, requests for 
such criticisms have become too numerous 
to aduiil of our complying with them all, 
therefore, that we may be impartial and just 
to ell. wo have thought best to entirely dis- 
continue such nnswers. Without any solicitfl- 
tiou on our part., we announce, that any 
reader of the JornNAL who desires to receive 
by mail a careful and thorough eriticisifl of 
tlieir writing, with suggestions for practice 
and improvement, we will favor them with 
the same for one dollar. 

Answer : By the amended Postal Law which 
went into effect May Ist, pen drawing writ- 
ten cards, corrected proof sheets, diplomas 
filled, not sigued. go through the mails at 

B. T.. Harperville, Miss, and others ask if 
wo cannot receive a specimen of their writ- 
ing and allow them to compete for the prizes 
offered for the greatest improvement during 
Professor Kelley's course of lessons. Answer: 
It would not be proper or right for us to do 
MO since specimens might he awkwardly 
or badly vrritteu now, for the purpose of 
showing marked improvement at the end of 
the course. We were particularly careful to 
receive all competing specimens before the 
writer knew the object of their solicitAtion. 

W. P. M., St. Louis, Mo.— 1. Who received 
the highest premium for penmanship nt the 
Ccutntiuiali' Answer : We are not informed 
regarding all the premiums awai-ded to the 
various deportmenta of penmanship at the 
Centennial. We give all the information we 

have, and if any having received pr^ ilhhih'; 
are not here mentioned, they are reqnesK-d 
to infonn us regarding the same. A 
diploma and roediil was awarded, for orna- 
mental pen-drawing, to Joel H. Barlow. New 
York. A diplomo was awarded to Ivison, 
Blakeman, Taylor & Co. for penmanship, 
exhibited by them, and executed by Lyman, 
and P. R. Spencerand H.W. Flickenger. Our 
own " Centennial Picture of Progress." 
which was exhibited in the New Jersey Edu- 
cational Department, received a highly com- 
plimentary certificate from that department. 

2, What is the average salary received by 
teachers of peumauship ? Answer : The 
wvlary varies largely— from $800, to $2.0O(l. 

3, Is it possible for a person to become a 
skillful penman without the aid of a teacher? 

4, We think it possible, but very doubtful. 
A man may cross the continent on foot, but 
most men would prefer the more expedi- 
tious method of going by railroad. We 
should certainly advise any one seeking to 
become an accomplished penman or a suc- 
cessful teacher to avail themselves of the in- 
struction of some acknowledged master of 
the profession ; they will save lime and mo- 
ney, and be much more likely to attain their 
object. 4. What letter in the alphabet 
(Capital) is the most difficult to make ? An- 
Kwi-r : The capital D is usually so considered, 
but it does not appear to be so to all persons, 

H. C. Wright, of Wright's Business Col- 
lege, Brooklyn, N. Y., is rusticating in 

t his home in Chester, N. H. 

A. J. Couch, late principal of the Commer- 
cial Department of the Academy at Sackville, 
N. B., is spending a vacation in this city. 

W. H. Ward, a graduate of P. R. Spencer, 
Jr., has been teaching writing classes with 
considerable success at Freehold, N. J., and 

N. S. Beardsley, of Washington ville, O. 
has engaged to tench writing at the Young- 
town, O. Commercial and Normal school, 
he is a very graceful writer. 

Louis Madaraaz, the well known young pen- 
man, has been engaged at a liberal sahiry by 
Mr. Gaskell, of the Manchester, N. H., Busi- 
ness College, and goes there September 1. 
This will be a fine opening for him. 

I. 8. Preston has engaged to teach penman- 
ship at French's Business College, Boston. 
Mr, Preston is one of our most enthusiastic 
and skillful writers, and will be likely to keep 
his competitors in Boston on the ijui vtvc. 

.1. F. Mooar, teacher of penmausbip in 
Hibbard's Business School of Boston, favored 
us with a call a few days since. Prof. Mooar 
plished writer, and enjoys the 

George M. Nicol, proprietor of the Old 
Dominion BusinesB College, Richmond, Vti.. 
favored us with a call a few days since. He 
reports a tolerable degree of success in his 
college during the past year. He has the 
bearing of an accompUshed teacher and gen- 

D. R. Lillihridge, Principal of the Daven- 
port, Iowa, tiusiuess College writes a letter 
in his usual excellent style, in which he en- 
closes a specimen of drawing and flourishing 
executed by Mr. Uahn, one of bis pupils, 
and now an assistant teacher iu the college, 
which is very elegantly done. 

A. C. Monroe, Brockton, Mass., paid us a 
visit recently. He formerly, for several years, 
taught writing, but more recently has been 
engaged as an accountant. It is his expecta- 
tion to take charge of teaching writing in 
the public schools in his town nuxt fall. He 
is a good writer and an enthusiastic admirer 
of fine penmanship, and will undoubtedly do 
good service in his new position. 

Prof. L. S. Thompson, teacher of drawing 
and penmanship at Purdue University. La- 
fayette, Ind., recently gave, before a large 
and appreciative audience at Lafoyette, an 
interesting and amusing illustrated lecture, 
which was highly complimented by the press 
for its wit, humor and apt caricatures of vari- 
ous nationalties and celebrated persons. 
Prof. T. is evidently a master of his art. 

A. W. Smith of the Meadville. Pa. Busi- 
ness College, has just completed a very fikill- 
ful and comphcated piece of artistic penman- 
ship in form of a Masokic MEMBEnasHtp 
CuART," which he designs to publish. It is 
"IS, and is profusely and tastefully 

tr;ii.hiug writing for some time post in Cal- 
iforniii, and in the fall will take charge of 
writing and drawing departments in the Cali- 
fornia State Normal School. He is improving 
the present — visiting the leading normal and 
public schools of the East to observe and 
study their methods of conducting these de- 
partments. It is his determination to give 
to these branches attention commensurate 
with their importance as a part of a pubUc 
school teacher's (lualification. 

E. Baylies, Principal of the Baylies' Com- 
mercial College. Dubuque. Iowa, has been 
spending & vacation of seven weeks among 
friends in the East, during which he favored 
us with a call. He reports a substantial im- 
provement in his college business during the 
past year. He is one of our live, enterpris- 
ing teachers and a good writer, and undoubt- 
edly deserves his growing success. 

J. Cagle, formerly penman at Moore's Busi- 
ness College. Atlanta, Ga., has opened in 
that city an institute of Penmanship. The 
At/antii .Siindai/ Omette speaking of Pro- 
fessor On gle Rftyf tliiit "he has formanyyears 
been ackuowlegod to be the finest penuiau of 
the South. He has not only the most exquis- 
ite power of execution, but he has the happy 
faculty of teaching this admirable art to 
others." From the specimens of writing 
received, and what we have learned concern- 
ing Professor Cagle, we can most fully 
endorse what is said by the Oazctte. His 
writing is among the best received at the 
office of the Joubnai,. 

Chambers Business College, Harperville, 
Miss , IS warmly commended by student* who 
are in attendance. 

The students and teachers of the New Jer- 
sey Business CoUege.Newark, N. J,, sustain a 
flourishing literary society. 

A catalogue of Folsom's (Albany, N. Y.) 
business College has been received. It is a 
quarto pamphlet of twenty pages, got up iu 
excellent taste and style. 

We are glad to learn that the special pen- 
manship department at the B. and S. College, 
Philadelphia, Pa., conducted by J. E. Soule 
and H. W. Flickenger is highly prosperous, 
as it riohly deserves to be. 

H. C. Clark, formerly of the Forest 
City Business College, Rockford, 111., has 
purchased of M. J. Goldsmith the Pottsville, 
Pa., Business College, of which he at once 
takes cliarge. 

T. T. Potter and S. R. Manning have es- 
tablished at Neenah and Omro, Wis., schools 
known as the "Students' Counting House," 
iu which they teach commercial and acade- 
mic courses. Their Counting Umw Quart, 
erly is a well edited pamphlet of sixteen 

The Spencerian Business CoUege, Washing- 
ton, D. C, conducted by Henry C. Spencer, 
closed for its summar vacation, June 17. The 
closing and graduating exercises were in 
Lincoln Hall, and consisted of music ora- 
tions, essays, recitations, etc. In the gradu- 
ating class were fourteen ladies and twenty 
gentlemen. This college is enjoying well- 
deserved prosperity. The exercises and the 
institution were highly complimented by the 

The fifteenth anniversary j 
ment of the Bryant, Stratton and Sadler, Bal- 
timore Business College took place at the 
Academy of Music, July Ist. The valedicto- 
ry address was delivered by the Rev. Chas. 
F. Deems. D.D., of New Y'ork. The gradu- 
ating class numbered one hundred and sixty- 
six; we return thanks for an invitation to be 
present, and sincere regrets for our iuabihty 
to do GO. 

Special Gifts vs. Industrious Effort 

Thousands are dissuaded from attempting 
to learn to write well, because they imagine 
they lack "the special gift." They seem to 
think that writing above every other acquisi- 
tion requires special talent, or a degree of 
mechanical ingenuity which they do not 

I have little faith in this idolized "gift." 
I know such a thing exists, and when it is 
not abused, its possessor may well be grateful 
for it. not only in penmanship, but in any 
other caUing. But where one, really pos- 
sessed of natural talents in a large degree 
succeeds, two fail. Of course they do not 
necessarily fail, hut fail because they are 
aware that nature has done more for them 
than for others : because they depend too 
much upon theii' natural talents, and do not 
make that effort which is absolutely indispen- 

3 gen 

, though possessed of the most 

! who will 

To any person of i 
corefully follow good 
corresponding example, and persevere iu his 
practice, success is an absolute certainty. 
Give me a young man with a mil and indus- 
try, and I will give you at least an excellent 
business penman. Or let my pupil be pos- 
sessed of real love for the art, together with 
industry, even though he niiiy lack this high- 
ly esteemed gift, and I will guarantee not 
only an excellent business hand, but a high 
degree of perfection and beauty. To him 
who would become an expert in the "art" in 
all its branches, the qualifications above 
mentioned, viz. ; love for the work, indus- 
try and perseverance are positively neces- 
sary ; while genius, or natural ability, is 
not only unnecessary, but in most oases a 
hindrance to its possessor, from the fact that 
it is seldom accompanied by that induetiy, 
"stick-to-itiveness" and othernecessary quali- 
fications which are iudispeusable to a high 
degree of success. 

;, N. H.. June 2,5, 1870. 
BdiUn-n Penman''8 Art Journal: 

The recent articles and communications in 
your paper in reference to those who are 
continually plying penman with requests for 
"specimens," are very timely and to the 
point; hut there is another class of frauds 
that are still more worthy of the Joubnal'b 
righteous wrath. If some of my corespond- 
ents are to be beheved, there are several 
penman traveling about the country, whose 
plan of operation is this : They go into a 
place and form a school : then decamp with 
the money collected for tuition — going over 
the same " course " in each place they visit. 
It is further claimed that one or two of our 
best known penman are engaged in this 
high-toned business, one of them, too, a 
recent and very promising convert of Mr. 

The only way to put an end to such busi- 
ness is to publish these parties. For me, I 
should deeply regret having to do it myself, 
but rather than see the entire profession 
discredited by reason of these fellows, I 
would do my whole duty in the matter. I 
believe, however, that there is no class of 
men with higher principles of honor than we 
see among penman ; but there are some scaly 
fellows among us, who need a little strict 

Let us have the experience of those who 
know more about their plan of operation. 
G. A. Gaseell. 

[In any instance where well-supported 
facts regarding penmen who have defrauded 
their patrons are received, we shall not hesi- 
tate to give such facts publicity through the 
columns of the Journal. — Ed.] 

St. Louis, June 20, 1879. 
Effitorx Pfn?nans' Art Journal: 

Owing to the severe pressure of business 
I am unable to reply to the communication of 
Mr. Geo. M. Nicol (which appears in the 
June number of the Jovasxh) in time for the 
Sjuly number, but you may state that I will 
euitMy all the points of .controversy in my 
address to the Penmen's Convention. It 
would have been a great pleasure to me to 
have heard from other penmen on the sub- 
ject; I really had expected such, and am a 
little disappointed in finding only one, who 
would openly vindicate, anddeclare "flourish- 
ing " to be a true art. No doubt there are 
many who take the same gi-ounds as Mr. 
Nicol ; therefore I would request them to 
come forward and let themselveK be heard ; 
but whatever arguments may be offered, let 
tbem be based on some authority outside of 
the ranks of " pen mm." I make these re- 
quests for the purpose of embodying in my 
report, ererj/ point of argument that may be 
submitted, and replying thereto. As I have 
not the time nor the inclination to reply to 

New stationery is ornamented with the 
favorite flower of the writer, ploced in the 
left hand comer of the card and envelope. 


Complimentary to Ames' Alphabets. 

Ariu»' AlphahfU ia an aduiiraMe arrauge- 
mtnt of (ili^liabuU io great variety. Its thirty. 
three fine ))Ut«ii repr«BeQt the Roman, ItAlic 
Roman, Gothic, Old Eogliah, Tuscan, Egyp- 
tian, Modiffival, and other styles. It \\m 
OennaD t«xt. Church t«xt, threi- charming 
nistio slpbahet«, and a number of oniato and 
useful original doNigns, including sigu pain- 
ters* lettarx, luouogramH, topographical Bigns, 
and arcbitoctfl' ulphabeta. We recommeii'l 
it as a complete autl artistic work which will 
offer much assiHtuuce to any quo doing liu'- 
lettering. It uUo gives uneful hints for 
draughtMmon upon tho pointa of tracing ami 
traosfering and preparing India ink. — Amir- 
fnin Booknrllrr. 

This is a new book of alphabeta, and in 
some reHpcots is altogether origlual in it« 
methods and contt-otu. Several plates ore 
cspeciatly adapted to tho use of architects 
and draftsmou, for tho purpose of lettering 
their drawings. Thu styles of letters pre 
Honted for the purpose are easy of eiecutton, 
and are arranged in words aud phrases ii: 
most oommou use upon drawings, so that, if 
desired, mmiy of thorn can be used by direct 
traDsfor. There are Hoveral plates of shaded 
aod foncy letters, cH])ecially doaigued for 
sign paiutors' use, and some plutus of rustic 
letters, which exhibit floe taste and obility 
upon the part of tho author, and which are 
defligued for use as initiaJa, &c. — Carpentry 
ttnd BuilfUng. 

This is au attractive book, which cauuot 
fail to commend itself to everybody with a 
t'iste for tho artistic. Many styles of letters 
are given, from the plainest aud HJmplest to 
the most elaborate. Teachers are learning to 
make their school rooms ottractive by mot- 
toes nud other ornaments. AU such will Hud 
this a voluable manual. Even for simple 
black-board work, it will soon poy for itself 
i>i adding interest aud attraction. — School 

This work was prepared by Professor 
Ames, the celebrated Engrosser aud Pen Ar- 
tist of New York, and is adapted to the use 
of architecU, engravers, engiueers, artiste, 
Mign painters, draughtsmen, &o. It oontaius 
thirty different Btylns of alphabets, many of 
which are original, and now appojtr iu print 
for the first lime. — f.'anofffl SrhaalJournai 

It presents a remarkable variety of alpha- 
bet designs, a very necessary book for en- 
gravers, draughtsmen, sign paiutors, and 
others. Huiulay Uerald, Boston- 

It is a useful book for penmen as well as 
others, as there is a great number aud variety 
of alphabets and styles suitable for eu- 
groBsiug.— ^/ftumo/i'd/i. Art. 

Invisiule Ink pou Postal Cards. -7'A<r 
lUustrirlt Geuievbn<itung proposes the use 
of what may be called " postal card ink, '■ for 
messages which are sent ou such cards or are 
otherwise unsealed. A solution of nitrate or 
ohiorido of cobalt, or chloride of copper, 
mixed with a little gum of sugar, produces a 
"magic ink," which is mode visible by warm- 
ing, either by holding against the stove or 
over a burning match. Potassium ferrocy- 
anide in solution may also be used ; but this 
requires a developer, for which either copper 
or iron sulphate may be employed. With the 
former the writing will appear in brown, aud 
with the latter in blue color. 

According to the Pharmacist, on iuk that 
cauuot be erased even with ooids is obtained 
by the followiug receipt; To good gall ink. 
odd a strong solution of flue soluble Prussian 
blue iu distilled water. This odditiou makes 
the ink, which was previously proof agaiust 
alkalies, equally proof against acids, and 
forms u writing fluid which cannot be erased 
without destruction of the paper. The iuk 
writes greenish blue, and turns black. 

Au aqueous solution of soluble iodide of 
starch is being sold uudor the name of Eucre 
j*our Us BamtJi. It is especially inWuded for 
ladies' love letters. In four weeks character* 
wrilteu therewiUi disappear, preventing all 
abuse of tho letters, aud depriving the lover 
of all documentary proof to his possession of 
the heart of his mistress. The siguer* of billti 
of exchange who use this iuk are freed from 
all obligations iu the same length of time.— 
Oeyera Stativntr. 





pLainI, pLfVAriorJ.vifiw. 

The !il)ove cut rcpi-escQl.s sjifciiiien k'Uers from si'vcral pages of " Ames' New Book of 
Alphabets," just completed. Sent post-paid ou receipt of $]..')0. 

Union, Miss. June 24, 1671 
Editors J^enman's Art Jwumal: 

I am delighted with the Journal ; would 
not be without it for five times its cost, 
think every teacher should take it. I wo 
advise all persons interested in writing 
send for the Penman's Art Journal. 
fact I believe it should be taken by every 
family in the laud, Let every subGcriboi 
work for the Jouunal so that our favorite 
paper may have a circulation equal t 

Keep the ball iu motion, let the good work 

Cats and birds do not mind being laughed 
at, but dogs and horses are sensible to ridi' 
cule. Sidney Buxton relates in Thr Animal 
HV/rfcfthat his pony gets very cross when 
disparaging remarks are made upon him. and 
becomes furious, stamping about his stall, 
putting back his ears and attempting to bite, 
if he is openly laughed at : whereas praise 
greatly pleases him. The SpecUitor believes 
that dogs, and probably horjes, know the dif- 
ference between being laughed at iu derision 
and beiug laughed at iu admiration, and enjoy 
the latter as much as they resent the former; 
but regards it as questiouable whether some 
parrot* do not understand and enjoy the prac- 
tice of making fun of their human acquaint- 
ances- do not appreciate the art of duping and 
take pleasure in it. 


A correspondent asks if we know of a 
lemical ink that ia invisible after writing, 
but is visible after a fluid or powder is thrown 
upon the writing? 

One method is to dissolve a little tannin iu 
■me water, and write therewith, which 
riting, if brushed over afterwards with a 
nail brush coutuiuiug tine, of iron, will ap- 
pear distinctly. 

If you know the acids or other tests that are 
used on safety check papers to prove its ability 
prevent raising, please u>ime them. 
Ans.— Dilute a small quantity oxalic or mu- 
itic acid ; apply with a small brush aud blot 
off with a blottiug pad. Possibly the method 
adopted most by forgers is to use oxygenated 
muriatic acid, as by this means the tcx- 
3 of the paper is not altered. Etpial 
quantities of nitre and vitriol distilled and ap- 
plied will have a like effect. A very neat little 
method as used by forgers is to rub the ink 
with a httle ball made of alkali and sulphur. 
— (iryn's Stations. 

The pen Qowlng with love, or dipped bUok with hale. 

V Desi Known. LsTABLlSHED, 1824. 

Ilsbcii !855 I amillea, ScUoiiIh, GoJIeftes 

mjMi Tm pjirciitu eafely ndvlaed of good 

PA C K: A. K D ' 8 


Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


and un-surpnased as a text-book. Speciineo oopipi 

S. S. PACKARD. PnbUsher, 



By c 

LtueK' CouipeDdlum of Ornamental Peumanshlp, 

DmoyhBi^leaiherBUd gilt!'. !!'..', '.'.','.',.'.'" '.■.'.' 7 1 

itota' Book of Alpbabt-M IB 

imee- Copj-SltpB for lustFUctlon and practice In 

practical writing, per sheet, contalulnft 'lOex- 

GO sheeta < fiO full seta of copies) 3 

" " 1,000, by «zpreiie 
ar. per pack of 26 curds, 'iQc. ; 
B super iup. Ind. Ink, pr etk, 
fBQCj' colored Ink sent by 

leiwoipreM":;:;. ;;;::;;;: 

per pint bottle, by cxpresa . . 

Engroaeing Pou« for lettering, per dos 

zou'e American Graphite Lead PouL-ils, very 
ilhame & Packard's Oenia ...... 

Qgdon'a Normal Syatein of Eiourlshing 

" " of Lettering.. 

■ 11 ', ^ C'<py-booka,perdos.... 

:uugK. 1;,.: 1^1. .ii.^ ii.., vury superior, par piece. 

1.18120,9 ""'feet^ *.'!?!.?' 

..2 I' axiSJtf ■; 

one clotb, one yard wide, any length, per yard, 

1 aerap-bwk 
QQipanled by cs 

, August Belmont, 

Eln^Bland, Steph^t 

Soule & Flickinger. 


3ld EugliBb. Scrolling. Pen-Drawing. 'DeBiBUiDg,an<I 
Those who dealro to give particular nltontlon to the 
id here for acquiring a practiciil knowledge of rtmw 

laina knuwlcdgeof designing ond eugroBulug which 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 



Ornamental and Artistic 

In Pruci 

cni, A 

rustic and 





f Pen 


moat thoroughly 1 


To Teach 

tn an 



en who 

special irnt 


in Designing 



Dtlcated an 

d Arila 

Ic Pen-work, we sha 

1 offer su 



sp^-ially so 


e who V 

acquire th 

e powe 

r to aucGesBfiilly ei 

ccute WQ 



e Photo-Engr 


or Photo 

rraphlc pn 


Rates of tn 


■nil beape 




Practical Penmanship. 

• Tbe drat t 


plUls u ftTANDABD KDdbuai- 


publlab DLACK-BOAAD caABTS of 

iuue m PArER devoted to [lenniaiiiblp 

flit, tint to popularize TRACINQ In o<'pj-booka 


matbemaUcallj, tbe XBDE 

by oumpcttDg tutbora. 

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VOL. III. NO. 8. 


II. T. A>IB^4, 

younsel giveu an Exjiprt on UaudwritliiK. 

Hence, it muet b 
plan than the 


B40 and B51 Broadway, New York. 


Ki!.o»TOW, Pa. 
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(Steaiii) Se«-»imi.«r and Job PrlnUro, 
Prlntrre of 60 Barolaj St., N. Y,, 

IlieoUio ToBchiTB' AaouuuUuu at Warrou, O., Juno 
11. UTS. 

Thuorre r>,900,000 adults euumerat«d in 
the last United States censua, who could 
iifilhiT ri'ftd uor writo. This lueaus that 
abont oiK>-tii-veDth of our entire population 
are iu need of instruction in these useful aud 
iuiportaut arts. That this vast number can 
wvcr be reached by professional penmen, is 
entirely out of ihe question, aud the thought 
uiitiirally couieti, how is this problem to be 
solved? There hf© '_»:>0.000 teachers in our 
publio schooU, who are auppoHcd to devote 
nearly one tenth of their time to writing. 
This is equivalent to the entire time of l'.=>.0|)u 
iu Ibis branch. Of the L'.iO.OttO teachers, 
2ilO,(MK) are female, and 5ii.(H)0 are male. 
A-wumiug that the whole time of 2.i,000 
teachers be given to instruction in pen- 
manship, we have an average of '236 pupils to 
each teacher, or, forty-seven per hour. 

1 that a more general 
it one of individual 
resorted to." That 
our public schools should be nurseries of 
the art, I do not think will be questioned ; 
and that the burden of instruction must fall 
upon the regular teachers is to me, equally 
clear. To diffuse, then, more generally 
among the people a knowledge of the art and 
to stimulate a healthier publio sentiment 
toward it, are prime factors in the problem. 
The question is not difficult. Let Boards of 
Education, Boards of Examiners, Superin- 
tendents of Schools, and all persons h»ving 
control of educational interests, make a posi- 
tive demand that every applicant for a posi- 
tion iu either primary or grammar schools, 
shall pass a thorough examination in both the 
theory and practice of Penmauship. Let 
them insist that no certificate be granted to 
those found incompetent iu this branch. Put 
the writing on a level with arithmetic, gram- 
mar or geography, and mnke it just as essen- 
tial an element, iu the examiuation for pro- 
motion of pupils from grade to grade, let 
teachers aud pupils feel the same responsi- 
bility for it as for the studies named. W<r-'- 
this done, I venture the prediction that re- 
sults fifty per cent better than those now ob- 
tained, could be had, aud that, too, without 
extending the time of special lessons. But 
the objectors to all this may say: First. The 
demand is unreasouable — impmcticable; we 
could not fill our ranks with efficient teachers 
— the wheels of our educational machine 
might be blocked — aud with what? the sim- 
ple art of writiuR, and some have gone so fur 
as to say the lowest of all arts. Second. 
Public sentiment would not support us iu 
such a radical demand. Third. It is an art 
like music or drawiug, a gift of which all are 
not possessed, and hence many might fail iu 
reaching such a standard of excellence as 
would enable them to pass, were it seriously 
considered. Fourth. Individuality — the no- 
tion that no two persons can be made to write 
alike — thatwritiug should express character, 
and, therefore, it is uot desirable to force 
taste by requiring all to be measured by a 
common standard ; ond more serious still with 
uot a few, that to write with extreme nicety, 
or to be very exact in what one does is a mark 
of a small mind. Fifth. Reolly writing 
has not much educating power or teaching 
force, and therefore hardly worthy to be dig- 
nified as a study. I have given what I believe 
to be the real objections to placiug penman- 
ship where I think it belongs, aud will en- 
deavor to answer them briefly. First. That 
the demand is unreasonable or impracticable 
I do not believe. If applicants for positious 
in our schools could kui 
beforehaud, that they wei 
writing, and tliat 
thorough, that no certific; 
to them if found 
I do not thiuk on 



)u would be 

uld be issued 

mpetent in this branch, 

t of fifty would fail of 

ely satisfactory standard, so 
far as knowledge of the art is concerned. 
That the art is lowest of all arts, or the very 
simple art some imagine it to be, I deny in 
toto. If such be the case, let him so think- 
ing try to master it, or to teach it, and I can 
assure him he will find it neither very simple 
nor extremely low: ou the contrary he will 
have need of all his faculties in full play if he 


of i 

It i 

thing to know — quite another to impart. Few 
fail ns teachers, comparatively, for want of 

knowledge — many from inability or lack of 
skill to impart what they know. Second. 
Public sentiment would not support us iu so 
sweeping a demand. May I ask who is to 
blame for the existence of such sentiment if 
it do exist (aud I deny that it does to any 
serious extent), who has the moulding of 
public opinion if uot they who have con- 
trol to a very large extent of eductitional 
affairs? I thiuk right here is the main diffi- 
culty, aud something should be doue to 
change the cun-ent of opinion if it ia setting 
iu the wrong direction. Public school meu 
should awakeu to the fact that writiug has 
strong claims upou them as an elemi-utry 
study, and that it can never rise to its proper 
level until it is giveu a fair and equable 
chance ; that they personally have « work to 
do in this direction quite as well as profes- 
sional penmen. Third. That abihty to 
write well is a gift any more than all our facul- 
ties are gifts, I deny. Indeed, there is less 
diversity of taleut here than iu reading, 
music, Or drawing ; less than iu arithmetic or 
spelling even, as I have frequently proved to 
my entire satisfaction. Hence this plea to my 
miud falls flat when we look it squarely in the 
face ; and yet, the idea that some are bom 
with a strong leauing toward Speucerian aud 
per force, must write well still lingers in the 
miuds of many, like si 'me old worn out super- 
stition. Fourth. ludividuality. This, in any 
practical sense, is the curse of penmanship — 
striving for it I mean. Who of us has not seen, 
or felt perhaps, the evil of learniug to write 
from a half dozen or more different teachers, 
each having hisowu peculiar style? How often 
what might otherwise have been an excellent 
hand, has been spoiled completely by trying 
to imitate somebody else. I thiuk of no bet- 
ter illustration of this point than the average 
boy or girl iu our high schools. Notice how 
tbey chose after oddiiies, how full of queer 
fancies — how prominent the notion that 
geuius and greatness are always marked by 
eccentricities aud originality. How they 
seem to feel that these qualities must colorall 
they do if a mark is to be made in the world. 
Perhaps you will say all this is but a natural 
exhibition, or reflection of that hyper-sensi- 
tive condition of the physical organism iuci- 
deut to the age of such boys aud girls. This 
is true, no doubt, in part, but far more is it 
due to wrong educational traiuiug, false ideas 
of Ufe and false social tendencies that induce 
persons to seem what they are not. A great 
writer has said : "The soul m its first and 
purer nature hath no idiosyncrasies which 
are not competent to others of the same kind 
and condition." I think he was right in such 
objection — certainly uot so far as the work iu 
our primary aud grammar schools is cou- 
cerned. Beyond a certain point writing is 
purely a practical art for the use of all, iu 
which distinct formation and facility of exe- 
cution are to be combined, and I do not 
think any one will question, that to begin in 
early childhood with a good style and from 
that style never change, is safer than con- 
stantly to vibrate between good, bad, indif- 
ferent and execrable. Again, that to write 
with extreme nicety, or, to be very exact in 
carrying out to the last degree every httle de- 
tail in whatever we do is any evidence of a 
small mind, is, seriously, absurd. There is 
too much disposition altogether in this coun- 
try to ignore httles iu our struggles to rise iu 
the world. We seem to forget a very old but 
wholesome saying; that what is worth doing 

at all is worth doing well. In the lowest 
forms of organized life of which man has 
knowledge (and no doubt serving an equally 
infinitessimal purpose in creation) the Al- 
mighty has set an example worthy our follow- 
ing; every structure is perfect and the same 
display of infinite skill iu every minute detail, 
however unimportant seemingly. Our pro- 
fession (the peuman's)is unfortunate in being 
burdened with quacks, (pardou the word, for 
I thiuk it fits.) aud, as in medicine, I think 
we are too apt to judge all by an experience 
it may be, with one or two. As well may we 
condemn religion because we happen to know 
a person that prays long and loud on Sunday, 
but during the week cheats his neighbor and 
violates in every act of his life the Golden 
Rule. The fact is, peumautihip is an absorb- 
ing art if one undertakes to become highly 
finished in all its branches. So much time is 
consumed in securing the necessary mechani- 
cal expertnesB that uoue is left for any- 
thing else, aud hence, it too often hap- 
pens that a disrelish for improvement in other 
directions is created. Fifth: That writing 
has not much educating power or teaching 
force. Before answering this objection, I 
desire to define briefly my position. I cer- 
tainly do not wish to be understood as having 
any desire that it should rank with astronomy, 
geology, theology, or medicine. These, are 
grave subjects that demand for their under- 
standing a strong intellect, added to a life- 
time of hard study and patient, persevering 
research. Even at the end of such a life one 
can but feel how far one has fallen short of 
complete mastery. Hence, it would be silly 
to compare penmanship and astronomy. They 
are uot comparable subjects. Writing is an 
elementary art, aud as such is justly entitled 
to strong claim upou us. Any technical or 
scientific view of it, should be confined to 
primary and gramniarschools. Beyond these, 
deal in generalities. Therefore, I would not, 
if I could, give it any undue prominence, but 
would put it squarely on a level with arithme- 
tic, grammar or geography —would have 
teachers and pupils just as enthusiastic over 
it and serious about it, aud would make it 
count just as virtually in an examination for 
promotion from grade to grade. Now, what 
are the facts of the case? The superintend- 
ent, principal or teacher knows (if compe- 
tent to perform the feat of introspection) 
that way down deep iu his heart, is a resolve 
to promote bis pupils upon the basis of their 
mastery over arithmetic, grammar, and pos- 
sibly geography. This being his fixed pur- 
pose gives color or want of color to all of his 
work. More, pupils are not idiots. Looking 
through the open windows of Ihe teacher's 
daily course they read his design, and with 
true American practicality they place their 
work juHt where Oakes Ames did his Credit 
Mobilicr stock, "where it will do the most 
good." For thiA they cannot be blamed. The 
fault lies with the teacher, or, the teacher's 
official cuperior who has formed a wrong de- 
termination and vainly hopes to hide it. 
Whether writing has any educating power or 
teaching force depends on what education 
reaUy is. If it be simply the unfolding of 
certain faculties and a neglect of others, that is 
one thing ; but if it means the symmetrical 
development of all to the end that one may 
have the largest practical use of bis power, 
that is quite another. Tne latter view J be- 
lieve to be a correct one. If true, then what, 
ever secures ord<^r, method, exactness, self- 

control aud ft critical iifie of the eye are abso- 
lutuundnfcvHKary aid^orekmeutsin the cdu- 
tioD and traiuiug of the child. What oth«.-r 
comiuoii branch iu our Hchoohi t^nds more di ■ 
rectly to the ciiItivntioD of the (innliti-H oamed 
than writiiig, if scientifically aud »killfiilly 
taught-' I do not think one can be mentioned. 
Good penmauKhip is the embodiment of law 
and ordnr, of good tatt^, and eh thorouglily 
scientific as geometry, jii-t us Busceptiblc of 
mathomalicftl d-nionKtnition. Ar to it« tfnch- 
iog pow'T, I do not think tliore cuu be any qnea- 
tiOD. It 18 almost nxioiualic, that uur regular 
tcachont who obtain the fiuettt r«8itlt in writ- 
ing Htioceed thoroughly well iu other hraocheij. 
A tuachur having good Kiicccbs iu arithmetic, 
grammar or geography doi'M not always teach 
peomauHhip well. Make her an elcgnnt ptu- 
mau and teaeher of the art and I will add 
twenty-five per cent iuiprovemeut iu other 
branchcH OS the counvqilenee Tlie fact isoo 
branch taught iu our HchoolH requireu ihe ex- 
eruiHu of mori} patience, skill and perBovertng 
effurt to attuiu the highetit Hucccfis than writ- 
ing. Make a obiUl, paiuhttikmg aud uureful 
iu »tl hiH written work, aud he will be Icrs 
likely to muku n mifltaku uud blunder iu other 
things. The fiklllfiil teacher will seek at all 
tiiueH to get her pupila Into u thoroughly recep> 
tivu Htato bi'fore proceeding to iuutruet them. 
I'rop.'r letifions ia penmanBhip aid pri^atly in 
KciMiriug thiH cud. Why is there so much 
Hiripping over iu teaching uhildrt-'U if it is not 
that right iioudltiouN are wanting. At thi» 
point, I think, Jb a vital cpioetion worthy our 
moKt Herious couHiderutiou, What those cou- 
dibionH are, ncd the mothodsof securing them 
am problems wo must persihteutly seek to 
solve. Thin much is clear, viz.: That atteu- 
tion and self •control are of prime importance. 
The child's mental wealth is but a bundle of 
disconuected an<l floating ideas, and the work 
of the teacher is uot alone to stimulate a 
tlnrHt for knowledge, but also to regulate, 
control and direct his miud-curreuts so that 
he may be enabled to see advauta'.-eously the 
little ho dooM know. How nhould he proceed 
to thiK? Manifestly by observing the order 
of nature. The child is a combiuatiou of 
mutter and mind, aud Htrive to ignore it at 
We may, the law for the first fifteen or more 
years of life is phycical first and intellectual 
second; the two always iu harmonious rela- 
tion, the physical, however, predominating. 
Ill childhood andyoutU the moHt active forces 
are at work hiying a strong fouudation on 
which the mind can rest iu perfect security. 
Webster once said: "So long as a man re- 
mains grceu he can gi-ow,"' and I think this 
truth cau be opplied very aptly to the educa- 
tional problem of to-day. Our duly as edu- 
cators does uot end with the heod, but should 
ombraoo tlio man an au outirety. Once 
shrivel and dry up the life principle iu early 
yeai-s, by establishing a wrong relation be- 
tween body aud mind, and you make it for- 
ever impossible to rise to the same level as 
if right relations had existed. An instrument 
out of tune cauuot give forth the sweetest 
harnionios, though touched by an angel's 
hands. Therefore, mental and pbysicial cul- 
ture should go hand iu hand. That this was 
the desigu of nature there ( 
and, iu training the ehild. 
things found necessary is 
sical aud mental action in 
funu, such as making simple 
writing the drawing of rude pictures, light 
gymnastics, Ac. Why is this done, if not on 
the priuci])le that meutiU poise is better se- 
cured by the forces aeliug logelhcr than sep- 
araU'ly. Neither mu-t we forget that we are 
dealing with the sense period of life ; that of 
nil the five uo other, is in a broad sense, so 
importAUt as seeing that it is through souse 
avenues wo must re ich the inteUigeuce of 
little children. If this vi«w is correct (aud I 
think it is mainly), then the proper irainingand 
iutelligout use of these organs is of first con- 
sequence, and they become powerful educa- 
tional forces. Now let us see what part peu- 
nmnahip can be made to play in this problem. 
First. It cultivates neatness, stimulates prido 
in one's work, btget« oontempt for disonler 
aud slovenliness, seoureK ttystem and method, 
stimulates self-respect and ni'tkps one precise 
aud accurate, all of which lead to a regard for 
trifles. Michael Augelo once said to a friend, 
"recollect that trifics make perfcction,Bud per- 
1 ^uouisnotrifle." Second. It improvesone's 
taste, makcb the eye ciitical and discrimina- 

be uo doubt ; 
' of the first 
combine phy- 
me agreeable 
. printing, 

ting, and increases the love for the beautiful 
in art and nature. A great writer says : "All 
art is nature bett«r understood," aud is it not 
true even of writing? Third. It is an excel- 
lent discipline, since it requires thecontrol of 
both mind and body. One must think aud 
act at the same time, by forcing obedience of 
arm, hand and fiugeru through the ixercise 
of his will. Hence, it assists greatly in se- 
curing a right condition for good instruction 
iu otht'r branches. Fourth, It is not simply in 
the ability to form letters distinctly that pen- 
mansiiip makes its btrongest claim, but iu the 
fact that if a pupil is properly trained in the 
art it helps, as few arts can, in fixing by con- 
stant use iu daily work, those habits that are 
absolutely necessary to high and permanent 
success iu all the common walks of life. Of 
the cbildren in the schools of the larger cities 
scarcely more thau one per cent ever go be- 
yond the fifth year,aud of the remaining nine- 
ty-nine per cent one half, at a rough estimate, 
leave with no more schooling than is gotten 
in the primaries. Therefore, something 
more than simply a knowledge of arithmetic, 
grammar, geography, spelling, ttc. is n 
sary. Through all must run a strong vei 
practicalness — the ability to execute as well 
as to plau, aud to methodize as well as to ac 
cumulate. We are too much iuclioed to Hvi 
in theory land aud deal loo little fact, givi 
too much attention to what and too little t< 
how. I aver it would be vastly better if n( 
child under twelve or fifteen years of age wen 
ever permitted to do anything hastily, or ii 
such a manner as to be conscious of slight o; 
neglect; that the habit of thoroughness is o 
prime importance, not alone in a few thing! 
but in all, "even unto the least." We must 
remember that the first years of life are 
very largely habit years, and that they may 
give color or want of color to a whole after 
life. - Failures in business in one's profession 
and in almost every direction are not for want 
of brains so much as from lack of organizing 
power, self-coutrol, order, poise and the ina" 
bility to utilize in their fullness the faculties 
we do not possess. The educated man 
should more readily adapt himself to any 
business iu life to which he may be drawn than 
the uneducated. Is this true to such extent 
as it ought to be? I think uot, and why! 
The auswer to this question (iu part at least), 
may be found in the notion that some are bom 
to be lowyers, while others are as ;itrongly in- 
clinoed toward theology, mediciue,&c. Hence, 
early in life, we are led to the neglect of 
common things in our mistaken ambitiou to 
reach eminence at a leap of genius, or by 
some grand c/mp d'ttat, instead of by slower, 
but more natural processes. If a boy is es- 
pecially bright iu arithmetic the teacher is 
too apt to push him forward in that branch 
at the expeuBe,mauy time8,of other necessary 
work. Right here I think we make a grave 
and serious mistake iu the education of the 
young, viz.: In making the distinctions we 
do as to what is important and what is not. 
I hold that under the age of twelve or fifteen 
years uo effort should be made to cultivate a 
special talent for any one thing, but, on the 
contrary, we should seek to equalize by 
placing most strees on the weaker points, and 
the stronger strive only to guide or prop- ' 
erly direct them. We should fix the idea in 
the child's mind that average success iu life is 
best secured by a broad culture that takes 
cognizance of the whole quite as well as a 
part that nothing permitted to be taught in 
the schoolroom is. in the smallest degree, uu 
portant whatever its seeming, that con- 
euce is an active quality that ought to find 
expression in every act of bis life. 

Once let the child feel that neglect or slight 
n any work is allowable and where will it 
jud '! too often in f -lilure and bankruptcy. 
Show me a boy that is slipshod, indifferent 
and slovenly in his writing, and in eight out 
of every ten such cases you will find him the 
same in any work where question is possible. 
If this iissertion seems too strong, make a 
fair but searching test in your classes, say 
from the A. or B. primary grades, and I will 
stand or fall by the result. Go further, if 
you will, take two classes from A. primary 
or T1. firammar grades, one having had the 
best of iustructiou except in writing, another 
having had the best in writing as well as 
other branches.. Test them in spelling and 
you will get proof plenty that good writing 
helps spelling, and yet many professional 

penmen are poor spellers — a paradox surely. I Rabelais, the identical one in the present 
I deny, however, that a penmau in any true j sale, then bringing £^7. It was this letter 
sense of the term is either the poor speller, that, about the year lS-17. led to the discovery 
idiot or supremely superficial being that of the forgeries which had been practised, 
many seem to think him. The difficulty lies ' The purchaser had the curiosity to compare 
in the fact that they are entirely superficial I it with the writing of Rabelais m the Uuiver- 
as penmen — they see nothing in good writing ! sity registers of Moutpellie 

beyond the simple form of a letter, and 
wonder such a one is held iu low esteem. 

I have used the expressions properly taught, 
righlly taught, Ac., because many penmen 
seem to know as little of true method in teach- 
ing the art as a beetle does of Greek. When 
it is niude clear, as it cau and will be, thai 
good penmanship means more than the 
making of simple letters. I am sure a spirit 
of fairness and candor will accord writing a 
place in the curriculum of our common schools 
that it has never held hitherto. A few gen- 
eral words in closing. 1 believe in education, 
the broadest, highest and best, that every im- 
proved method and appliance of the age can 
aid us iu obtaining, whether in the primary, 
grammar, high school or university. 

I believe the public schools of America the 
best in the world, aud that no class of pro- 
fessional men or women are more devoted to 
their work, heart and soul, than our superin- 
tendents, principals and teachers generally. 
Neither do I mourn the dfpart'ire of father oi 
grandfather days ; for good as they were, 
they could no more meet the demands of the 
present than a dog-cart can supplant the 
steam radwuy. I believe just as strongly, 
however, that we are weaker at the bottom 
than at the top—that in our anxiety to 
late in the minds of children a commendable 
ambition to continue on and complete a high 
er course of study than is afforded in om 
primary and grammar schools we are in dan- 
ger of neglecting those fundamental princi- 
ples that lie at the threshold of all 
permanent success, I btlieve that 
too much to the notion of bias or bent of raiud 
in our children, and thereby create a disrelish 
for much mental food that is bust suited to 
the age and condition of the child. Lack of 
mental grip, so much complained of, is due in 
great measure to the fostering of this idea be- 
fore judgment aud reason are developed. It 
tends to make the child discontented with 
what is best for him, and nourishes our in- 
dulgence in caprice, whim or fancy, and 
hence thjit sort of peevish mental grip, like 
the sharp snap of a poodle, rather than the 
clinging, never give-up grip of the bulldog. 
It leads the child to easy discouragement, loss 
of fortitude and self-reliance, all of which is 
too much a characteristic of the mass of chil- 
dren iu our public schools. 

Because one is brilliant in arithmetic aud 
poor in writing is no reason for stimulation of 
the former or neglect of the latter. In such 
a case, with proper direction, the arithmetic 
will take care of itself — the writing won't. 
We have already too many unbalanced aud 



I this 


Let us, as educators, have uo hand in swell- 
ing the number. Floating on the crest won't 
help the man that's drowning underneath the 
wave. We must dive to the bottom it may 
be if we would save him. and, though lost iu 
the attempt, 'tis duty nobly done— the best 
could do no more. 

Forged Autographs 

The Loudon Ti'mfx, having r -fercnce to 
the late sale by Messrs. Lotheby & Co.. 
London, of Baron Heath's remarkable col- 
lection of atttograph letters, says : 

Important and highly interesting as the 
collection undoubtedly is, it proved event- 
ually to have a peculiar interest for all collec- 
tors and historians, in bringing to light 
several letters which were kuown to have 
been made many years ago iu imitation of the 
handwriting and the lani;uage employed by 
the celebrated men whose autographs they 
pretended to be. These very letters, which 
had been long lost sight of, are among those 
mentioned iu the * Dictionnaire de Pieces 
Autographiques' Ac, of MM. Lalanne and 
Bordier, and on reference to that work we 
find that they furmed part of a lot sold about 
1837 by a certain Letellier to Charon, the 
dealer, as having been discovered in the cab- 
inet of M. d'Hozier. the yroat g<-uealtiyi-t of 
the time of Louis XV. They aft^rwaids ap- 
peared at a sale iu Paris iu 18+7, aud were 
then believed to be quite genuine and were 
sold at high prices, the autograph letter of 

professor, and the result was unfavorable to 
its authenticity. But more than this the 
letter bore the date aud place of ' Plaisaoce, 
'21 Avril, 15;1S," purporting iht-ri-fori- to be 
writtim iu Italy and addressed to the Cpirdinal 
du Bellay, anuouuuiug to him that the Pope 
had asked the Duke of Savoy to surrendrr 
the fortress of Nice, which has been again 
declined, and referring to other political news. 
Now it is ascertained that at this date Rabe- 
lais was not in Italy, but at Montpellier : and, 
moreover the whole substance of the letter has 
been shown to be a paaticeto made of phrases 
and words taken from authentic letters aud 
imitating the style of the great writi r. To 
those who are not aware of the extraordi- 
nary skill with which these things are done, 
it will be interesting to point out how it is 
that excellent judges aud euthusiastie ama- 
teurs are deceived. The artist forger first 
provides himself with paper of the time — 
this is indispensable to his craft— aud thus 
old paper is sought, and long has been all over 
the world, at high prices. He next takes an 
ink which, as far as chemical ingredients can. 
help him, will assume quickly the decomposed 
appearance true ink acquires with age. His 
models for working from are apt to be found 
and are. of course, accessible iu any of the great 
national libraries, and some of these have, 
unfortunately, been stolen for the purpose. 
An abundant source also is available iu the 
facsimiles contained in the great work 
•Isogharhies des hommes celebres,' Paris, 
Delarue, 1843. The close imitation of these 
is a study of a hfe. and it leads to such per- 
fection that it demands very great skill to 
euable au expert to detect the falsity where 
the forger has not ventured so boldly upou 
his work as to coin an original letter, and 
then he is pretty certain to make a mistake 
as in this case of the Rabelais' letter. 

"The R in Rabelais' signature has a pe- 
culiar long tail, prolonged downwards with a 
firm stroke, and this wanted something of 
freedom and decision in the specimen now 
sold, as well as the flourish added at the end 
of the name, which is equally singular in the 
true signature. The water-mark of the paper 
sometimes condemns the forger, but generally 
he takes care to be right as to this ; though 
we observed that the paper of this letter 
bore a mark which very closely correspouds, 
if uot identical, with that on a letter of Michael 
Augelo, iu the British Museum, dated Rome, 
15iiJ), while this letter bore date more than 20 
years earlier. The weak point, however of 
the forger lies iu his ink. No chemical knowl- 
edge has yet enabled him to obtain the pe- 
culiar look of old ink which has decomposed 
gradually, and which shows the thinner and 
thicker flow of ink as the pen laid it on. 
The false ink decomposes equally, the 
letters being of the same regular tone of 
color, but often varying in depth, from pale 
and thin to^ ^rk a "d thick iu places. As 
■gards the possession as well as the disposal 
of these particular letters, there is no doubt 
Lvhatever that the late Baron Heath believed 
,n their authenticity, as so many others had 
done, aud that they were offered boim Jide 
in thi« public sale. It was only at the last 
moment and when it was observed ttiat the 
French experts present did not become the 
purchasers of them that the inttresting dis- 
covery was made. The Rabelais letter, there- 
fore, when it was put up met with one hid of 
£5 from au English dealer, and was knocked 
down to him without a single advance, much 
to the amusement of M. Charavay and the 
other Paris dealers. Had it been true, it 
uld have brought perhaps 20 times the 
price. With two or three exceptions, thesg 
imitations were by the same clever band. 
There was a letter of Chari^s V. of Frauce, 
1337-13H0, which sold for i'S IHs.. rt-huiug to 
the chronicles of King Thibault, and super- 
scribed to Gilet Malet. 'notre valet de 
chambro,' accompanied with a certificate as 
to its authenticity by M. A. Teulet. lai txptrt 
and deah;r iu Paris long since dead, whose 
authority was also appended to a i>imilar K-tter 
purporting to be of Dunois, the celebrated 
Jean, Bastard d'Orleras (1402-1468}, which 

VIM DOW gold for £1, such a letter being 
worth, if gtfnumi- nl I.-asI XHK) Aaother by 
lliu saiue build prt. u-udf d to be by tbt; 
DiichcMB d'Etampn. miBtrens of Francis I., 
and another wan snid to be of the great TaU 
hot. Earl of Slirewtibiirj-. killed at the batllt; 
of Polclierfi The audacity in flyiog at such 
high game aw this, however. wa*i surpassid 
in the letter of Hnyard, thp famous Chovalier, 
complaimng to the king Louik XII. of the 
rabb<Tif« in tbi- towo of Vicence by the 
troops of the Empi-ror CharUs V. of Ger- 
many, which Hold for £13 .'>.><. This was aloo 
certified by M. A. Teulet, who, it is now 
known, wft« tliu hfou frere oiiha artiBt who 
(Ie»ol«d his talents to thin nort of work. That 
h«? w«« not alone in hift craft waa to be oh- 
HiTVt'd in the Hpccinu-ns of older masters, 
«iich as tht* letter of ChnrleH IX. of France— 
1. •-->() I'.'O— and that of Charles V. of Ger- 
niiHiy, written to de Moutfort, in French, and 
ri-fi-rring to a k-tter in cipher, and directing 
him to burn it after having read it." 

The Art of Letter Writing. 
Recent alhiJtiouB in a clever English weekly 
endeavored to show that the art of letter 
writing has buconie altogether obsolete. If 
the writer meant that there are few or no 
perHOus now-a-days who write letters in the 
Htyle of Cuwper and Madame de Sevigne he 
was pretty nearly correct. Yac\\ of those in- 
dividuals had the time to write volumniouBly 
and the motive for writing candidly. The 
same opportunities and stiniuhiK do not now 
exist as fretjueutly as they did iu those days. 
NeverthelosK the art of letter writing has not 
quiie died out. Bad it never will, bo long as 
people interested in each other are kept 

Lovers, for iuatance still write letters, and 
nowhere else in the world is such burning 
rhetoric to be found \m in the epistles they 
intirchange. Thank heaven, the era of let- 
ters written crosRwise has almost expired; 
but it gives the fancy plenty of room for 
work in depicturing the tender solicitude 
with which (he ecstacies expressed in those 
iutersfcting lines must have been unravelled. 

With what different emotions do we peruse 
the lelteri* written by friends equally dear. 
Hi-re is one, fnr instance, composed with an 
timiable lighuheartcdness which takes for 
granted that nil the world is gay, because 
the sender never felt a pang worth mention- 
ing. ITiB periods are well rounded, the ob- 
jfctive descriptions are nicely turned, and 
over the whole lingers an atmosphere of 
careless self enjoyment that leaves altruistic 
considerations out of the qiiestiou. It is just 
such a letter as men or women iu love with 
themselves, and who have never truly known 
what it is to love anybody else, are givtsu to 
iuditing, Yetitia worth receiving, because 
it is characterized by good temper and glad- 
someness, which are always in order ; and if 
it does not descend to the depths or reach up 
to the heights, it is a pleasant specimen of a 
cheerful rum me Uingrrr correspondence. 

Very different is this almost Impassioned 
and vigorous piece of writing, iu every sen- 
tence of which eccentricity and a burning 
sincerity arc displayed. It scorches the im- 
agination iu the reading, it touches the heart, 
bids the tears flow, sends brightness to the 
eye and n flush to the cheek and leaves the 
reader panting with pleasure. Yet it is not 
a love letter. The firet epistle (wo will sav) 
was an agreeable, well-balanced handshake ; 
this, of which wo are speaking, is a cordial 
prewmn*, a momentary embraoo. Its unmis- 
takable emotion darts through you like a con- 
suming fiix'. The other lays you out on ice, 
These are specimens of two schools of 
correspondence, each interesting in its way. 
Voii cannot blame th« north pole for not 
biing the equator. You have uo right to 
find fault with froat spangles on a mountain 
side for not emulating the crimson blossoms 
that gleam iu the rifts bciow.— JV. Y. Tele- 

As a match for a sentence of forty-three 
letters, rwently published in this column, 
containing all the letters of the alphabet, the 
following of only thirty-three letters, wuich 
also fulflU the same condition, is given :— 
"J.— Pack with my box five dozen 

The Writing Class. 

The capital letters give clearneRS, strength, 
diversity, and artistic character to writing. 
They introduce broader movement, fuller 
curves, greater breadth of design, and more 
marked distribution of hght and shade, than 
we find iu the small letters. New principles 
are introduced into the architecture of th^ 
capitals, and hence their classification is dif- 
ferent from that of the small letters. The 
straight lines are now mostly eliminated, and 
flowing curves take their place. The grace 
and beauty of writing ere largely centered in 
the capitals. Artistic character is not the 
least desideratum in penmanship, although it 
must of course yie'd precedence and value to 
a simple and legible style. However, these 
merits are not incompatible, but are hapi>ily 
blended in the best writing. 

In the spoken signs of language, we not 
only aim at clear and correct enunciation, but 
we cultivate taste and expression. The 
writtcD signs of language demand equal con- 
sideration, and have the same £esth"tic bear- 
ing. We could easily teach the child the mere 
disposition of the lines in the characteristic 
forms of the alphabet, and leave out alto- 
gether any ideas of symmetry and beautj'. 
The letters can be made stiff and regular: 
they can be stripped of many of their grace- 
ful lines, and remain bare signs of language. 
But we aim at something more than this. We 
not only wish to give the pupil a clear and 
intelligible handwriting, but we also desire to 
make it pleasing to himself and to others. 
To accomplish this, we must create iu his 

" Here we have the Capitol Stem followed 
by the capitals A, JV, and Af. See how much 
these three letters are like the same italics. 
All of the script letters, both small and capi- 
tal, come from the italic ones ; but the script 
letters have more hues ; aud. in their CJipitals, 
graceful curves take the place of nearly all 
the straight lines which you see so often in 
the italics, I want you to look sharp at the 
Capital 8tvm. It is only a long curve aud an 
oval But these, togeth*rr. makt^ one of the 
mtist beautiful forins il]<it w- liiiv.- in writiug. 
You know that an ..viU i- -.ii..|,,,i h^,. an egg. 
This base-oval resl , ou iK nL;lit -,!,!.■ I wish 
now to cut off thisuvitl tjuk-li u£ Ihv Capital 
Stem, at the base-line, so that we can study 
the long curve- Tell me if it is the same 
curve all the way down ?" Some say that it is 
—some that it is not. "I will change it a 
little, so that you can tell better about it, " in- 
tensifying the curves. "What do you say 
now ? Is it the right or left curve ?" Mnuy 
bright eyes can see both curves. "Right, 
both these curves unite to make a single line." 
I now draw a horizontal line through the cen- 
tre to mark the curves. '* Wha* is the upper 
one?" '-The left curve." " The lower one ?'■ 
" The rightcurve." '• You see that the curves 
meet at the centre of the stem. This beauti- 
ful curve, made of two opposite curves, is 
often called 'The Line of Beauty.' It comes 
fiom two ovals."— wi-iting one beside the 
other, so tliat the adjacent curvestouch at the 
centre. I then trace the uppiT left curve of 
the second oval, continuously with the lower 


mind a good ideal of the letters. Aud this lost 
requires cultivated effort on the part of the 

" Well, children, we have gone through 
with all of the small letters, and we have now 
come to the grown-up letters, or capitals. I 
mean by this, that capitals are the largest let- 
ters we have in writing. Let us talk a little 
about the use of capitals before we learn how 
to make them. Now, if you will look at ynur 
reading-books, you will see that every sen- 
tence begins with a capital ; and that the 
words /^and are written with capitals, aud 
that some other words have capitals. Is not 
this much better than to have all small letters 
iu your books ? How much easier it is to see 
where sentences begin. How much better 
the pages look to have somecapitalssprinkled 
in among the smaller letters. How it would 
look to begin your name, or the name of the 
phice where you live, with a small letter ; for 
instance : ' charles snow, boston,'— writing it 
on the board with and without capitals. 
" Which looks the better?" '"The capital 
one," is heird on all sides. 

" Would you like to know why these big 
letters are called capitals? It is because they 
stand at the head of every sentence, just as a 
Captain stands at the head of a company of 
soldiers. Now we expect a great deal of a 
Captain. Ho should be a capital soldier, or 
he is not fit to be a Captain. Just so we ex- 
pect a great deal of these big letters. They 
should be made in a capital manner ; that is. 
very good indeed, or they are not fit to be 
capital letters. " 

" If a man was going to build a houB«, he 
would want to make a framework first, and 
then he could finish it off just as he hked. 
Now. in making capitals, we want to have 
first a framework, and then we can build up 
each letter. I am now going to give you some 
lettersthat have the Capital Steu; for a frame- 

rightcurve of the first oval, to point out the 
Line of Beauty. The children are eagerly 
watching me. Do you see this Line of Beauty? 
■■ Oh. yes, yesi" 'Let us rub out those parts 
of ovals which we do not care to use. so that 
the hue will stand out aloue. Now we have it 
clear. We call this the Capital Stem, iu 
writing. To please the eye still more, we 
swingon totlieStem thisupward curve, which 
completes the ba8e-<ival. See what a broad 
turn you have to give the oval : and the left 
curve comes right on top. The base-oval is 
just half as high as the Stem, and is longer 
than it is wide, or it would not be an oval. 
The lines are iiU light in the Capital Stem, 
except the right curve— that has a shade which 
begins aud ends lightly, but is heavier at the 
centre. The pen must move smoothly to 
make a good shade." 

"Oh, that's only a trifle," we say, when 
reprimanded for some little extravagance, 
forgetting that these very trifles accumulate 
and assume gigantic proportions. The coral 
insects build in time a mighty monument 
whose base rests countless fathoms below the 
surface of the sea which its pinnacle pierces 
—yet it is built only of trifles. The drops of 
water which wear by their attrition a basin 
in the rock, are only trifles, yet every one 
has its weight. Let us look at the little ex- 
pend tures of every day, which we slightingly 
term trifles, and see what they aggregate a 
year. Car fare, for instance, to a busmess 
man who rides to and fro from his business, 
is only six cents for each time, that is twenty- 
four cents a day. or $7.20 a month, or $8G.40 
a year, a sum that more than suffices to pay 
the rent and clothe hundreds of families iu 
this city. Cigars, to an ordinary smoker, 
run far into the hundreds, as do other petty 
vices. Audit is just these httle leaks, these 
trifles that undermine a man's income not 
the larger expenses, for these he can calcu- 

late and provide for ; but it is the penny 
here, the dime there that does the mischief. 
"Take care of the ceut* and the dollars will 
take care of themselves," is one of the truest 
of maxima, aud at the same time one that 
mankiud generally fa.l" tc compn-heud. The 
sooner we awake to a full appreciation of its 
tnith the sooner will we find our credit es- 
tablished upon a firmer and more solid basis. 
— Baltimore JSteiy Saturdajf. 

Humor of Newspapers. 

The American journalist possesses a fund 
of dry humor which he knows well how to 
apply. He is famous for insulting by impH- 
caiion ; tew understand the art belter. A 
California editor invested in a mule, and the 
fact was chrouicled under the headiug, "Re- 
markable Instance of Self-possession.'' Said 
one Milwaukee editor of another. "He is one 
of the few journalists who can put anything 
in his mouth without f^ar of stealing any- 
thing;" aud when a Western editor wrote, 
" We caunot tell a lie; it was cold yesterday,'' 
his rival quoted his remark, with the ad- 
dition, •' The latter statement is incontrovert- 
ible : but the former 'f" Snid an Idaho journal: 
— "The weather has been hot again for the 
last few days. The only relief we could get was 
to lie dowu on the Ilfrahl and cover ourselves 
with the flr//Wy?i — there is a great coolness 
between them." This kind of coolness often 
brings about an amusing iuterohange of iiioi- 
vilities. A Michigan journalist declared in his 
paper that a certain editor had seven toes. 
The s'andered man ther.Mipon relieved his 
mind in a "Ipadt^r," di'uouncing the state- 
ment ns uuwarrauted, and its author aa 
devoid of truth and a scoundrel to boot. The 
offending genllemau replied that he never 
wished it to be understood that the seven 
toes were upon one foot, and the victim of 
the sell was thoroughly laughed at. "Wj 
are living at this moment under a despotism." 
His opponent kindly explained: — " Our con- 
temporary means to say he has recently got 
married." A newspaper writer asserts that 
his ancestors had been in the habit of living 
a hundred years. To which another re- 
sponds :—" That must have beeu before the 
introduction of capital punishment." The 
proprietor of a Western journal announced 
his intention of spending $r»0 on "a new 
head" for it, "Do not do it," advised a 
rival sheet; "better keep the money and 
buy a now head for the editor" — which im- 
plied a good deal. — Pn'iUfrif' Circular. 

The speed of ii railway traiu must depend 
very much upon questions of grade, condition 
of track. Ac. 

The swiftest railroad trains are run in 
England, according to the German govern- 
ment report, a .speed ol fifty miles an hour 
being common between London aud Dover, 
London aud York, and London and Hastings. 
Trains go at forty-two miles an hour on one 
of the Belgian linos. The fastest in France 
aud Germany do not often exceed forty, and 
in other European countries thirty is the max- 

Some of the railroad riding on our near-by 
roads is very fast. The Pennsylvania runs 
some of its express trains from New Y'ork to 
Philadelphia, about ninety miles, in less than 
two hours, aud there is also fast running on 
the Bound Brook route. A rapid rate of 
speed is much more expensive than a moder 
rate rate because it luvolveft such a heavy wear 
and tear of machinery, tracks, ice, and much 
more fuel. 

A young lady gi-aduate in a neighboring 
county read an essay entitled "Employment 
of Time." Her composition wus based ou 
the text, "Time wasted is existence; used 
is life." The next day she purchased eight 
ounces of z-phyr of different shades and com- 
menced working a sky blue dog, with sea 
green eyes, with a piuk tail, ou a piece of 
yellow canvass. She expects to have it done 
by next Christmas.— A^o^r-jiitfUJa Herald. 

Any one might reasonably suppose that 
half a dozen kinds of steel pens would suf- 
ficefor the reasonable wants of a community. 
The pubUe. however, areasfa.stidious in their 
requirements in writing as in anything else: 
aud to "atisfy the different tastes the Ester- 
brook Steel Pen Company provides over oat* 
hundred aud fifty different styles. 




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Penmen's Convention. 
The second annual meeting of tlic Busi- 
new College Teacheid' and Penmen's Asso- 
cifttion, will be lieUl nt Clevelnnd. O., from 
Tuesday, August fltli, to Friday, August 8th. 
IS71), inclusive. 



10 A. M. — Topic for Discussion: "The 
place of business culleges in the educnlianal 
system." Opening by J. C. Bryant, Buffa- 
lo. N. Y. 

11 A. M — Lesson in Pcnraanslitp: "The 
moraliers of the Association sitting as a class 
of beginners." A. P. Root, Cleveland. O., 

13 M.— Topic for Discussion: "The public 
need of a business college, and the^yij^.ADd 
manner in which the public annou.'WdWts 
and advcrlisctncutsof these institutions shall 
set furlli tbeir claims for patronage and sup- 
port." Opening by E, K. Bryan, ColunibuB. 

3 p. M. — Lesson in "Initiatory Methods." 
Wm. Allen Miller, New York, teacher. 

4 P. M.— Topic for Discussion: ■■The rela- 
tion of ornamental penmanship to business 
writing." Opening by D. L. Musselman. 
Quiucy, m. 

4.30 p. M.— A paper on "The importance 
of a knowledge of art matters geneniUy, and 
decorative art especially, to those who pur- 
sue the art of engrossing." F. W. U. Wit-s- 
ehalin, St. Louis, Mo, 

Wbdnehdat. ArccsTfi.— 

n A. M. — Lesson in "Business Arithme- 
lic." Tboma" M. Peirce, Philadelphia, 

9.30 A. M.— "Some Fallacies in Equa- 
tions." C, E. Cady, New York, teacher. 

10 A. M— Topic for Discussion : " The ex- 
tent of arithmelic embraced in a business 
college course." Opening by A. J. Taylor, 
Rochester N. Y. 

11 A. M.— Lesson in "Initiatory Methods." 
Wm. H. Duff, Pittsburg. Pa., teacher. 

n 80 A. M.— Topic for Discussion: "Po 
litical e<-onomy in tbe business college."' 
Opening by R. C. Spencer, Milwaukee. Wis. 

12 M. — Lesson in Penmanship: "The 
members of the Association sitting as an ad- 
vanced class in a public school." H. W. 
Sbaylor, Portland, Me., teacher. 


3 p. M.— Topic for Discussion: "The min- 
imum of (pialification which will permit a 
I)upil to graduate from a business college." 
Opening bv C. E. Claghorn, Brooklyn. N.Y. 

4 p. M. — "Etiquette: Its uses and benefits 
among men in the business relations of life." 
Thomas E. Uill, Chicago, 111. 

4.30 p. M.— Topic for Discussion: "The 
minimum amount of commercial law be- 
longing to a business college course and how 
it shall be taught." Opening by W. H. 
Sprague, Norwalk, O. 

5 p. M.— Poem— by James H. Lanslev, 
Elizabeth. N. J. 

TnuusuAY, Adoust 7. 

9 A. M. — Lesson on " The essential points 
of business penmanship," J. W. Payson, 
Hyde Park, Mass., teacher. 

10 a. m.— Topic for Discussion: "Phono- 
gra))by a business college study." Opening 
by C. E. Cady, New York. 

10.30 A. M.— Lesson in "Banking." G. W. 
Elliott. Chicago, 111., teacher. 

11 A. M. —Topic for Discussion: " The ca- 
pabilities of a business college." Opening 
by D. T. Am.'s. New York. 

12 M. — "Blackboard exercises in penmau- 
mausliip." A. H. Hinman, Boston, Mass., 

12.30 P.M.— Topicfor Discussion: "Busi- 
ness honor and morals." Opening by E. G. 
Folsom, Albany, N. Y. 


3 p, M.— Topic for Discussion: "Intercom- 
munication by students of different colleges.^' 
Opening by E. R. Fulton. Cleveland, O. 

3.30 P. M. — Lesson in "Business j.ractice." 
C. R. Wells, Syracuse, N. Y.. teacher. 

4 p. M.— Topic for Discussion: "The re- 
lation of business colleges to their grndu- 
atee.'' Opening by S. S. Packard, New 

FniDAY, Au(!UsT 8.— 

fl A. M.— Lesson in "Business correspond- 
ence." L. L. Sprague. Kingston, Pa., 

10 a. m.— Topicfor Discussion: ■'Theim- 
portance of penmanship in a business col- 
lege." Opening by D. R. Lillibridge, Dav- 
enport, Iowa. 

11 A. M.— Lesson in "Penmanship: class 
drill in movements and exercises." H. C. 
Spencer, Washington, D. C. teacher. 

12 M. — Topic for Discussion: "Discipline 
in business colleges." Opening by S. 8, 
Packard, New York. 

3 P. M. — Lesson in "Ornamental penman- 
ship and engrossing." D. T. Amia, New 
York, teacher. 

3.30 P. M.— Topic for Discussion: "Civil 
government as a study to be pursued by a 
business college student." Opening by K. 
C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Wis. 

4 P.M.— Lesson in "Partnership settle- 
ments." H. C. Wright. Brooklyn, N. Y., 

The above programme is liable to changes 
in Cleveland, in consequence of tbe non-at- 
tendance of those to whom parts are as- 
signed. By order of 

L. L. Spraoue, 
II. C. Spe.xcer. 
T. M. Peirce. 

Executive Committee. 

Look out for the next number of the Jodh- 
jal with a full report of tbe convention, 
ind several splendid specimens of penman- 

Art is defined a« "the means employed 
by man to adopt existing things in the nat- 
ural world to his material necessities and 
his intellectual tastes." Man tinds himself 
in the world without food, raiment or habi- 
tation; the Jir»t want stimulates his invt'U- 
tion, and out of such materials as be finds at 
hand he constructs implements for securing 
and preparing his food; he soon discovers 
the use and means of producing tire; be 
invents cooking utensils and as he advances 
in civilization he raises cooking into an art. 
The necessity for clothing also calls into 
action his inventive faculiics which, stimu- 
lated by the desire to go beyond his necessi- 
ties and adorn himself with the products of 
his skill, leads to the invention of modes for 
the manufacture of the most rare, beautiful 
and delicate fabrics, and dress finally be- 
comes even a high art. The cave or hut 
which supplies tlie necessary shelter fails to 
meet his advancing ideas of 
and refined taste, and he turns 
to improved modesof archilccture, in which, 
stimulated by necessity and taste, he advan- 
ces from one stage to another until he con- 
structs the most stalely and beautiful edifice 
and adorns it with the most beautiful and 
exquisite creations of art. 

Music, at first only a discordant succession 
of sounds, is carried by means of art to the 
most perfect of harmonies. Indeed, it is to 
the varied operations of art that all tbe in- 
describable variations manifest in diet.dress, 
habitations, customs and manners, from the 
rudest savage to tbe most exalted prince of 
civilization, are due. It covers the one with 
the ill-adjusted skin of an animal, and rude- 
ly decorates him with paint and feathers; to 
the other, with rare taste and skill, it flu 
the most exquisitely-wrought garments, and 
adorns him with gold and precious stones. 
It constructs for the one a hut and provides 
it with the scantiest necessities; the other, a 
sculptured and gilded palace, and fills it with 
conveniences and rare luxuries;— transports 
tbe one on foot, horseback, or in a bark- 
canoe; the other, in an ingeniously-contrived 
carriage with springs and cushions, a palace- 
car, or stalely steamship. 

But it may be said that we accord to art 
much thai belongs to invention ; at the out- 
set art and invention are well nigh insepar 
able— are synonymous ; for instance, the 
printing press is an invention, but it is con- 
structed from material that art hassupplied, 
and is suggested by and constructed for 
printing, which is an art; so in all inventions 
and manufactures: tbe means itupplied, and 
the stimulating cause are found in art. 

Art may be distinguished as mechanical 
and fine art. Tlie mechanic arts are ttiose 
which comprehend the means of promoting 
and faciliti\ting the nccessit' 
Tbe fine arts begin with 
The flask or powder horn of the huntsman, 
though roughly made, is perfectly adapted 
to contain powder with convenience and 
safety, but when it becomes carved and em- 
bossed with the emblems of the hunt, it be- 
comes a product of taste. A trough of bark 
so placed as to convey water from one point 
to another, is an example of art; but when 
the Romans built their famous aqueducts 
with arch upon arch, stretching for miles 
across tbe country, they had called in the 
aid not merely of art, but of tine art, and 
that on the very grandest and noblest scale. 

So, too, the plainest and simplest .struc- 
ture to protect against the elements might 
be used for divine worship; but when the 
Egyptians, Grecians and Romans built their 
temples, the fine ar.ts were called into use to 
adorn them with symbolic carvings and 
symmetrical forms; so, too, with modern 
churches and cathedrals; in these wc find 
architecture, sculpture and painting in the 
most elaborate and ornate combination, only 
complete, however, when we have the cere- 
moniesof the church and the sublime music 
of religion. Art administers to tbe necessi- 
ties of life, while, in addition to this, the 
fine arts address the imagination. Thus in 
civilized nations, in proportion to the devel- 
opement of intellect and fancy, we find the 
fine arts entering largely into the ornament- 
ation of even the most common as well as 
tlie grandest objects. 

The Advantages of a Business Educa- 
Mankind may be separated into two great 
divisions: those who have livelihoods and 
fortunes to gain, and those who have them 
in charge. To tbe former nothing can con- 
tribute more tlian a good business educa- 
tion; it opens many avenues and maitrially 
aids one forward and upward to success. A 
lady or gentleman who can write with facil- 
ity a good hand can always find remuner 
alive positions, and when they add to that 
a thorough knowledge of accounts, corres- 
pondence, business- rules and customs, their 
opportunities are correspondingly increased, 
as regards number and degree of compensa- 

This knowledge is of equal importance to 
the graduate of the common school, acade- 
my or the higliest literary institution of the 
land. We have known many highly edu- 
cated and talented young gentlemen and 
ladies to fail utterly to turn their accom- 
plishments to any special advantage for the 
wani of just the prnftix:al knowledge thai 
would be obtained by one or two terms in 
a well-conducted business college; indeed it 
is a well-known and recognized fact tuat. as 
a rule, graduates from our highest classical 
and literary institutions know less of the 
practical affairs of business and find it more 
difficult to procure acceptable positions than 
do the less educated but more practical 
graduates of a common school and business 

It is rare that a thorough graduate of a 
business college h long without profitable 
employment, while a large share of the 
drones of society are graduates of our 
classical colleges and seminaries; the years 
that others have passed in gaining by study 
and observation a practical knowledge of 
tbeir chosen avocation. ha.s been lost in that 
direction to the collegian, who finds little 
use for hisVirgil, Homer and ancient mytho- 
logy in the average pursuits of life, while 
not unfrequently he has acquired a false 
idea of tbe dignity or aristocracy of a classi- 
cal education which ignores or despises the 
more laborious pursuits, and thus debars 
him from many of the most honorable and 
to wealth and distinc- 

If a practical education is all-important to 
those wlio have fortunes to make, it is 
equally or more so to those who have them 
to preserve. We feel warranted in asserting 
that more fortunes have been lost through 
want of a knowledge of accounts and the 
law and custom of business than from any 
other one cause. The shrewd, but dishonest 
accountant, or confidential manager of a 
fortune, or a business whose principal is 
known to be ignorant of accounts, the rules 
and details of business is master of the situ- 
ation, and may very soon squander or gain 
possession of the same for himself. The 
merchant who entrusts the management of 
his accounts and affairs to others, of whose 
methods he is himself ignorant, is usually 
not far from bankruptcy. A thorough 
business college course would undoubtedly 
save many of the thousands of failures which 
annually occur throughout the country. The 

tbe hidden rock 
tipon which many a present and prospec- 
tive fortune has been wrecked- 

Let Your Light Continue to Shine. 

To tbe many earnest and skillful teachers, 
authors and workers in our profession, who 
have so liberally favored the Journal with 
valuable articles and illustrations from tbeir 
pens, we return our most earnest thanks, 
and trust that in future their light will con- 
tinue to shine with increasing lustre through 
its columns, while we hope in the future 
to add many brilliant contributors to our 
present list. 

A Valuable Medium for Advertising. 

The September uumKr of the Jocknal 
coutainiug a full report of the Convtulion 
will not only be unusually intereBting but a 
valuable medium for advertising. We shall 
print at least ticcnty thtmmvd extra copies. 
A limited number of advertisements will be 
received at our regular rates. In order to in- 
sure insertion they should be sent in early, 
aooompaniad with the cub. 

Moral lutraction in Scboob 

" Tbe School Hoard of Birmiogbam, Eog., 
baH at laift iM!lU«d iu Kchi-me for iiiipartiiiK 
moral iDtitniftJon in tli»- piihlir MrLoolK. 
ThiH whvtae provid-n tbnt teuclitrni Blinll give 
two I'-MMOUM a wvck of liulf ao bour encb, the 
RubJectH iocbidiog obedieoce to pareata, 
hooeHtjr, truthfulDirKfi. mode ty, temperance, 
courngo, kiaduVKM, poraevcraucc, frujfality, 
thrift, govurnment of temper, courieay, uu- 
svlfixbiieHN, and kiudrcd mora] dutten. The 
luMHonH are to buof a couviT«utioual character, 
and enforced by illuntrtitiouH drawn from 
daily life. An etTort waM made in the board 
to amend the scheme no that the teacbtr.-i 
might U80 if they chooe illuHtmtiuDB from the 
Bible. Thin otfort, however failed by nine 
votcN to four, 000 member, Mr. Dale, prob- 
ably ezpreMitng iu big short Bpeecb the 
opiniouH of the majority. H« believed that 
the code would promote the mortl health and 
vigor of tho cbitdreu, and that ultimately re- 
ligiouK faith itHelf would be benefited by it. 
The manner in which momlx were commonly 
taught, when momli were associated with 
ruligiouH inNtruc-rion, hod rather emiisculated 
and enfeebled moral lile, by the exclusive 
appeal tbat had been made to the higbeNt re- 
ligiouH motiveu in order to enforce ordinary 
moral duties. He waH prepared to maintain 
that there wau a clear moral didtinctioD 
between teaching nioralti and teschiuK re- 
ligion. There were many men who reeog- 
Dizod the obligotion of boneHly and truthful- 
neMH and of ti'mpuritnce who rejected Divine 
revelation, lie admitted that an appeal to 
revelation added tremt-uduouH Banetiou to the 
ordinary moral duties, but he argued tbot 
□either morality nor religion was a gainer 
from an inceNannt appeal (o religious molivee. 
lie denired his cbdd to have a geuerouK love 
of goodiieHX, not merely because God had 
commanded it, but for ilHOwn sake." 

The force or Mr. Dale's opinion will be ap- 
parent lo every unprejudiced thinking mind. 

curio«ities. These works present, 
a wonderful mirror of the progresK made in 
this important art from a point several hun- 
dred years back up to the present time. 
Although many of these old works are very 
attractive and highly artistic, yet when com- 
pared with the more modem publications, 
they are very crude. 

Fen Art, Plain and Decorative- 

The period in which we are permitted to 
have our being, is preeminently an nge of 
progress dislinguisbed above all othere by its 
extent aud thoroughness. As the dark shades 
and uiiNtH of the night are dispelled by the 
rays of the morning light, so does the efful- 
gence of a high civili^catiou. bke a lidal wave 
roll over the earth, penetrating its darkest 
recesses and lifting the impenetrable veil 
from the nations hitherto enveloped in the 
gloom cf ignorance aud superstition, reveal- 
ing to their wondering and delighted eyes the 
mysteries and beauties of the sciences and 
the arlA. 

It would seem that a few decades of this 
mind audsoul-quickeuiug light bud produeed 
a change iu the condition of tbiugs. as great 
as tbnt from the feudal times of Europe to 
consolidated nationalities. 

It bos melted down the barriers between 
the nations which kept them encased in hos- 
tile armor ready to invade or repel invasion, 
ond cherishing as their highest ideal of honor 
and glory success on the bloody field of Mars, 

Now the uiitious are miugliug and 

and the arts. Not only indi ^ ■ 
eties. Trades and professi-i:-- .--. -.-1 -. 
witb on egprit du corps for such ii graud re- 

In this movement for an elevation and im- 
provement when the world in proportion to 
the enlighteument of its understanding is be- 
ginning to acknowledge and appreciate the 
potency of the pen, can any one, pretend- 
ing to a command of this noble iustrumentbe 
indifferent to the fact that in proportion to 
his force aud influence, he is bouorint; or 
degrading h:s profeeeiou and bis country ? 

The Art of Writing is of such almost uni- 
versal use aud necessity that, like the air we 
breathe, we are liable to fail in appreciating 

As one of the most important of the indus- 
trial arts, the art of writing can be indefi- 
nitely improved and made worthy of honor- 
able distinction. 

As the Goddesn of Wisdo.n, according lo 
Grecian mythology, was conceived by and 
delivered from the brain of the Mighty .Jove ; 
so can a new era in practical writing be said 
to have had its birth and origin from the brain 
and band of the gifted Speucer. The vitality 
imparted to it by bis enurgy aud perseverance 
has been greatly inereastd by ihe associated 
action of commercial colleges, until it lias be- 
come a power in the land. It would be a di- 
vergence from the purpose of this article to 
dwell on the history of plain writing, or jus- 
tice would require us to give the prominent 
names of those who have helped the move- 
ment by their energy and skill. 
In uuity tliere is strength. It is only 

Tho day iw fast passing when moral instruc- 
tion, entangled with creeds, church dogmas, 
baaed upon doubtful revelation whose pri- 
mary iiioeutives to goodness, is to secure 
reward or avoid pimishmeut in another world, 
can bo made to take so general and vital a 
hold upon the nuiBaes as to produce, truthful, 
just, humane, patriotic, frugal and truly good 
meu and women, the payment is too uncertain 
aud rtMnote to induce the unwilling laborer 
to do faithful work. 

What is wanted iu our schools, is a system 
of moral iustniotion entirely ehmiiiated from 
doubtful and often odious creeds, dogmas, 
and theology, that shall be planted upon 
a basis so broad aud hberal as to reach every 
class, race, and condition appealing directly 
to reason, justice and the innate sense of 
right, whose chief iucentive to goodness, as 
Mr. Dalif says, shall be for its own sake, aud 
iiples, as well as rewards and pun- 
ry-day life. 

ishmeuts shall be found i 

Most of our readers are doubtless aware 
that Prof. A. S. Mansou, of Boston, 
has for several years post devoted much time 
and money to the collection of specimens of 
ancient ami modem pubUcotions of penman- 
ship. During a recent visit lo Boston through 
Ibo courtesy of Prof. Mauson we bad the 
pleasure of examining this collection. It is 
probably the most extensive of the kind in 
the world, consisting of several hundred of 
printed aud manuscript volumes, «ome dat- 
ing b«ok hundreds of years, and are perfect 

mingling together not only commercially, but 
socially and almost fraternally. Their am- 
bition is now lifted from the brutal idea of 
destruction and conquest, to the Godlike 
work of creation and construction — to grand 
works of internal and international improve- 
ments. After numerous grand convocations 
to exhibit and compare their progress in the 
scieuces and the arts; how noble the sight 
to see them convene together to discuss such 
projects as the marriage of the vast waters of 
the Atlantic and the Pacific. What a gala 
time would such a wedding be! How glori- 
ous ft pauorama are we permitted to witness! 
T-ife seems worth cherishing if for nothing 
more than to be an idle spectator of such a 
progress towards turning this earth once 
more into a tenestrial paradise. But can we 
be content with folded bauds as idle specta- 
tors? Will not bfc be much fuller of sweet- 
ness aud pleasure if wo join the army of 
workers and strive to make our little mark if 
we cannot make ixfiourinh on the grand histo- 
ric page ? 

Life is no better than death without sensa- 
tion. And our sen wtions will be tbriUingly 
joyous in proportion to the character and ex- 
tent of our achievements or our triumphs in 
whatever field of duty, use or btauty we may 
labor. Individuals should consider it not 
only their own iuU-iest and pleasure, but a 
patriotic and religious duty to add the force 
of their mind aud body to the general move- 
meut for national honor and supremacy on 
the bloodless batUe field of induatiy, science 

organized or associated effort thai th^ art can 
be elevated to a plane entitling it to command 
a higher appreciation and a more liberal pat- 
ronage. Though the claim of writing to pub- 
lic estimatiou has been mostly based upon it« 
utility, it may be made to astonish aud de- 
light by its beauty as an oruamental art, 
according to the skill, taste and dexterity dis- 
played iu its embellishment. 

Although writing, as a decorative art, hos 
made great progress within a few years past, 
there is room for much greater improvement 
by the appbcation of a higher degree of ar- 
tistic culture. 

Prominent among the influences that have 
contributed to elevete the standard of public 
taste, and to create a demand for greater ar- 
tistic skill, there is reason to believe much 
credit iu due to the Penman's Art Joubnal. 
The improvement in deconitive penmanship 
has been hitherto mostly iu the direction of 
oruamental lettering witb appropriate decora- 
tive flouhshiug. The field for the employ- 
ment of the pen in decorative and illustrative 
are is already large and rapidly extending. It 
is necessarily in constant and extensive use for 
tie various photo processes in all branches of 
decorative and illustrative art. 

It has invaded the domain of the graver 
and almost driveu it from the field, vastly 
economizing time, labor and e.vpense in re- 
producing the work of the artist or penman, 
thus opening an almost illimiUble field for 
the truly artistic penman, and offering to the 
ambitious htudent the highest ' 
honor aud profit. 

Writing: Lesson. 

In this lesson we i^ive nil the tj-irntif./ tft. 
(em. not with the expectation that the aver- 
age pupil will be immediately able to repro- 
duce them with faeility. but that, as they 
are in many respects similar, a knowledge 
of their forms aud proportions may be easily 

The prominent feature of this class of let- 
ters is the fourth principle or exientled loop, 
which was given in the second lesson, and 
which will now be more fully described. 

The cxtendfd loop begins at 
base line with n right curve, as- 
.ccnding three spaces and join- 
iutr byashurtluru to adescenclingleft curve 
wli':ch crosses the first curve at head line 
from which it proceeds in a straight line to 
base- Width of loop, one-half space. 

The letter I is formed by uni- 
ting, with lower turn, the ex- 
teuded loop to n right curve, on 
ilant, continuing to head line. 

The letter b is formed by 

uniting the first two lines of i 

to the last two of w. Width, 

Tossing to dot, same as widest 

piu't uf loop. 

The letter h is formed by 
^^_uniting the extended loop and 
^ 'lie last three linesof n. Width 
ijhi lines one space. 

The letter k is formed by 

uniting the extended loop to a 

ft curve gradually diverging 

space, then more rapidly ap- 

a horizontal posili 

and ( 




oue spaci- Iu riiihl of downwanl stroke t.f 
loop, then rL-turuiniT with right curve and 
uuitingat head line with straight line coq- 
tinued on main slant, to base line and unit- 
ing with lower turn to usual terminating 
right curve. iVidtb between straight lines, 
one-half space; between downward stroke 
of loop and right extremity of following left 
curve, one space. 

The four letters just given, rest upon the 
base line, and the direct extended loop is their 
characteristic ; the remaining letters extend 
two spaces below, and the extended loop, 
although preserving its propositions, is in- 
verted and reversed. 

he inverted loop commen- 
oue space above the base 
: proceeds in a straight 
line on main slant to base line, from 
which it continues a right curve two spaces 
and is united by short turn to left curve 
crossing downward stroke at base line, and 
bead line, one space from be- 




The lolterj is formed by unit- 
ig, angulariy, the first line of 
to tlio inverled loop. Dot 

Tlie leltei- 1/ is tlio h inverted 
and reversed. It extends from 
lieiid line to two sjiiices below 

Tlie letter g is formed by unit- 
ing the initial line and oval of 
a to the inverted loop. Width, 
of contact of oval with base 

iig of loop at base line, one 

The lettei 

formed by the 
nrst two lines of n united an- 
gularly lo a turn similar to that 
tui» ul jccter. extending about one-tenth 
ace above base line, and one-fourth space 
lo right, and merging into a right curve ex- 
tending downward two spares, and uniting 
by short turn to left curve terminating at 
head line, one space from lirst turn of letter. 
The loop is a mudiUcation of the inverted 
loop, the straight line bemg omitted and the 
degree of curvature being about the same 
on either side. 

The letter/ is formed by the 
extended loop, continued by 
slight left curve two spaces be- 
low base line, where it is join- 
ed by short turn to a right 
wiiicU in itfi upper portion gradually 

apmarbes the main line and crossing it, joins 
augularly at one-bslf space above base line a 
right cui^c, whicb termioatcs at head line, one 
space from loop crossing. The loop and 
the fold, without rhadc, are of equal width. 
The long *,or firm « of doub- 
c », i« formed by uniting the 
"direct e-xUnded the in. 
t«7i£tl loop, and extendi* three 
- spaces above the base line and 
iwo below. 

All loops of llie cxUndai lett/rn. above the 
bnHc line cros.4 on the bead line; and all 
loops of KrifntUd letters below the base line, 
croMi on the base line. 

In giving the width of the small letters 
thus far, Z have uniformly and purposely 
exoluclcd from the measurement, the initial 
and terminating lines, as these are usually 
but connectiv'.'s, or lines used for the pur- 
poHc of joining letters together, and arc ex- 
tended and contracted, as well as being sub- 
ject to various modifications in form 
consequence of chanpe in position. 

The entire sliintwidtb. in spaces, of each 
small letter, when standing alone and mens, 
unid hori/.outjilly from iHr^niining to tcrmin 
(I th.- following al 

A. ■>. PRlnifr. .MaiK-be'it.-r encloses n col- 
lection of very handsomely written cords. 

Geo.Weis, Jr., LaCroose, Wis., sends cred- 
itable specimens of writing and flourishing. 

A. F. Degler, Warren, O., Bends a grace- 


N. Y. 

uted specimen of off-hand f 





W II. sinned. riH h'ueUingliirKed.ib-.s ,, 
wiiluii- ni linl.lin. Iiid. The Dublin ll^g<^t, r 
eomphmeuts bis skill and success as a teacher 

The Nework (N. J.), Afarning Rfguter 
pnyH u very handsome and well deserved com- 
plinieiit to specimens of penmanship exe- 
cuted by Prof. Fielding Schofield, 

Oliver U, Goldsmith, the veteran and 
widely known teacher of writing in this city, 
mot with ft painful and to him an incouveui- 
eul accident on the 4tb of July. A ball from 
Ik pislol acL'identally struck him in the right 
Hhoiilder Iodising uudor the shoulder blade. 

M J, Goldsmith, former proprietor of the 
Pottsville Hitsiness College, has accepted the 
position formerly occupied by Jackson Cagle 
in Moore's lUminess College, Atlauta, Ga. 
I'rof. G. is a very skillful peumau and teach- 
er, uud was highly esteemed by both pupils 
and citizens of Pottsville. 

Since thi> publication of otir auswer in the 
lust issue toaqiH'Btiou regarding awards made 
at the Centennial to penmimship we have 
l.orued that a " Grand Medal of Honor" was 
awarded hy tlit. " Swedish Art (Commission," 
nt that exhibition, to F. \V. H. Wiesehahu, of 
St. Louis. Mo., for a "superb display of ar- 
tistic penmanship, pen drsigus. lettering.Ac." 

i to 



W. D., Parkersburgh, W. Va.— In holding 
the pen should the hand be j.arallel with the 
forearm ? Auk. The wrist uhould be kept 

H. M. 11.. Detroit, Mich.— Having read 
Ir. Burnett's article, "Eugrossing versus 
"lourishuig" I want to know whys person 
luiiuit btiome both a flourisher unrf an eu- 
;ros.ser, or rather, is It impossible for one to 
le both;" I am not a tt-acher uor cvl'U a 
Indent but hope to be both, and had ex- 
icetid to dfvote a great deal of time to both 
ibing and engrossing. Am.—0\xv 

pnii'ticmg the one or the othei 

loi-'ii lilies. We think skillful flourishing of 

gre'tt importttuce, in fact, indispensable to 

really artistio peDDUUubip, eGpeoially in en< 


Graceful specimens of business and card 
writing have been received from J. N. Pier- 
son, Mecca, O. 

H. 0. Clark, principal of Pottsville (Pa ) 
Business College, sends several superiorspec- 
imens of flourishing and writing. 

Specimens of flourishing and card writing 
have been received from Benjamin Uusink, 
Gibbonville, Wis., which are creditable. 

F. P. Preuitt. who is teaching writing with 
good success at Kaufman, Texas, writes a 
handsome letter in which he incloses several 
fine specimens of card writing. 

S. C. Malone, Smithtown, W. Va., sends u 
very attractive and skillfully executed speci- 
men of flourishing; also well executed speci- 
mens of practical writing. He has been very 
successful iu t-rithing classes during the past 
year and in sending subscribers to the JoDB- 
NAL. H..- r.-siiiLi,s ttucbiug in the fall at 

E. C. A. Becker, llockford. Ill, has con- 
solidated the Forest City and Freepovt Busi- 
ness Colleges with his own at Rockford, and 
reports favorable business and prospects. 

Law and Writing. 
A written instrumeut containing the agree- 
ment and intent of the parties is the highest 
species of evidence known to the law. The 
memory of the parties in time may fail, the 
eye witness may be deceived, but tlie writing 
will tell the story ages hence as accurately as 
now. Two persons may make a contrai^t 
orally, and it will be binding. They may 
execute it with all the deliberation of which 
the parties are capable ; but it all amounts to 
naught if it be subsequently put in writing. 
But suppose the contract to have been origi- 
nally in writing. In such cose no verbal 
agreement, as a general rule, would be allow- 
ed to contradict or vary it. And if it appear 
upon its face to be altered, the law immedi- 
ately suspects foul play, and, in some instan- 
ces, brands the party thus altering it with 

The penman recognizes writing as an art 
which takes its rank among both the indus- 
trial and the fine arts. He makes of it also 
a science whose principles are few and sim- 
ple. It is, perhaps, strange that the law, 
which deals so much with written instru- 
ments and whose officers do so much writing, 
should recognize simply the utility of the art. 
I think I can safely say that fully fifty per 
cent of the bar aud judiciary of the land 
write characters that resemble as closely the 
hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt or Assyria us 
the Spencerian system of penmanship. 

I can as safely say that as great a per 
cent of the writings presented to courts 
for constructiou are equally as bad ; they 
might do honor to the Cannibals of the Fee- 
jees, but not to people living iu an advanced 
state of civilization, when science and art ap- 
proximate to perfection. 

There moy, perhaps, be reasons for this. 
It is impossible for a man to be skilled in 
everj- art. Ordinarily, it is a life-work to 
master one and make a success of it. The 
Uterary man uses the art of penmanship as an 
aid ; but it is not necessary that be should 
possess technical skill in it, a general know- 
ledge is sufficient. So the lawyer and the 
jurist use it as an aid. All this ari* s from 
what is perhaps a fact, that the arts are to 
some extent dependent on each other. 

It is an interesting study to read the manj 

opinions that have been delivered by th- 
court** upon writing, how they make a dis 
tinction between the signing of a person*! 
name and his signature. To constitute t 
signing it is held sufficient if the name ap 
pears in any part of the writing, — at the top, 
in the margin or the body ; while to moke a 
valid signature the person must write bis 
name at the end. In a case decided by Chan- 
cellor Kent, the question arose as to whether 
an inslmmeut written in lead pencil ought 
not to have been written with pen and ink. 
The learned Chancellor therein sets forth his 
views on the subject of penmanship as fol- 
lows : "To irrite is to express our ideas by 
letters visible to the eve. The mode or man- 
ner of impressing those letters is no part of 
the substance or definition of writing. A 
pencil is an instrument with which we write 
without ink. The ancients understood alpha- 
betic writing as well as we do, but it is cer- 
tain that the use of paper, pen and ink was 
for o long time imknown to them. In the 
days of Job they wrote upon lead with an 
iron pen. The ancients used to write upou 
hard substances, such asstoues, metals, ivory, 
wood, lie, with a style or iron instrumeut. 
The next improvement was writing upou 
waxed tables ; until, at last, paper and parch- 
ment were adopted; when the use of the cul- 
amtts or reed was introduced. The common 
law has gone so far to regulate writings as to 
make it necessary that a deed should be writ- 
ten on paper or pacbment, and not on wood 
or stoue. This was for the sake of durability 
and safety; and this is all the regulation that 
III' law has prescribed. The instrument or 
t'l material by which the letters were to be 
I M [ Ti ^sed on paper or pachment, has never 
w t bnen defined.'" 

It is admitted by the authorities both in 
England and in this country that printing is 
: writing. This hardly accords with the views 
of professional penmen upon the subject. 
And the courts go so far as to say that if a 
man sign his name to a note by placing 
figures underneath the note, it is writing and 
a good signature. So he may simply write 
bis initials. 

The law has great x-espect for a writ- 
ing that is of the age uf thirty years or 
more. It makes no difference in what lan- 
guage, or in what characters, or how badly 
it is written ; if it is legible and can be deci- 
phered, it needs no proof of authenticity, it 
proves itself. But if it lacks a little of that 
mature age, though it be penned by a Spen- 
cer and signed by some equally matchless 
hand, he must needs prove it. 

During the feudal times, and for centuries 
afterwards, writing was but little understood, 
aud the law dispensed with it in a great 
measure. Thus land was conveyed in those 
times not by a writing as now, bur. by a pro 
cess known as livery of seisin, — a forma! de- 
livery, as if the party should take a twig 
from off the land and deliver it and put the 
other party in possession. — Aud when it wa 
necessary for men to write, the custom grew 
of signing their names by a c 
their inviolate faith was pledged 
their signature, but by the cross, i 
respect and veneration among the 
the present time the law recognizes it as a 
valid signature; and also the writing of a 
person's name by au agent, or in one's pres- 
ence, and by direction, and in numerous 
other cases. Indeed, the only object of the 
law in this respect is to suit the convenience 
of mankind. J. H. Heddin. 

)S8. Thus 
bt only by 
1 object of 
}. And at 

All Aboard for Cleveland- 
Two motives will prompt teachers to attend 
the Cleveland Convention. First, to obtain 
facts that shall materially aid them in their 
vocation, aud unerringly bring tlieir reflex 
in multiplied greenbacks. Second, to aid iu 
elevating the standard of business education, 
and help to mold this new department of 
uction stdl in embryo, into a living, 
standard, fully developed organism, every- 
here the recognized avenue into successful 
business life. Either motive is strong and 
ivorthy. The cardinal principle inculcated 
n business education is honest money-making, 
md no one doubts the righteousness of the 
;auKe, or the validity of the undertaking of 
business colleges ; but from their comparative 
youthfulness there is ample room, and n de- 
sideratum that cannot be profitably ignored, 
improve their cnirioulum and methods of 

management : not that business colleges, as 
compared with other schools, are slow in 
finding the paths of innovation, or lack the 
courage to dive deep in search of the useful 
in their cause, but we are to remember that 
Progress is the presiding genius of education 
aud Zeus-bke will she burl her thunderbolts 
upon her disciples, should they in her onward 
march, dare to sound a halt. 

It ha« already been demonstrated in this 
country that one of the best methods for ad- 
vancing the general interests of education is. 
to meet in conventions, compare notes, give 
liberally, and "not of necessity or grudging- 
ly,"absorb capaciously, sharpened by frictiom 
leave by knowing, and go home so fuU of fire 
and facts as to be compelled to teach or ter- 

We are happy to announce the moral cer- 
tainty of the presence at Cleveland of the best 
and most prominent penmen and business 
college teachers iu this countrj*. The pros- 
pects are most flntteriuK foi n Inrge gather. 

isefnl a 
le wli,> ; 

Let every one wlii> attfuds resolve to do his 
share in working up the Couvention to n 
white htat of activity; and let tired teochers 
everywhere leave their desks during the 
heated term, take the air, be boys again and 
kick up their heels for a season, and iu the 
meantime get good and do pood by going to 
Cleveland. All aboard for Cleveland! and 
' ' let all the people say amen ! " 

L. L. SpBAOtTE. 
Kingston. Pa., July 23. 1870. 

Editor Pniman'A Art Jtmrnal. 

Sir:— I remember you asking me before 
leaving New York to write you a letter for the 
August number of the Jourmal. but whether 
I promised to comply or not I don't exactly 
remember. At any rate, I have a few mo- 
ments to myself this afternoon, ond a roam- 
ing thought of our approaching Convention 
in Cleveland reminds me that a word or two 
to you might be welcome, to fill in with, if 
notbiog more. 

In the first place. I must apologise for do- 
ing very little work for the Journal during 
the past year, but you know it is not because 
of a want of interest in its welfare. In all 
my ten years' experience in New York there 
has not been a year in which I have worked 
so bard, attended to business so closely, and 
had so much to attend to as duriug the past 
year. You know how few and far between 
my visits have bflen to your sanctum, and this 
is the cause of it. A card from friend Cady 
just a few days before leaving the city won- 
dered ■■ where the I bad kept myself." 

And so it has been from all my friends, per- 
haps not in such emphatic language, but 
certainly in a tone of deep inquiry for my 
welfare, and for which I feel very grateful, 
and return them my hearty thanks, now that 
I am away from them. Somebody has said 
■' Rave me from my friends." but I don't be- 
lieve in appeals for help, and so undertook 
the job myself, and when school closed on 
June 27th 1 was alrendy parked, and just 
twenty-four hours s!i.\ nn . icsfn;.' ihi' noble 
St. Lawrence at M i ... kville, 

which lies directly i] i i - j„Mt of 

destiuation. It is a li l: 1 jh i.. , ;, Iviog at 
the foot of the Thousand Islands, and just 
oighleen miles below Alexandria Bay. It was 
named after general Brock. There are fine 
stores Sn every line of business, and some 
tjood hotelR: ^here are some villa residences 
along the river's bank that are simply magni- 
ficent. There is a fine market-building and 
post office combined, and a splendid court- 
house of cut stone. There are also several 
large machine-shops, foundries and manu- 
facturing establishments which do a thriving 
business. The wealth of the town is mostly 
in the hands of a few retired conservative 
nd close people, else it might be made the 
most popular resort in this part of the coun- 
try for summer tourists. It is just eighteen 
hours from New York by rail, and is in direct 
line of nil the travel from Montreal, Ottawa, 
OcdenshurB. Alexandria Bay. Cape Vincent, 
Kingston, Toronto and the great lakes by rail 
and boat. Everything the tourist can desire 
is to be bad here, un<l at cheap rates, too — 
excellent boating, fishing, excursions, camp- 
ing, good society. Ac. Yet this town, with 
all its natural wealth and convenient location 
lies to-day comparatively dormant simply for 
want of enterprise. For half a century, and 

oob'>cly known bow much longer, the boiling | 
watf-TH of a mineral wpringof great valntt have 
fiow.'d into a grajiH-growB crtrck williin tbrce 
mJca of the town and no notice taken of it. 
II Home eDt<Tpriitiag men with capital vivrv 
to LTect a firat-clMH Mtimmer hotel hL-re and 
mako tbf moht of th« natural facililicn, tbiK 
town would be tho liveliebt place outitide of 
CoiK-y lalaud for the Hiimmer months, at 

I have spnQt moxt of my time here in 
sU-ipiiig. boating and flHhiiig. As a slccj" i 
1 crau rival any of the iiativeH ; in boatiuK I 
am not quite ikju'iI to Hanlau, but y>-<r 
n-ndttrh all know what, praetirf will do : wlul. 
in flKhiiig I linvc tin- iimml bitk of a tinli. t 
man. You would bi- Murpri«.d to see what im 
amount of boating and tenting there in 
done here. Nearly evei-y isluud. and 
tboy are legion, bit» e tent on it, and the 
larger onea more than one, while the people 
along the river on both sides and from tlie 
country have thdr picnic and cxcumou par 
ti«H almost daily, and the way tbty do enjoy 
thcmsolvoK would do your t-ycji good to nee. 
Every paHsing Htt^anier om whe glides through 
tliu narrow paHHagoK and wends her way 
among the rocky inhmdH, w greeted on every 
hide with the waving of handkerchief:* and 
flagH, tooting of borns, ringing of bells, hiir. 
railing, cheering nud witty eoyings of the 
pienioerti. It HeeniB aH thoiigh every lady on 
thnso excurBions was bent on u frolic of some 
kind. They delight in making a football out 
of your hat and rolling you off the rocks into 
tlie river as often on Kuits their fancy and the 
opportunity present* itMelf. If your hat iH 
nnl of the foot-ball kind you are jusl as apt 
to see it floating down the river as you are to 
And it whore you put it. They are bound to 
have a good time a-d they have it if every- 
thing a gentleman haa goes to the bottom of 



13 ; = , ] in 

The above eut. rcpnscnls s] 
Alphabets." just completed. 

' New Hook of 

Mpr of ^L.'iO. 

pt as to name of firm. 

Yours ifec, Geo. K. Rathuun. 

To the uami'K who have correctly t^otved 
the problem we would add Jo. La Pollette, 
Blakesburgh, Iowa. Answer sent to the 


the 1 

Next week I shiill go to Alexandria Bay for 
a shorl stay, and -then from there to Port 
Hoju. on Lake Ontario, where I sball remain 
till AugiiBt and. when I shall proceed up the 
lake to Niagara FoIIm and JJnffalo, and thence 
to Clt'velaad, where I hope to meet you and 
a hoKt of our EoHteru friemk ond co-workettt 
in practical education. Until then, Au re- 
v"fr. Yours, truly, H. C. ■Wbwut., 

Rboikville, Out.. July 2lNt, 187;i. 

Omaha. July 14, I87!l. 
r-:<iif4>r8 Penman's Art ,/ot/riiiil: 

lu prcBenting tho book-keeping problem in 
the litHi number of the Johknal, it \\a» not 
from tho Bupposod difficult solution but to 
gratify a curiosity to see bow many different 
couBlnictions would be put upon it, aud how 
many different answers would be given. The 
queBliou was given to me by imerested par- 
ticD who could not adjust it Batisfactorily 
themHelvcB. It is a (piedtion that differs from 
general transactions; one that gave me a 
little trouble at first. It is a question that 
will mislead a student, or any one who fol- 
lows too closely tho principal rules of jour- 
nalizing, viz: "Debit what you receive and 
credit what you dispose of " or "debit the 
thing iuvosted, and cndit the party invesU 
iug." Although a mistake occurred in the 
flret statement tlie answers would have been 
the same bad I left the vahio of the stock the 
same and r. duecd I he amount received, bk the 
roci-iplR are not taken in consideration, but 
ore the private funds of Rathbun. At pros. 
red over forty letteni. 
icl. Some are from 
r«, and some are from 
>rs behind a studfnt. 
imes of persons send- 
A. C. Lobeck, Now 
Manchester. N. H. 

out writing I have rec 

and four only are co 

business college profet 

business college profu 

The following are the 

ing correct solution! 

York; S. B. Stearui 

T. J. Prickett, Philadelphia, aud Herbert F 

Waitt. Augusta, Me. Lobeek's haviug come 

to hand first, wins tho prize. The journal 

entry is ns follows : 

litb. cr, $10,000 

Tidit for what he 

it may. when he 

Columbus, C, June lUth, isi 
Prof. D. T. Anu« : 

Dear Sir— I herewith present to you a little 
problem for business college students, and 
offer for the best Folutiou a copy of the Pen- 
man's Abt Jocbnai, for o year : A company 
put into the hands of au agent for speculation, 
ca<ih $11 fi, liquors valued at $119. During 
the month the agent bought liquor amounting' 
to $.'><!r).7U, ami sold liquor to the amount of 
$587.60. At the close of the year there was 
liquor on hand that cost ^lti)i, which was re- 
turned to the company. The agent's wages 
being $1.16. The liquor having advanced 
.'ClJt per cent. Did the company gain or lose 
by the speculation ? Does the company owe 
tho ageut, or the agent owe the company ? 
Truly, E. K. Hbyan. 


Display Catj. 
We wish to remind teiichersand manajjers 
of scliools and colleges of ovir excellent fa- 
cilities for getting up all manner of display 
cuts for circulars, catalogues. Ac .&c . upmi 
relief plates, which can be iii. ^^m,, ,. 
wood engraving upon acoirim i' ■ ; i 
press, also by photo■lithogrll[lll^ ; , \u 
testimonials, college currency, eiKul,ii Ki- 
ters. &c., &c. Specimens presented on ap- 
plication. Parties having pen drawings 
which they de.iire to have reproduced, 
either by photo-engniving upon relief plates 
or upon stone by photo-lithography, are re- 
quested to procure our estimates before giv- 
ing orders elsewhere. 

to the columns of the Jodbnal, regarding any 
depertment of teaching or practicing writing, 

upon any branch of practical education, 

s respectfully sohcit«d. 

Soule & Flickinger. 


Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 


The American Centennial. 


Boi'k of Alphttb.- 
Copy-Slips for in 
til-Ell writing, per 


of uopie 

n and practice in 
cootalulDg 10 ex- 

1 Board, SRheett 
" 23x28 pe 


28 m„ per sheet, 

Specimen Copies of the Journal, 

Tims far. since Ilie publication of Tue 
lofRNAL, it has been our habit to mail 
'peeinicn copies to all applications by postal 

irds. of c 

. and wc did 

llie extcul to whith we were being imposed 
upon, until recently wo caused an alpha 
liciieal li^i to be made of all such applica 
lions, when to our surprise we found sis 
cards requesting specimen copies from nm 
individual, five each from several, four from 
others, while those who had applied twc 
mid three times were very numerous. For 
the benefit of these liberal and 
friends, who have thus so libenilly patron- 
ized us. and to enable thei 
posttU cards in the future, we would 
that we now have conveniently 
le names of all who have been supitiied 
ith specimen copies free, and that their 
u-ds will not in future be considered a 
good aud valid consideration for Tue Jouk 
und postage, but will only cmlribulo 
ell the contents of our well-fllled irash 

Save your peony by 

Ratbbuu already ha» 

invested let that be v 

selLs ho parts with, or owns ^10,000 lemt 

tho business than before, which must ' 

pbocd to his debit, aud will regulate itjii-lf i 

closing the book";. Smith puU in ihe buj 

ness tho amouul that Itatbbuu draws out for I half of the 

which he must have credit The business ! balance C. O. D. 

Send Cash with Orders. 

All orders for books, merchandise, work 

orencraviDg to be sent bj mail, must be ac 

companied with the full amount of cash. If 

'y express, at lea^^t r)nc 

should be remitted, the 



(I'lUsUd July 22. 1«M I 
Prol/tM 1.J II..' 0..11.-.1 8Ute.Oov.rno™i (roni lb> 
bordu of oblr&tCTayb.c pint«a. 
U. a. Patkut OrricE, WAamifoTOK. D. c ,) 

B. E. PAINB, Com. uf PkleuU. 
4iinpl5r>lnv and Adapting Writing Wrltl..i 

^<ldT«flB II. W. El.l>i.<WOKTH, 





Common School i 

l>.pl«<l by llio beei 

8 pBgea. 


iinible Entry: iirliiclplei 

Commercial K'lition pm 
CountlnK-House " ■iiH"i 

Not a Revision, but an Entirely 




Lettefing Tablet? 



Every Variety of Pen Work Promptly Executed in the Most Perfect Manner. 

Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand- Writing and Accounts, 


Wc have tevenil appropriate and attractive cufa deBlgned and engrnved «peeiaUy Jor displaying 

I Klecirotype Plai 

I by • 

ient by B 

[ely lo b 

K. By I 

low prices. IdcIorc stamp 



(ill ta required than I 
I helgbt down lo \ 1; 

The Analytical Alphabet 

licb WBB made vfltb nocompaiiles eacb Tobl 
euUr.'ly originjil nud ibe moBt complete aud p.-rfi 

As a Self-Instructor, 

Lady or Gentlemen, 

Boy or Girl, 

It is Worth its Weight in Gold 


Special Inducements 

to tbe Proprietors of BuelneBS Collegee wbo \vlBh to 

Large Flourished Pieces 
Resolutions, &c., 

i.l dely eompet.tioi.. Send lor e.limBto. 

Private Instruction 


»eBOlpenm.n.blp BY MAIL. 

. XSv\^\\VV\\V'A>m\'S*S> JIJJlS.^ 'OJvWS.V 

n: Series of 





Embracing Snig/c and Double Fntry, and adapted tn 
..■•'inVeuiTel. " n> S. S. Packard and H. B^-^^^uu.^' 

haaenJ..jeangr,-HU.r measiir.- of the lavor of p^ac 



Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

Parker's Variety Inks. 

Assorted Expressly for the Use of Pen- 
men and Card writers. 

tiles (except Kold, Ijoz.), one dozen in a boi 
Keut oa Receipt ofSt. 





I Kui;liali braucbea to take ubarg<^ 



"H. M. WXLMOT Oblique Gold and 
Steel Fens." 

lutivlpil oy penmen. Send Ue.r.T sampled.. teu ftieol 
poua aud ptloe Uat. WI1.M0T ft DkMlNO. 

N, W. BuBlu»>9i College, 
8-lt Uadisoo, Wu>. 

This Method 

some particular departm> ut t'f the urt, and especially 

Charges are Very Moderate, 

2.H1 138 a 



'" .:'';l:;'X'ilE?t;; 

Sprln^t&eld, (). 

S' Priii-tit:il System of Bookkeeping 
>k for acboola aud BuBiucaa Collegen 

* NY ONE Dr.Sinuus Ot ruKWiSUintr y:i 

t liberty the first 
flouriabed epcoi- 

n Old EngliKb Roman i.nd 

AKTISTIC PEN MA KSH I P.— Your name beauti- 
fully written on fine bristol cards for 23 cents 

framing25c. A.W. PALMEH, Muncheator, N. H. {8-lt 

for 25 ctB. Stamps'iakeu.' W. SWItT, P. J. MARI 
UNVILLE. Unondagato,, N. Y, *-lGI 

What Everybody Wants. 

paia, I 

Tbe Jiarriage CerllUcate 

Tbe Family hecord. 

3 Mpecimen Sb^elnol EngroBalugi 


il Scroll Carda. 1R deelgni 


\ i;r4phof o I.AKICEan 

','v.,„|!i,. ,.t th- usiimoLlTaswbich are b^eiog re"- I (■" 

e lust received youri 

a— J«/,nLfl«j/,A-.r. 

'. W. II. WILSEHAHNi - • • iHnuager, 


xecutes In tbe greatest perfectl.m of tbe dligtapbic 
rt, and In accordance nitb the bighest order of taste 

U i« u j-iili-uilid work of art.— .Vew York Tirade Jour- 

[.ettertngand fen-Drawing. 6-3t. 

It Is a CenteuDialCbart Illustrating the Course of 
Empire Westward, and ebonid have a place in every 

It is iugcnioua and skillful .-.R^ii.Pdward EggUsUm. 


Ofauptvior BNQLI8B man^ 

fl lo eviu itlijlr t.f irrtting. 
i:.,-»..t. b,, ALL hKALERS. 



<lil>-, lit aOi3 Bi-ond-way, I'oi- Igt 1 .OO per Year 

■ Enlcral at Iht Pott Ojfice of Sem York, N. T.. M second-data mailer." 

U. T. AJIKM, Kcllt»r nnd Proprleto 
B. If. Klil.I.BV, A«iocl»lc- EJIlor. 


VOL. III. NO. 9. 


Ooneral ARont SpeucerUu Copy 





T. A,>IBH, 

H Exi-ert on H 


etr York. 


I>. API'l,BTON tb CO.. 

(PubllahoM of Ibo " Model Series or Copy-boot 
ill number* aud with sliding coplc«.> 

M!» and B9I Broidway, New Yorl 

THOM \S MAY PEinCE, M. A., Principal. 
30 South Tunth Stpoet, PhlbdelpliU. 




IW," luoludlng I'eumnuship, plaio 

lt», PubliBbor, 710 Broadnay, N. Y. 

THE niAtrniEK nUt4INE!<lS colleije, 


IRA MAXHEW, L-U D., Pbmidknt. ' 


{. Y. Hlllouto Book U 


1 h 30fl Fulton St., Brooklyn. 
CTweuly yosra at »5 Fulton Street 

PenmanBhip in the Fnblio Schools. 

Thaoinq.— Tbf fact that a cliild in its firBt 
ollorts iu writing with pen and ink miiRtgniKp 
mimy difflcultit-s at the same time reudcre the 
first steps slow ftud wearisome to both teacher 
aod pupil. Position of body, book and pen. 
together with the use of pen and ink, nud the 
shape of the U-tter are difficulties presented 
dimultaueouiUy to the child. 

If it were possible to divide this army of 
difficulties, presi'ut fewer things concentrate 
on them until in a measure they were mas- 
tered, and then present otht«t«. teaching writ- 
ing to children wotild be a somewhat easier as 
well as pleasanter task. 

It hits been u study of penmen and teachers 
for many years how to divide and concentrate, 
and to this extent has there been 
ment among them, that the 


copy printed in blue or some other color with 
a pen and black ink is the best plan yet de- 
vised for that purpose. That the full intent 
and purpose of tracing is not fully understood 
mauy conversations with teachers have con- 
vinced me. 

To explain its ufies as an auiilliary in the 
child's first efforts in writing is my intention 
in this paper. The idea is not that the going 
over a perfectly formed copy with pen and 
ink any number of times so educates the 
muscles to the true form that they will per- 
fectly reproduce it when the tracing is re 
moved ; were this the object and end I should 
p'ace but very little stress upon it. I claim for 
it much more important and valuable uses. 

It relievt-s the mind of the child of all 
thought of the shape of the letter and allows 
the teacher to insist on the careful une of pen 
and ink and better methods of pen-holdinc. 
It teaches position of the book because the 
pupil must so place it that the movements of 
the pen will conform to the slope of the trac- 
ing copy. It teaches movement because the 
child must carry the penover the entire space 
ivered by the copy, which ihey will not do 
without it. 

At the same time attention is being given 
to position, pen holding and movement, the 
pen is carried through the perfect forms of 
the letters, iiud so far as the muscular actiou 
is concerned nil the movements are made that 
are required to make a perfect letter, and as 
the copies are of the simplest character the 
tracing can and ought to be placed in a grade 
lower than the one where writing (without 
tracing) has usually been commenced, and 
pen and ink writing over traced copies can be 
BuccessfuUy commenced (as is in the city of 
Rochester and mauy other places) as early as 
the child's second year in sch'^ol. 

Beyond the first book, and that all tracing, 
its uses are not quite so general in their char- 
acter ; and yet iu any school or any number of 
schools that have had little or no systematic 
teaching I know of no better drill from old- 
est to youngest than writing through a trac- 
ing book or one mad« up of alternate lines of 
iting and tracing. Asi.le from this general 
use, a book part tracing and part without can 
be used for pupils entering a grade above 
where writing is commenced iu a school and 
taking the same copies as the other members 
of the class, with this differtuce that part of 
their copies traced tlK-y can k^ep along with 
the class and receive the saun- instruction 
while gaining in some measure the advantages 
of the tracing that they ought to have had in 
a lower grade. 

Occasionally older scholars who have failed 
to get Ihe particular "twist of the wnst" 
needed to make a well formed letter by writ- 
ing over those correctly formed with pen and 
ink will see where they incline to leave the 
true form, and their mature judgment will 
teach them how to correct theirwriting when 
the tracing model is removed. I do not believe 
in tracing for older pupils to the extent ad- 
vocated by some teachers, viz: • 'That alternate 
liues shoiUd be a traced copy, and pupUs 
write only the Un«s not traced so as to always 
have a perfect model before them." I beheve 
that after the uses of the tracing already in- 
dicated the pupil's own errors form an im- 
portant factor in their improvement, as by a 
comparison of the perfect model and their 
departures from it is the mind directed to 
those errors, and then their effort at improve- 
ment aie applied at the proper points. | 

In starting a young class in tracing, great 
care should be taken to see that they under- 
stand exactly where to begin. First place the 
copy upon the black-board, explain all its pe- 
culiarities of line, slope, shape, beginning and 
ending ; ask all to place their pens upon the 
copy where they are to commence aud trace 
over it with a diy pen (by count), and see 
that all write on the same copy at the same 
time. Absentees, on their return, should 
write the same copy as the other members of 
the class, leaving the blank pages to be filled 
at other times or after the books have been 
written through by those in regular attend- 

No matter ht/io slowli/you work, ho Umg as 
you do teell what ymi juidertnke. 

In this connection and as part of the good 
to be derived from tracing, insist on pupils 
carrying the hand lightly upou the paper. It 
is one of the habits easily acquired if the in- 
struction is commenced early, and the advan- 
tages derived from the acquisition will be ap- 
parent in all their after writing. 

I have written at length about tracing be- 
cause the information is not contained in any 
of the treatises on teachiug writing, and al- 
though in successful use in mauy of our best 
schools, there are yet many teachers who 
have given the matter no consideration, and 
who ignore it with no iuvestigationor knowl- 

Ige of its real merits or advantages.— Sc/wo/ 


Fine Scrap Books, 

!i fact which we think no artist-pen- 
ill deny, that the writing which suits 
them best, for grace, accuracy and beauty, 
is the result of study and extieuie care in 
its execution. Were penmen to do only such 
work, other scrap books would present a far 
more attractive appearance than at present, 
as it is we rarely tiud any penman'a best 
work in the average scrap book. Some 
hastily written letter or quickly daslied 
flourish sent in return for ten cents, or a 3 
cent stamp is most generally seen in the 
average book. In fact we know of penmen 
whose scrap books contain specimens of 
other's work that are placed there only be- 
cause they happen to look badly, while 
beside them is placed some elaborate or 
careful piece by the owner of the book, 
which will far outshine the otber,,and so 
produce an unjust comparison of ability. 
We know that as a rule penmen are not dis- 
posed to overlook any fault in another's 
work ; ha.siily written letters or flourishes 
are assumed to be tlieir best work, as pen- 
men arc severely criticised. We do not 
suppose Daniel Webster would have made 
one of his powerful speeches were some 
one to have ofl'ered bim ten cents for a 
specimen of his ability, nor should any one 
expect any artist penman to exhibit a 
hundredth part of bis ability when asked 
to return an equivalent, for even ten dollars. 
When one has seen the photos and works of 
Messrs. Flickenger. Soule. Spencer and 
Wiesehahn and others, representing in each 
four or five hundred dollars worth of 
work, then a fair estimate of their ability 
be formed. We well remember bow 
ordinarj- was our opinion of Kibbe an<l 
Wiesehahn till we saw their best work, for 
before that we bad judged by hastily 
written scraps which had found their way 
into other scrap books. Not wishing to be I 

judged by small slips of writing or flourish- 
ing, some penmen do not care to send out 
replies to requests for specimens, but could 
an opportunity be afforded whereby pen- 
men could compare their ability with that 
of the best in the profession, it would take 
a woHd of conceit out of many who fancy 
themselves near the top of the hill, when 
in reality they are nearer the bottom. 
Williams' specimens which were displayed 
years ago throughout the various Bryant 
and Stratton Colleges did much to inspire 
the craft, and show them how far he had 
climbed above them. We believe that 
the penmen of the country to fill five 
large scrap books one to be on exhibition 
in Boston. New York, Cleveland, Chicago, 
and San Francisco— each penman might by 
photos and other work enable their breth- 
ren to see and fairly judge of their merits. 
We believe the penmen of New England 
would gladly come to Boston to see such a 
book, and we can hardly conceive of any- 
thing which would raise penmanship and 
penmen in the estimation of their fellows, 
in each of the sections where a book was 
located, more than this. What do you 

A. H. H. 

College Circulars, Catalogues, &c,, 

have been received from French's Businese 
College, Boston, Mass.; Gem City, (Quincy. 
111.) Business College: Hald's San Francisco 
(Gal.) Business College; Baylies' Commer- 
cial College. Dubuque, Iowa; Peirce's Union 
Business College, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Soule's 
B. A S. Business College, Philadelphia, Pa,; 
Clark's Pottsville, Pa. Business College i 
Goodman's B. & S. Business College, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. ; Hibhard's B. & S. Commercial 
School. Boston, Mass, ; Jack3onvillc(Il],)Busi- 
ness College; New ,Tersey Business College, 
Newark, N. J.; Becker's Business College, 
Rockford, III. ; Folsom's B. & S. Business 
College, Al bany. N. Y. ; Bryant's B. & S. 
College. Chicago, 111, ; The Eastmann Busi- 
ness (.ollege, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.; Pack- 
ard's B. & S. College, New York ; The North 
Western Businesss College, Bladison, Wis. 

Hints on Slaking Specimens, 
Not one specimen in twenty rflceived at 
the oftice of the -Iournal, is so executed as 
admit of reproduction by the photo-en- 
graving process, and of those that have ap- 
peared in the Journal, a large number 
have been returned once or twice with sug- 
gestions to the authors to be rc-esecuted. 
The principal fault is in the bad quality of 
ink used; another, the manner of executing 
the work, it being generally executed on too 
small a scale, and over done, with a multi- 
tude of useless scratchy lines. 

A German priest in Styria lately lost his 
life from a wound caused by a steel pen. He 
had a careless habitof leaving his pens in the 
inkstand with the points sticking upward, and 
he inadvertently struck with the palm of his 
hand the point of a pen thus sticking up- 
ward. The hand was only slightly wounded, 
but the next day ho felt eriously Ul, and the 
doctor declared it a case of blood poisoning. 
On the third day the hand and arm were 
terribly swollen as high up as the shoulder 
a-~ -fter suffering great pains through eight 
weekti he died. 

l^m^m^ i 

The object of the slutly and pnict: 
penmaDflliip is ijiiprovement ; but neitln;r 
study nor practice singly can produce ibis 
result. A young man may have acquired h 
fcnowledcc of the entire theory of penbold- 
ing, positions, movements, forms and pro- 
portions OS elucidated by Ihe greiitcHt mas- 
ters, and yet, upon bis first attempt to put 
in prBCtice his extensive knowledge, he 
would present but a sorry figure. Probably 
no pupil would expect to write well from 
theory alone, but can we say the same in 
regard to practice aloncY Wc have seen 
many persons attempting the impossible 
feat of acquiring an elegant hand by prac- 
tice, who seemed possessed of the idea that 
simple quiU-driving, persistently continued, 
would transform them into penmen without 
the drudgery of thinking, studying, criti- 

As tlieory and practice must go together, 
and as writing requires not only obedient 
muscular action, but intelligence to com- 
mand such obedience, and as the mind is 
required to immediately decide what cor- 
rections and improvements are desirable, it 
would be well that farts were so arranged 
as to be instantly available; and, in order to 
facilitate this, the multitude of conditions 
to be considered in writing n word may be 
included in six groups, the name of each 
beginning with S. They are in the order 
of their importance: 


The pupil should consider whetlier the 
lines bo wishes to make are to be straight 
or curved, and if the latter wliether left or 
right, and also the degree of curvature. 

This is tobecoiisidcre.l rddlively. Afler 
once determining the desired size of the 
writing, sec that letters of the same name 
and kind be made of the same si;^e througli- 
out the exercise or work 

3d, space. 

In medium hand a space in height, mens- 
ured vertically, or in width, measured hori- 
zontally is one-tenth oi an inch; a space in 
Blant-beight is about one-third greater. In 
large hand the width is not usually increas- 
ed as much as the height, but in a small 
running hand a space in width is often 
greater than a space in slant-height. 

The distance between letters in a word 
should be uniformly one and one-fourth 
spaces, except between a letter immediately 

Sfty-two degrees, as this slant comb 
tbility and rapidity of execution 
least sacrifice of either. 
The difference in slant can be made mo 
pparent by drawing extended straight lin 
through the downward strokes of the writ- 

In practical writing there are five kinds 
of shade. The first is a diminishing shade 
which commences squarely at the top and 
diminishes to the bottom. This is seen in 
t and d. Tbe second an increasing shade 
which stops squarely at the bottom; exam- 
ples — p. and terminating i. The third 
shade is made by gradually increasing pres- 
sure on the pen in straight line and more 
rapidly diminishing at bottom. This appears 
in b.f, /. The fourth shade is made by in- 
creasing shade from upper turn, continuing 
with uniform pressure in straight line, and 
diminishing shade at lower turn. This oc- 
curs in h, k and y. The fifth shade is made by 
increased pressure in curved line to centre, 
and diminishing pressure from the centre. 
This form of shade appears in a, g and q. 
Both points of the pen should press equally, 
that the shade may he smooth and that tbe 
following line may be fine. 


Until shape, size, space, slant and shade 
ari! satisfactory, speed should not be thought 
of; but when a reasonable confidence in 
one's ability to creditably execute in unliiii 
ited time is felt, then the pupil should en- 
deavor to limit the time as much as is pos- 
sible without deteriorating the quality of the 

This division is given last because it is to 
be considered least while learning to write. 
The business man, however, will ask for 
legibility and rapidity, caring little for 
graceful curves and smooth shade; yet. no 
one considers these blemishes, and, when 
once acquired, careful and continued prac- 
tice will give rapidity of execution without 
sacrificing beauty. 

. Amidon, of Lenox. Mass.. recently 
a pupil of Mr. N. R. Luce, Union City, Pu., 
exhibited a Tery creditable specimen of oma- 
al penmanship consisting of lett^^riug. 

ready reached its tvaenty-firat edition, and 
! over one /lundred thouvaTui copies have been 
sold, atid the sales are daily increasing. Dur- 

preceding a, rf, g < 
which should be on 
two o'l, one space, 
word should begin c 

g. and either of these 
! space, and between 
The initial line of a 
base line one and one- 

half spaces from last downward stroke of 
preceding word; the initial and terminal 
points being in the same vertical line. Be- 
tween sentences the distance should be 
twice as great as between words. The pupil 
should be familiar with these rules, as no 
writing can be considered satisfactory which 
is faulty in respect to spacing, and probably 
no fault is more universal. 

4th, sl.vnt. 
The main slant of writing, although given 
in a previous lesson at fifty-two degrees 
from a horizontal line, may be made to 
more nearly approach it, or be more nearly 
vertical or inclined little or much to the left, 
the important consideration being uuifonui- 
ty of slant. The tendency now, more than 
at any previous period, among the best pen- 
men, is to write upon a uniform slant of 

Exhibits at the ConventioD. 

in which the Res- 
re held was a large 
; apart exclusively 

Adjoining the u: 
sious of the conveu 
and commodioiia r 
for the display of 

books, and such other things as parties might 
wish to bring to the notice of the members of 
the association. Tbe Spencer Brothers made 
an extensive display of most elegant pen- 
work, among which were specimens repre- 
eutiug every department of plain and artistic 
)eumiiu^L)p, tioiiu- specimens represented the 
ombined work aud skill of H. C., L. P. and 
P. R. Spencer, tftch performing the part best 
adapted to his pcculiiir tiiste jiud skill, thus 
producing specimens, whuh. wLelber viewed 
with reference to tastu. svmun-lry imd beiiuly 
of design, or the exquisit.- luid li'iiciitL' touch 
and finish in their execution, weri' lunrvelsof 
skill and perfection iu pen art, 

A portion of the new Spenccrian Compen- 
dium (all that is now completed) comprising 
two parts 9 plates each, published by Ivi- 
sou, Blakemau, Taylor & Co., New York, was 
on exhibition. So far as we can judge from 
the plates now completed, and tbe plan as set 
forth by tbe authors, this is to be a work of 
rare merit, covering the entire range of the 
art, from the plainest to the most artistic 
forms, viz: plain writing, fiourishiug, draw- 
ing, and lettering. The design and copy is 
being prepared chiefly by Lyman Spencer, 
assisted by his brothers H, C. , and P. R. . and 
H. W. Flickinger, while the engraving is 
being done with tbe utmost care by Archi- 
bald McLees, upon steel i the completion 
of this work will, from its extent and great 
labor, necessarily require considerable time, 
hence it is being issued iu parts of nine 
plates, each quarto size. There was also on 
exhibition the Spencerian copy books, pens, 
and the Spencerian inks, recently manufac- 
tured by Jas. Stone &, Co., Washington, D. 
0., consisting of six kinds, viz : Penman's. 
Combined Writing Fluid. Jet Black, School 
Ink. Violet and Crimson. From tbe brief trial 
we have been able to give these inks we are 
favorably impressed with their apparent good 

Conspicious among the fine exhibits of pen 
work were those of F. W. H. Wiesehabn, who 
conduct*, a pen art Si, Louis. Mo ; 
liis spectmeUB of eugrossiu^', k'ttering, uud 
pen drawings especiaUy were marvels of beau- 
tiful and correct workmanship, many of his 
pen-drawings possessing allthe accuracy, fin- 
ish and delicacy of the finest steel-plate en- 

An elegantly engrossed album by H, W, 
Flickinger, and an extensive variety of photo- 
graphic copies of resolutions, testimonials, 
&c. , engrossed iu the highest style of the art. 

(Ind.) Business College and a pupil of P. R. 
Spencer, exhibited a very fine specimen of 
plain and ornamental penmanship. 

D. T. Ames, Artist P,nu,nit. New York, 
exhibited a compendium of practicitl and or- 
namental penmanship which consists of for- 
ty eight 11x14 plates, photo-lithographed di- 
rectly from the original pen and ink co)ty, 
giviuK a great variety of standard and fanc3- 
alpbabets, the principles ot flourishing, with 
numerous examples for practice, pen-drawing, 
engrossed title pages, resolutions, memorials, 
certificates, displayed specimens for teachers 
of writing, cards, monograms, &c. . a com- 
plete haud-book of designs and examples for 
penmen practicing or aspiring to ornamental 
penmanship ; Mr. Ames also exhibited speci- 
mens of commercial work, such as buhiness 
cards, letter and bill heads, cards of invitii- 
tion, certificates of stock and membership, 
college cuiTency, school and college diplomas, 
ifcc, printed from photo-engraved rebef 
plates or by photo-lithographic transfers, 
which were made direct from the original pen- 
di'awings, tbe prints presenting all the ap- 
pearance of having been taken from regularly 
engraved plates ; these processes arc 
paratively recent discovery, and attracted 
much attention from all present, as did Day's 
new patent spacing, or tinting X square, 
which was also exhibited by Mr. Ames; by 
the aid of this instrument tints of any degree 
f fineness from zero to J of an inch, as per- 
fect as those produced by the engraver with 
his ruling engine, can be ruled on any sheet 
of paper, with either pen or pencil, as rapidly 
as one can make random lines, free hand. 

Wm. H. Sprague. of Norwalk, Ohio, exhib- 
ited an extensive display of practical writing, 
and a new style of fountain pen, of his own 
invention, wbich appeared highly commend- 
able ; he also exhibited ink of his own manu- 
facture which appeared to possess several 
good qualities, and a novel pen holder which 
he has recently patented ; it is turned entirely 
from wood, and is of pecubar shape, designed 
to be held in position with less effort than the 
ordinary holder, and to i)revent inking the 
fingers while writing, and also a prevention 
and cure for pen paralysis; it is a commend- 
able invention. 

Tbe Rev. N. R. Luce, un enthusiastic 
graduate of P. R. Spencer, senior, who still 
devotes a portion of his time which is not oc- 
cupied by his clerical duties, to instructing 
pupils in writing at his home in Union City. 
Pa., gave a very clever exhibition of his 
skill in the use of the pen. 

mg * 

tiou. we had the pi 
lislier's salesroom of the work, aud also' tht- 
biudery where it is being bouu<l ; the bound 
and partially bound books, with printed 
sheets could be measured by the snbd cord. 
Large as we knew to be the demand for this 
■.we were not prepared to see them hand- 
IU such quantities, yet the demand is 
only iu keeping with the actual merits of the 
publication. Every one who has not got a 

of Npeein 

exhibited by tbe Silicate Slate Company 
liH Fulton stree't, New York. 

This we know from our own experience t( 
be a superior article, and would advise parties 
desiring anything in the line of portable oi 
stationary black-board goods, to address this 
company for their circular, giving full 

H. C. Spencer, principal oi ilif Wasbi 
ton, D. C, Busmess Colh ■_■> - inl.ih >1 I^^■■ 
large volumes which rei'i— i 

improvement made in \m i i i i 

in that institution, also mu i u i ■ ,■ ■ 1 1 | 
resenting the business forms wi-iUtu up bj 
students while passing through the depart- 
ment of actual business practice, all of which 
evinced thorough and successful work on the 
part of pupil and instructor, 

Hon, Ira Mayhew of Detroit, Mich., also 
exhibited a large volume which contained the 
various forms, through which the students of 
his college were required to pass, aud which 
also represented the high degree of proficien- 
cy to which they attained in business \v-riting, 
aud knowledge of 

S. S. Packard, Principal of Packard's Bus- 
iness College, New York, exhibited his plan 
of keeping a daily record of the progress 
made by each student in his college, not only 
as regards his studies but his deportment and 
general standing: this was done by requiring 
a written and independent report from each 
of his instructors, touching all things per- 
taining to his standing as a student and us a 
man, an abstract of which was sent at stated 
periods to his parents, and upon which was 
based all commendations or statements regard- 
ing the student's scholastic attainments and 
reliability; the plan was admirable, and we 
commend it for adoption, not alone by buhi- 
ness colleges, but by other educational iusti- 

to the Penman's Art Jocb- 
which is a large volume of eighty pages. 
Il>x22 inches in Mze, upon which are pasted 
the specimens of penmanship wbich have 
been sent to the Journai, by nearly every 
skillful writer in the country, over two hun- 
dred in nmuber. 

Roll of the Convention. 

S. S Packard. 805 Broadway, New Y 

D. T. Ames. '205 

G. H. Shattuck, 

C. Claghoru, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A. P. Root. Cleveland, O. 

P, R. Spencer, " O. 

R. C. Spencer. Milwaukee, Wis. 

L. P. Spencer. Washington, D. C. 

H. C. Spencer. 

W. H. Duff, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Thos. E. Hill, Chicago, 111. 

Ira Mavhew, Detroit, Mich. 

A. D, Wilt. Dayton, O. 

Frank Goodman, Nashville, Teun, 

J. E. Soule. Philadelphia, Pa. " 

ThoR. M. Peirce, " " r 

E. White. Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

L, L. Sprague, KingNton, Pa. 

N. S. Beardsley, Youugstown, O. 

A. J. Couch, Montreal, Out. 

C. W. Rice, Cleveland. O. 

J. C. McCIauuahan. Columbus, (>, 
W. H. Patrick. Rochester, N, Y. ' 

E. M. Bond. Topeka, Kas. 
A. A. Clark, Cleveland, O. 
W. H. Ziun, Circleville, O. 
G. W. Elliott. Chicago, 111. 
U. McKee, Oberlin, O. 

N. R. Luce. Union City, Pa. 
W. J. Amidon, Leuox, Mass. 

D. H. Hartzell, N. Benton, 0. 
C. W, Boucher, Valparaiso, lud. 

A. L. Wyman, Lincoln Centre. Me. 

W. A. Frasier. Oberiin, O. 

J. M. Frasier, Wheeling W. Va. 

J. W, Pierson, Mecca, O. 

A. L. Hawkins, Cleveland, O. 

E. M. Shellenbarger, Limnville, O. 

F. H. Dickinson, Cleveland, O. 
J. E. Dale, Oberiin, O. 

A. H. Eaton, Baltimore, Md. 
W. H. Sadler, 

F, W. H. Wiesehahn, St. Louis, Mc 
M. A. Pond, Topeka, Kas. 

H. B. Bryant, Chicago, HI. 
J. C. Bi7ant. Buffalo, N. Y. 
T. J. Risinger. New Castle, Pa. ' 

B. T. Wright, Chicago, III. 
T, J. Collins. Hespeler, Ont. 
H. C. Wright, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
W H, Sprat'"...: 


■ipal of the Hcttml bu 

na i" 

tbrniii^'Li !■> ih. -|. .|-i,tsof 

which gavf evidence of a very comprehensive 

and thorough business training. 

Thos. E. Hill exhibited a copy of Hill's 
Manual of Social and Business Forms, of 
which he is the author. This is one of the 
most popular, as it is useful, books that have 
come out during the present century, although 
comparatively a recent pubhcation, it has al- 

. 0. 

Miss R. H. Smith, Geneva, O. 

Miss Annie Thomas, Cleveland, O, 

Mrs. J. C. Dewer, " O. 

Miss Dora. E. Irvine, " O. 

Alexander Cowley. Pittsburg, Pa. 

S, S. Calkins, Cleveland. O. 

John Wiswell, Wooster, O. 

P. Rosenfelder, Cleveland, O. 

J. L. Grace, " O. 

W. W. Ault, Summit, O. 

J. Wantz, Clevehind, C 

Frank C. Cain, " O. 

F. Man vel Prasse, ' " O, 

Frank Stimpson, " O. 

C. F. Schroakfik. " O. 

L. Dean WestrCoTfy, Pa. 

J. F. Whiteleather, New Haven. Ind, 

C. A. Maher, Cleveland. O. 

Eugene M, Barr, 

Shall We Hear From Him ? 

As n-ost of the visi 
tion know, the large 

numerous specimens of penmanship seni 
to the Journal by the leading penmen ot 
the country, was despoiled of upward of fifty 
of its choicest specimens. We are in re- 
ceipt of information which points almost 
with certainty to the individual guilty of 
the offence. We at present, however, with- 
hold bis name, that he may have an oppor- 
tunity to return to us the specimens, and 
thereby save himself from th»ji^enviable noto- 
riety that the publication of the facts, in con- 
nection with his name and address, would 
give him, and save us the pain of placing him 
thus conspicuously before our readers as a 
thief. He can avoid this only by a prompt 
return to this office of the stolen specimens. 

-o trial balances and making up finan- 
cial statements is greatly diniinfslied. and 
errors made m posting are so closely located 
that they are easily detected. 

A columnar ruled book of original design 
Inkcs the place of both cash book and jour- 
nal, while a systematic arrangement of busi- 
ness papers serves to form vouchers, and as 
such are treated as original entries. Pay 
book, journal and cash book being thus dis- 
placed, journalizing and journal entries are 
rendered unnecessary elements in theory or 



kins a thorouirh qii;. ,, „,, 

the subject both in a [.Iij,.,,,,,!,,, i).,,,',! ..r.,,. 
ticnl manner. The wnrU Iv.,^ l,„u cnrutuilv 
examined by some of our most prominent 
teachers, practical book-keepers, and others 
""■ — ■• " heartily endorsed. It is cer- 

---• - - .mything we have before seen 

or heard of and we would recommend 
teachers and others interested to jivail 
themselves of on opportunity to investigate 
,.-— -....t and usefulness. See Mr. 
Uopkins card in our advertising columns. 

Our Teachers' Agency. 
We a»ain call the attention of teachers 
wishing situations to teach any of the husi- branches, and proprietors de- 
siring to procure the services of good teach- 
'^'■?„'''. ""J" ''=Pi"''"'ent, to the fact that we 
will aid them to the best of our ability, on 
the receipt of their application, accom- 
panied by a remittance of $3.00. 

iBuly olioso of aeed ttie prize liiu wi>i 
Adlod languagea tor ogea dead, 

ay wlilob ho cauuot earn hla dally bread, 

And fcelablmaelf tooleunie' ' 


la galulug kDOtrlodgebo baa nearly 
Tbe reaaou why be'a loat ft Dearly all. 
Obliged m iiai't ihe i>raeiit'nl to buulal 

Nowaiiiiii, .,.i,..[ .i.,,..„,i„ 


Dut be wbo gatbera i 


The above 
bv Lyman P. „p_.... .„« ec-i 
plait's, from which the compendiu 

parrtontibly n 
Though dull In 

Seven Numbers of the Journal and a 
Splendid Premium for Fifty Ctnts. 
As an in<hic«m(>nl to iciichcrs. pnpjts „ii.l 
oiliers inlerestert in gonil writing to try the 
JoDRNAL. we win nifiil iJic remaiuiog 
seven numbers of Vol. Ill with the Lord's 
Prayer premium. nx24. for fifty cents. The 
premium is an elegant and valui*le picture, 
and has actually been sold by n(,'ents at 
one dollar per copj-. 

D ufti-D mtgulfy a t>n<l 

iii.l la he, "^ "' 
bis proper par 

oAaiu: "'^ 
hlgLoat call, 
bo sure lo roU 
, iniuB mucb po 
mluhttbiDk ft I 




















..Kb lb 

s (altbriy 

°d.j« s 

10 pleroo 



:k Uriy progrou, neol 
*hly h)« nhodrty lore. 

Or out 01 proper «: 
They umd Ui» aoU 

Wbo would wlUiol 

rhen orsiDpMl i 

"ppeplng tbroiigb. 

Whooaunot galu oi 

Lei uouo lOlMtilkllliily llir Uoli«Utvr 
Tbe inward ataoddjr gcoentea a 

« iOjr to gain tbp WliolD 
aoni abow bta bf>ti 

ilMtaklng eetuciMi 
m u» only wtlkt we oc«d to iwi 


But Judgm< 

lut Donv should e'6r foraet tbe 
;h»( profit brings Instead ot em 

r dre*nie will be ruiftlled.' 
elr mlnda of i^aaon ba're. 

A New Feature in Book-keeping. 

The latest departure in the field of im- 
provements uponbook-keepinirisone devis- 
ed by Mr. S. R. Hopkins, who is about to 
issue ti work upon the subject illustratine 
the pnnc-iples of his discoverie-s. The new 
plan seems to strike a blow at the old estab- 
lished theories, and maps outsomKhingof a 
revolutionary character in the grand sci- 

A special feature claimed for the improve- 
ment is that It provides an easy, quick and 
accurate plan for determining the financial 
status of any mercantile concern or enter- 
prise, and presenting the same daily, in a 
systematic order, forreference or inspection. 
This too. It is claimed, is done with no ma- 
terial increase of labor or disadvantage to 
the accountant. The lime usually expended 

A few hints from a perfect master are 
often of more service in developing the ca- 
pacities of a pupU than the moHt protracted 
lessons of an inferior teacher.— 5™«n^ 

" The two greatest inventions of tbe hu- 
nnn mind are writing and money, the com 
non language of intelligence and the com- 
nrn languge of self-interest."— .l/i>a/«m. 

The great amount of ifpace necessarily 
given lo the report of tbe proceedings of the 
Convention excludes many interesting art. 
icles designed for this issue of the Jodrnal. 

It U said that the laws of nature are always 
consistent with themselves This can hardly 
be true, since many a man who sowed wild 
Data has been known to reap hemp instead. 

Hogarth said to Mr. GUbert Cooper : 
iuB is nothing but labor and diligence.' 


Pabll«brd Slonihly ai $1.00 p«r V 

cdU. BpMlinen copies funiJBbed to AueoU 



t3ft C 


NAL to give publicity to their business, among 
ihem are our truly representative and suc- 
cessful teachers, authors, publishers and 
ere. men who are accustom- 
nte justly and wisely in se- 

. ^ ___diums for advertising. This 

practical demonstration of their confidence 
id esteem assures us of a reliable and 
gorous support for the JointNAi, which not 
ily reaffirms its permanence but encour- 
ages its publishers to renewed efforts to 
render il more and more worthyof the esteem 
id piilronage, not only of all our brother 

lo the Beoder, k copy of either ol the foUowing 

of peoinnuBtalp ever publliUecl, via. : 

The CNUtennlal Picture of ITogr«.B. . .20x28 In, id bU^ 

The Lord-B Prayer lO*" ., .. 

The Marriage Certtficate ^^ -i " 

The Family ttecord ■-/}?.; ,. <i 

a SpecimenSbeetiior Engrossing eaobllxH" 

160 Beiutlful Scroll Carae, 18 difrereotdfelgna. 

Condon'i Normal System «f I:*"*''^?' 

Or, ' " FlourtBhing. 

For throe Dames aurt f3 we will forwiurd the large 
Cent«Dt.laI Picture, size 28.40 inches, reUlls (or $5.^^ 

Wllllama k Packard'e Oulda. retails for $3.00. 

r of good wril 


■ for mx months and one y«r, paysbl* 

Why You Should Subscribe for the 

n advance. No deviation from the aho*.- 


ding matter, 30 cenU per line. 

We take the 


liberty of mail- 


ing a very large A 


number of the 

present issue of NL 


y.he JOUllNALtO 

persons who / 

1 ire not subsrib- 

era, but whc/ 

f ) 

' 1711 have reason 

co-operation aa corrwpondeuts and aitenf s, 

to believe bfivi / 


more than an 

re offer the following 

ordinary inli r \I)(\ 


est in the sub 

ject of \vii!iii,^'. Vi/ 


and we hereby 

invite Ihcir spe 


cial inspection 

of theJouRNAi. 


and a consid 

ppnton Bonding their own and another 

enition iis to 


whether it wil 

*\' onr^ir'^andTo^rirard b^r" inra Tt mall 

not abundantly pay 


to subscribe for 

time do more through the influence of the 
JocRSAL among their patrons for the up- 
building of business colleges and popular- 
izing business education, than by any other 
means they can employ. As the Oflicial 
Organ of the Business College Teachers and 
Penmen's Association, it should be made 
by its members a power for the dissemin- 
ation of thoughts and ideas pertaining to all 
the branches in which they are interested, 
and tbey should each bear in mind that they 
cannot help the Journal to a valuable 
thought or a subscriber, without doing 
something, for their profession and them- 
selves. We therefore appeal to every one 

help themselves, we think they can safely 
trust us to look after our share, and at the 

irae time give the readers of the Jouilnal 

liberal return for their nmnev 


The Present Issue of the Journal. 

U is with no i.nliiiury di-irr.-c- cf Kalisfacli 

umb.-r of th. 


It i 

■ bill 

,.(l tin- vi'spoiisibilily of its 
publicatiou, not without doubt on our pari, 
ami apparently a much greater doubt (ui 
the part of its patrons reganling it« per- 
manency and success. The ti rst issue 
numbered five hundred copies, which seem- 
ed indeed a large number, when we sought 
to mail them, to as many persons whom we 
thought pmmising for becoming patrons 
and subscribers ; of the present number we 
print upwards of taenty thoutand wpm. 
and now have upon our subscription list 
the names of nearly every writing teacher 
of repute in America, and many in foreign 
lands nor are our subsoribers limited to 
teachers of writing, but embrace those in 
other departments of education as well as 
their pupils, also admirers of. and adepts in. 
line penmanship; and what is equally prom- 
ising, mimy parents are handing us the 
names of their sons and daughters, us 
subscribers to the Joubnal. thus stimu- 
lating a desire, encouraging and aidiny 
them lo become accomplished writers ; 
were the full power of the Journal in this 
respect properly understood and appreci- 
ated by teachers and parents, as we 
hope it yet will be— at least 100,000 copies 
would monthly find their way into the 
homes where it would be a powerful pro- 
moterof graceful and accomplished writing. 
To enable us to.incet the <leraands of our 
patrons for advertising space, we have been 
compelled to priut four extra pages. 

It ia also with pride that we note the 
character and standing of the persons who 
have thus sought the columns of the JocB- 

To tlie teacher of writing and practical 
education it will be an invaluable aid not 
only from its many practical and useful 
regard to teaching his specialty, 
but for the vast fund of information touch- 
ing his profession and his co-workers in it. 
To the student striving to attain to pro- 
ficiency and skill in any department of the 
art of penmanship, it will be a most valu- 
able example and teacher. 

To the school officer, who has in charge 
the great public interest in this most impor- 
tant and worst-neglected branch of educa- 
tion, the Journal will be a valuable sug- 
gester and assistant in the intelligent per- 
formance of his duty. 

To the parent having sons and daughters 
whom they would have become accomplish- 
ed writers, it will be a moat reliable and 
economical assistant. It will not only tend 
to awaken an interest and love for good 
writing, but powerfully aid in its attain- 
To the lover of the beautiful in the art, it 
will be a continual feast of fine examples 
and of the rarest and best thoughts upon 
that subject. 

To everybody, for everybody, save idiots 
and nobodies, write, and what they do 
tbey should have an interest to do well; the 
Journal, as the advocate and representa- 
good writing, will always be found 
interesting and useful. 
Indeed, who can subscribe for the Jouii 
AI, and read it one year and not get one 
allar's worth of information, lo say nothing 
of the beautiful premium, wor'h a dollar, 
whi(-b accompanies the first number of 
every paper sent to a subscriber. Please 
read our premium list, and if you prefer 
cash premiums, send for our special rates to 
agents, but don't forget one thing of vital 
imporlance to you, and of course a trifle to 
us. and that is to subscribe for tfie JouR- 

The Convention. 

On the sixth and subsequent pages of the 
Journal will be found as full a report of 
the proceedings of the late Convention as 
our limited space will admit. We have 
been able lo give no more than an outline of 
the proceedings which, throughout the en- 
tire session of the Convention were exceed- 
ingly interesting and practical; indeed, we 
have never had the good fortune to be pre- 
sent in any educational gathering in which 
there prevailed a more united, earnest and 
enthusiastic spirit or one in which more 
solid useful work was accomplished. The 
board of officers and executive committee 
all did their work admirably, omitting 
nothing, and doing all that could he done 
to insure the complete success of the Con- 

._ office are equally able, 

and will undoubtedly be equal to the task 
of rendering the Convention of of 1880 in 
every way equal to its predecessors, which 
will certainly be ample to abundantly re- 
ward every teacher of writing, or in any 
department of business education for being 

Variety in Pens. 

One would naturally suppose that a vari- 
ety of a dozen or so of pens nicely graded 
as regards fineness and flexibility would 
suffice lo meet all the varied tastes and re- 
quirements of a writing community; but 
such does not seem to be the fact. 

During a recent visit to the office of the 
Esterbrook Steel Pen Factory, at 26 John 
street, this city, we manifested some sur- 
prise at the extent and variety of pens there 
exhibited, when we were informed that they 
manufactured no less than two hundred and 
fifty different styles of pens, for each of 
which there was an extensive and special 

We were, however, no more surprised at 
the variety than by the enormous quantities 
of pens which they manufactured. Their 
works, which are located at Camden, N. J., 
are the most extensive in America. Pens 
of their manufacture have attained to a 
great popularity, and are lo be found in 
almost every stationery store on the conti- 

A Oood Record. 

There is probably no Business College in 
the country that can point to more really 
skillful penmen among its graduatts during 
the past few years than the Bryant & Strat- 
ton College of Philadelphia. Pa., which is 
in charge of J. E. Soule, assisted by U- W. 
Flickinger and two other skillful penmen. 
Messrs. Soule and Flickinger have for sev- 
eral years made a specially of fine penman- 
ship, in which both have attained to envi- 
able prominence both as ptn artists and 
teachers. About one year since they united 
their efforts lo establish, in connection with 
the college, a normal department for pen- 
manship which has proved to be a genuine 
students from all parts of the coun- 
try have been in attendance and have all 
;n delighted with, and most have become 
;omplished writers under, the skillful in- 
struction they have received. The facilities 
for a practical and complete business educa- 
tion are also among the very best: taken in 
all respects there are few, if any, other 
business colleges in the country offering 
equal facilities or that deserves more fully 
the liberal patronage it is enjoying. Young 
men desiring to qualify themselves as teach- 
ers of penmanship or as professional pen 
artists can certainly find no equal facilities 
for doing so elsewhere. 

Specimen Copies of the Journal. 
Thus far, since the publication of Tub 
Journal, it has been our habit to mail 
specimen copies to all applications-liy postal 
cards, of course free, and we did not realize 
the extent to which we were being imposed 
upon, until recently we caused an alpha- 
betical list to be made of all such applica- 

J, yrhen to our surprise we found six 

cards requesting specimen copies from one 
individual, five each from several, four from 
others, while those who had applied two 
ind three times were very numerous. For 
the benefit of these libtTal and earnest 
friends, who have thus so liberally patron- 
ized us. and to enable them to save their 
postal cards in the future, we would stale 
that we now have conveniently arranged 
the names of all who have been supplied 
with specimen copies free, and that their 
cards will not in future be considered a 
good and valid consideration for The Jour- 
nal and postage, but will only contribute 
to swell the contents of our well-tilled trash 
basket. Save your penny by sending a 

A Commendable Example. 

During a pi^riod of less than tliree months 
Prof. G. A. Caskell. principal of Gaskell's 
Bryant and Stratton Business College. 
Manchester, N. H.. has sent the names of 
one hundred and twenty nine subscribers to 
the Journal, which is by far the largest 
number sent by any party during any equal 
period since its publication. 

In this respect Prof. Gaskell only evinces 
le same energy and success which is char- 
acterizing him in all his business efforts. 
Besides conducting a very successful Busi- 
ness College, he has published a very credita- 
ble compendium of practical penmanship, 
which is at this lime having a larger 
sale than any other work upon that subject 
in the world. Were each of our BusinessCol- 
legefriendsduring the entire year to succeed 
in sendingas many subsoribers as Mr. Gaskell 
has in the space of two months, they would 
alone, (being over two hundred of 
I them) help us lo 25,800 new subscribers 
during the coming year, and at the same 

The Complete Accountant. 

We have before us the above entitled i 
work by O. M. Powers and G. L. Howe, 
principals of the Metropolitan Business Col- 
lege, Chicago. 111. ; it is an 8mo. vol., con 
taining 356 pages, of which 64 are devoted 
lo Preliminary Exercises and Retail Busi- 
ness; 98 pages lo Wholesale Merchandising; 
12 pages to Farm Accounts; 20 pages to 
Lumber Accounts; 18 pages to Manufactur- 
ing; 13 pages to Steamhoating; 12 pages to 
Railroading; 20 pages to Commission; '56 
pages lo Banking; the remaining part of the 
work to miscellaneous subjects. 

So far as we can judge from a brief in- 
spection of the work, it appears lo be a 
practical work, and well adopted as a text 
book in all schools where double and sin- 
gle entry book-keeping is taught. 

Back Numbers of the Journal 

can be sent from and inclusive ©f Septem- 
ber, 187T. twenty numbers in all, which, with 
the Lord's Prayer premium, will be sent for 

Display Cuts. 
We wish lo remind teachcrsand managers 
of schools and colleges of our excellent fa- 
cilities for getting up all manner of display 
cuts for circulars, catalogues. &c. . &c . upon 
relief plates, which can be used the same as 
wood engraving upon a common printing 
press, also by photolithography, diplomas, 
testimonials, college currency, circular let- 
ters, itc, Ac. Specimens presented on ap- 
plication. Parties having pen drawings 
which they desire to have reproduced, 
either by photo-engraving upon relief plates 
or upon stone by photo-lithography, are re- 
quested to procure our estimates before giv- 
ing orders elsewhere. 

The Cl^l^'s Book of Language 

,o the title of a new series of books recently 
brought out by D. Appleton & Co. The 
s consists of four numbers, twenty pages 
each, arranged with pictorial subjects at the 
top of each page, with the lower half 
blank for the reception of a story to be 
written by the child pertaining to the picture 
and synopsis given at the lop of the page. 
The series seem admirably adapted to 
interest and aid the child in its first and 
early efforts at composition; we certainly 
commend them to the atlcntion of all teach- 
ers of primary scbnoH. 


We wish to remind .the members of the 
Business College Teachers" and Penmen's 
Association of the request made by us, at 
the late convention, that each one note 
down a brief history of themselves, anil for- 
ward the same to be placed on file at the 
office of the Journal; we also extend the 
aime invitation to all professional penmen; 
such sketches would often be valuable in 
3ur references to members of our profes- 

The National Banking System. 

Wf oflen wouder if oiirf^jrct-nback friends 

Abo I 

: (liei 


1 of 

the NalionnI BadUh ever paatm to redcct 
upon the favorable !<irle, to Ibe public, of 
lliose inntilutioDs. Althougli wc so far 
■Krcc with the Grccnbacker 8S to believe 
tbnl all the curreocy of thecountry.whetber 
metalic or paper, should be issued by the 
National Government, yet when tve coutrast 
the convenience and safely of the prewnt 
fyntcm with that of Ilie old State and individ- 
uul banks in %'ogue before the rebellion, we 
are certainly Uiankfiit for the change. 

For the redemption of the notes issued 
under the old synlem, there was no certain 
ty or security beyond the integrity or ability 
of the parties who issued thcin, llicy passed 
roadily for money, at best, only within the 
limitB of the local reputations of the parties 
by whom itsued. Whenever a note was 
oiTored in payment it was scrutinized— 1 at, 
regarding its genuineness; 2d, the place and 
piirties who isaued it ; 3d, their solvency. 
All theso settled salisfnctorily, there was 
slill wanting a giiaranlee that the solvency 
would continue until the note should pass, 
for ita face value, from tho hands of the re- 
ceiver Frequently great inconvenience 
and enormous losses were sustained by the 
public from the suspension or failure of 
these irresponsible and unlimited bankcr.4 
when the notes they had issued were at a 
heavy discount or entirely worthless; often 
large issues of notes were made, with a 
di-liberate plan and intention of a failure, 
in the way of which there was no legal hin- 

IIow is it with our present system? No 
hank at present can legally issue a note un- 
til it has deposited in the United States 
Treasury, Government bondssufScient to se- 
cure the payment of the entire amount of 
their intended circulation, ns a pledge and 
security for its redemption, when tlie exact 
amount of unsigned bills are delivered by 
the United Slates Treasury to the bank, to 
b(! signed and issued as money. The plates 
an(i paper, (which are patented by the Gov 
crnmenl) from which the notes are printed, 
lire owned and controlled by the United 
Slak-s (Jovernniont, and are quite as much 
biynnd lliu power of the banks to use as of 
any inilivirluiil ; in fact were thev to have 


Under this system only one question need 
be asked by the receiver of any note, viz: 
Is it genuine? Whetber issued in Maine or 
Califdrnia by this bank or that, is without 
signillcauce; the bolder is certain, if it is 
genuine, that there can be no contingency 
abort of tlie utter destruction of the Nation- 
al credit that will cause him loss or inconve- 
nience in its passage. Were the note issued 
directly by the Government, it coirid have 
no stronger pledge for its payment in full, 
nor so strong, for now there is added to the 
full fuiih of the government that of the 
bankers who sign and issue it as money. 

Davknpobt. Iowa, Aug. 6, I87i). 
Editor /Vnm/in'» Art Journal: 

Okas Sm.-I beg pardon for bringing up 
the Problem in Bookkeepiug which appeared 
in your .Fuly number, but the solution as giv- 
«u in the August number is susceptible of be- 
ing incorrect ; as explained by Mr. Geo. R. 
Rftlhbim it is absolutely wrong. 

The question does not require any of the 
Ledger Aocoiiots to be closed. It simply 
asks for one .Tourual Entry. What the busi- 
ness is worth at the time of sale does not fig. 
uro at all in the Journal entry required, but 
the original proprietors' account does, and 
that is not given ; hence it is a question only 
half stated, His account may have a net 
credit of $o0.noO at the time of sale, or it 
may have no credit at aU, may even have a 
net d..bit. 

The new proprietor. John Smith, bought 
one-half of Mr. Rathbun's net investment and 
one-half the accumulated gains or lo^es to 
that date for $ia.O00. The gai-.s or losses 
will be shown in the representative accounts. 
and since one-balf the gains or losses are 
purchased by the new proprietor and he will 
be entitled to one-baU that may accrue after 
his purchase, no entry should be made in the 

Journal to cover the gains or losses at the 
time of purchase. The Joanml entry. ai< ac- 
cepted, read», 

Geo. B. Ratbbun, Dr., $10,000 

To John Smith, Cr.. *in,O00 
I imagine S. S. Packard, J- C. Bryant, or 
E. Q. Folsom, eminent and well-known auth- 
ors, would look askance at that answer if pre- 
sented to them, and say, "Tut, tut, boy! 
That could only be correctin case the Ledger 
wan closed before the Journal entry was made 
unless Mr. B.'s net investment was just $20,- 

Let ufl imagine, for instance, that Mr. R. 
invested $.'>0,000. and had a net credit of that 
amount on the books, at the time of sale his 
account being represented by the Ledger 
title Stock. The Journal entry shoiUd be, 
Stock, Dr., $50,000, 

To B. $25,000, 
" S. 25,000, 
If Mr. R.'s credit in the Ledger was under 
his own name the Journal entry should be, 
K. Dr., 825,000, 

To S. Or., $25,000. 
Suppose, again, that Mr. R. had a net credit 
of only $4,000. The Journal entry should be, 
R, Dr., $2,000, 

To S., $2,000. 
Again, let us imagine, if you please, that 
Mr. B. ha<1 withdrawn exactly as much as be 
invested. No Journal entry woidd be le- 
quired, as Mr. S. purchased one-half the ac- 
cumulated gains, and no more, and they will 
find iheir way to his account when the Led- 
ger is closed. 

Finally, let us suppose that the Debit side 

of Mr, R.'s account was $2,000 larger than 

the Credi: side at the time of sale. 

Journal entry would then be, 

S. Dr., $1,000. 

ToR, Cr., $1,0C 
The Journal euti^ should be such 
equally divide the balance of Stock 
between the partners. 

According to the reasoning of Mr. Rathbun 
it would make no difference how much the 
original proprietor invested — provided he 
was worth $20,000 at the time of sale. The 
Journal entry would be just the same in eith- 
er case mentioned above, if his theory be cor- 
rect. My student sent a correct Journal en- 
try to the question, as follows: "Dr. Stock, 
the old proprietor, for enough to cancel that 
account. Credit the old proprietor for one- 
half aud the new proprietor for the othLr half 
of that amount," As the amount of Mr. R.'s 
investment was not given, no amount could 
be given in the Journal entry. 

The student submitted his entry to me, and 
I forwarded it, certifying that it was correct. 
If Mr. Rathbun means me by the "business 
college professor behind a student I now 
to the front and in all modesty affirm 
that the student is right aud Mr. Rathbun is 
wrong. Very Respectfullj, 



In the heat of wrath, or the bitterness of 
36 and pain, one might be eicused for ex- 
aggeration or misstatement, But in the cool- 
ess of one's strength to sit and lie willfully, 
ithout a provocation or an apparent tempta- 
i, is beyond all reasonable right to pardon, 
person never ought to be pardoned or 

trusted; he is a liar past redemption, and 
ght to be considered bo. He ought to be 
made to know that he is scorned by aU decent 
people. He is a liar. 

Through and through he is a liar. He 
ought to be made to know that people under- 
stand it. If honeit people only had the will 
to do it. One cannot do it alone, but honest 
people joined in brotherhood might. Thev 
ought to do it. Every lie ought to be branded 
as a lie. Every liar ought to be branded as a 
liar. If this could be done, even a liar would 
speak the truth from policy a part of the 
time, and some who are but partially devel- 
oped as bars, might leam to be honest from 
principle, if truth became popularand shame 
were blackened according to its merits. It is 
because the liar has a smooth tongue that 
people listen to bis lies respectfully and pub- 
le the truth is many 
unpalatable that the voice of honesty 
the land. People who 
to lie 80 wellthat they deceive 
individuality with their lies. 

lish then 

becomes a dread i 

and mistake their hypocrisy for the soul of 
, truth. They are so used to the crime of pre- 
varication that it becomes as natural as their 
breath, and their br*-ath is therefore but the 
speech of lies, and lies are but the breath of 
their existence. They are filled with lies. 
They Ue to their own souls aud swear to lies. 
And they have such a beautiful method about 
it, if jonlook at their ingenuity. It would 
cost them but a particle of their present effort 
to speak the truth if they were honest 
enough, but they are liars, and they view all 
things from the liar's standpoint. They have 
charity in plenty for larger liars than them- 
selves, but there is always something wrong 
which they can see about truth. 

One wonders that they are not struck dead 
with lies in their mouths to fester there for- 
ever. It is one of the mysteries and miracles 
of Providence that they are not. What they 
live for is beyond all human finding out. Pos- 
sibly they live solely as a standing proof of 
God's mercy. Possibly they live to torture 
the lesson of forbearance and patience into 
the consciousness of honest people who spuru 
a Ue, and spurn a liar more. If there were 
no liars we should have no lies. The lie must 
be conceived and go through the pre-natal 
development before it is bom and becomes a 
living, walking, never-dying lie. The germs 
of lies must be acted upon and receive their 
nutriment from the human consciousness be- 
fore they take their living form to slmme 
mankind forever. The passion of falsity like 
any other lust, grows and strengthens till it 
becomes a raging hell whose fury earth and 
heaven cannot quench without the co-opera- 
tion of the human will. The more lies are 
begotten, the more increases the appetite to 
beget still more, till the strife which honest 
people are compelled to wage agaiust lies 
is like the strife against the never-to-be exter- 
minated tribes of vermin, except the strife 
against bes requires eteraal vigilance, undy- 
ing courage, and the mustered hosts of all 
their combined moral forces. Evtiry lie needs 
the prompt foot of honest scorn set upon it. 
Every liar needs to be silenced bj uudiseuised 
contempt from all good people. Every bab- 
bler deserves the cold shoulder, for babbling 
leads to lying. Deceit, jealousy, spite and 
maliciousness lead also to a vicious perversion 
of the truth. What we want is candor and 
truth in what we speak or do, and modesty to 
lead the van of action. We are not com- 
pelled to lay our souls all bare for the grati- 
fication of meddlers, but we should be true. 
There are ways of disposing of meddlers, 
open to people of tact, and they are to be 
cultivated aud commended. But let us shape 
our lives by the square and compass of truth. 
Let us never he. Let us live for truth, study 
for truth, fight for truth. Let us be patient, 
liet us have courage, let us falter not. The 
unborn heirs of honor call aloud to us ; the 
pure of all the past doth cheer us on. God 
is on the side of truth and hath marshaled us 
to battle. We must fight. Inactivity becomes a 
lie. Silence is oftentimes a worst kind of a 
lie. Against the hosts of liars the hosts of 
truth must stand. The name of truth in 
bold, brave letters should shine on every pure 
soul's banner of ambition. For truth, with 
truth forever and forever. Let this be our 
ideal. This is the noblest, the highest, the 
grandest of all ideals. 

Madqe Maplb. 

Proceedings at the Convention, 
The second annual convention of the ' 'Busi- 
ness College Teachers' and Penmen's A-^socia- 
tion" convened in the halls of the Spencerian 
Business College, Cleveland, Ohio, on Tuea- 
day. August 5, and was called to order at 9 A- 
M.. at which time the large hall of the college 
was well filled with members and visitors. 

The proceedings were opened by an inter- 
esting salutatory address by the President, 
S. S. Packard of New York. 

Pac'^ard's Businesa College. 

We are pleased to learn that this institution 
has opened with a considerably increased 
attendance this fall. We are pleased because 
we know from personal observation of the 
school, and its thorough course of practical 
business training that no educational insti- 
tution in the land is more deserving of suc- 
cess, or is conducted with a more vigilant 
and conscientious regard for the interests of 
its patrons. Indeed, were the sterling 
merits of this institution known and appreci- 
ated by all the people of our city, its capaci. 
ty would be greatly inadequate to the ac- 
comomdation of its would-be patrons. 

Gentlemen ok 
mirable prograuim 
your Executive Committee renders il 
sary for me to speak as to the character of the 
work which lies before us. Whether it shaU 
be found possible or not to carry out this pro- 
gramme to the letter, certain it is that there 
is little dangpr of getting out of material dur- 
ing the rhiy-i t!mt have been set apart for 
oui- rirlil-i jiidnti- jimi whatever estimate we 

•"".'■ I'l I I' I'" work of the committee, 

"■' 11' I I 11 I I Miriii cordial praise for the 
ctii' fill III r;iii[;riii, til of topics, the fullness of 
detail, aud the comprehensiveness of their 
schedule. One thing must be apparent, that 
if this schedule is carried out, even imper- 
fectiy, there wiU be no time to waste, and the 
discussions will need to be brief aud pointed 
m no common degree. I have carefully scan- 
ned th ■ programme, and I could wish that it 
might be fulfiUed in letter as well as in spirit. 
It is the first time in my recollection of con- 
ventions of this sort— running over a space 
of sixteen years— that a well-considered order 
of exercises has been ready for adoption at 
the opening of the session, and it would be 
sometbiuggainedfor usasa basis of future ac- 
tion if we could fairly test it. I would re- 
commend, therefore, that before we enter 
upon our real work the committee ascertain 
how neariy we may follow the order laid 
down, as also that they suggest such rules 
id limits of discussion as may secure to each 
pic in it^ turn a full share of attention. 
Unless otherwise provided, it may be necea- 
ry to insist upon confining the discussion 
of each subject to the time allotted, which 
e cases is very brief, and that no in- 
may be done to those who have con- 
sented to stand sponsor for topics, or to others 
specially interested therein, it will be neces- 
sary to observe the utmost punctuality in 
opening and closing. The experience of all 
who hRve ever participated in educational 
conventions will bear me out in the fear that 
our chief difficulty lies in this direction. It 
is a difficulty, however, that may be easily 
avoided, aud should be by us whose life work 
is set to the measure of half hours. We need 
only to e.xact ourselves that reasonable observ- 
ance of wholesome regulations which we hold 
students as chiefly among the manly 

the time, expense, aud trouble incurred, it 
wir be well at the outset to accept the hmita- 
tions and enforce the requirements of the oc- 

Tbe main thought with each one of us 
should be to get the largest amount of perma- 
nent good out of the convention. And to 
this end let it be our first care to place our- 
selves in harmony with our work. In a meet- 
ing like this there are always those who need 
bringing forward. It is not enough that 
the privileges of the convention are thrown 
open equally to all ; aud it will not do to say 
enjoy them equally the fault 

that if all do 

is their own. Certain members, 

long service and favorable acquaintance, to. 


the columns of the Jottbsai,, regarding any 
department of teaching or practicing writing, 
upon any branch of practical education, 
e respectfully soUcited. 

gether with the greater faculty of speech and 
better knowledge of procedure, have quite 
the advantage of certam other members who 
are without these conditions. It will be well 
to con^jider this fact, and by a little thought- 
f uluess and courtesy to reduce any such ine- 
quality to the lowest terms. The sooner we 
learn to measure each other and place our- 
selves on a common footing of mutual rela- 
tionship, the surer we shall accompUsb in the 
end the true purpose of our assembling. I 
luggest, therefore, that at the earliest 
practicable proper steps be taken to 
promote the most general and the most favor- 
able acquaintanceship, that as far as possible 
we may begin our work on an even footing. 

The committee have wisely recognized the 
fact that this is a meeting of working teach- 
ers, and in the arrangement of the topics and 
exercises have shown their appreciation of the 
field to be occupied. It is one of the merits 
of this schedule that no morked prominence 
is given to any oce branch of the general sub- 
ject ; so that whatever distinction any topic 
may hold must depend upon its inherent 
merits, or upon the wisdom aud ardor of its 
advocates, or upon both. It, therefore, be- 
those who have a particular interest in 
bject to see that its claims are not over- 
looked from any failure to show it at its best 
And this should surely not occur in a conven- 
tion comprising not only specialists but lead- 
ers of specialties- men whose names, among 
us, are as household words, and whose works 
are as familiar to us as the faces of our own 
children. This is a feature of our convention 
which should secure to it a lasting pUce in 
our history. 

Another not less important feature exiata in 
the diverse nteresta embraced— a feature 
which is fitly recognized in the title of our 

distinc-tion, for I nm «urtr it will ool be ueci-s- 
■ary here to inBist upon the most Tttal tnith 
of Kocial economy touching the relatious of 
tbos'^ who voluntarily '-xehaDge equal eervioes. 
The tfficitDcy and economy of oar work re- 

;b as the amount of pay muHt inevitably 
depend upon Ibc quality of work there is no 
Bubjnct proper to b« diseuiwed here that doea 
not touch alilce these two claHses. In our 
work there are no blind devices, no tricks of 
legordemain, no patent procesaes which are 
not opou to skillful handiaaud delviug brains. 
There are no teachers having peculiar gifts 
of nkill or fidelity to whom it is impotwible, 
without unworthy combination, to find ample 
Bcope and cODsideratioD for their offerings, 
and no managers of institutions to whom it is 
nec(--Msary or profitable to withhold the policy 
or plun of their operations from those upon 
vhom tbey mainly depend for that true sue- 
oeHH which is the only honest return for faith- 
ful work. It would scarcely be possible to 
broach a subject suitable for discussion in this 
oonvention which should not have an equal 
claim upon all it^ members. We are all equal- 
ly [utornsted in the dignity and efficiency of 
commiTcial schools of whatever name or grade. 
We are are equally anxious that Ihe practical 
work we aro trying to do should receive its 
proper recognition from the public and as- 
suiuu ita proper place in the educational sys- 
tem. We are united in our purpose to make 
requisition for faithful service of all who claim 
a place in our ranks, and to put the ban of 
public disfavor upon those who are faithless 
to tbeir trust. We have too much at stake t • 
quarrel over non-essentials, and are loo busy 
in trying to meet the just demands of our 
own students to cultivate jealousy and un- 
wortliy rivalry. We have nothing to conceal 
and much to learn, and the surest road to all 
good results in our labor lies in that generous 
brothcrhoud of effort which makes it impos- 
sible to withhold from one another that which 
we liiive found to be good for oui-selves. It 
is said with some truth that there is no class 
of intt'Iligeiit people soapt to be arrogant and 
flolf-opinionated as teachers. If such be the 
case, Ih'-ii there is some reasonfor it. In the 
main, teachers are aiitocvnts. It is their 
province to couiniand, not to obey. Theyare 
in tbe constant habit of thinking for others, 
and rarely muut with minds self -poised enough 
to place them upon tlieir defense. Their 
methods grow, fnuu lunstiiut habit, to be 
orai-uliiv iiTi.'i Til ]Mi-itiv. , ;inl it becomes 
diflh-iiii t" ■! ■ I ! ■. :" r '!: ■■ (I line of 



uotl'i-''Ji'j ' 1. .11 ii. ■■- HI I r ,iilj J.iliTi'Ut from 
othi rpi-ii|i|i,ijrtlmt uikKt favorable conditions 
tlioy might uot develop into liberal-minded 
and modest citizooG, but rather because they 
do not sufficiently encounter their equals, and 
because they are permitted too much to have 
their own way, A meeting like this, it no 
other results should follow, must be of great 
service to those who take part in it, in the 
one direction of libei-atmg thought and es- 
tablishing a basis wherein, without undue 
humility, we arrogant pedagogues may get a 
peep at the uther side of questions and possi- 
bly «o so far as to revise our own well-foi-tified 
opinions. f we would exercise a fair share 
of worldly % islom let us establish here a gen- 
eral fund of knowledge to which all may con- 
tribute and from which each may draw accor- 
ding to his needs. It is the pecuUar province 
of kuowtedge that it is exhaustless. In fact, 
the more surely it grows. A new thought 
may bo no more to him who discovers and re- 
veals it than it is to those to whom it is re- 
vealed ; and the revelation of a thought is not 
porting with it, but really getting a better 
hold of it. To attempt to shut up wisdom 
vrithiu our own narrow bniins is to exclude 
oursehesfrom its benefits. It is a miserly 
act, for which there is uot the poor excuse of 
"hiyiug up something 'or a rainy day." And 
the world takes cognizance of such meanness, 
and pays back with compound interest, I 
accept the fact of our coming together as a 
declaration that we are uotsntislied with what 
we are doing, and as an earnest that we mean 
to do more and better; and I shall feel that 
our time is more than wasted if we do uot 
take back to our teveral workshops not merely 
better inspiratious to labor but more definite 

fmrposes and aims ; and I shall hail with de- 
ight every indication of an honest desire to 
make our business uot only more profitable, 
worthy of our devotion and of pub- 



Lul us not forget that we have in our sev- 
eral schools the noblest constituency to be 
found ; that we are educating uot future 
merchiwts idoue, but future citizens. This 
fact deserves more thau a passing remark, as 
I am sure it has received from us all more 
than a passing thought. Year by year as our 
work lilts progressed and token shape has it 

i- the choracti 

Those of us who were in the work tweutv- 
five or even twenty years ago need only to 
refer to the constituency of those days as 
compared with that of the present to feel tbe 
for> >■ (if thvse sncrgeslious. In those early 
dayb the few husmcss coUeges in vogue had a 
comparatively small attendance of young 
men, ranging from eighteen to thirty years 

of age, whose main thought was to supply 
some deficiency in early training, particuhtrly 
in the matter of writing, aritbmetic, and 
book-keeping, with a view always to a posi- 
tiou. or to nu advance in poHitiou, at thi^ eud 
I of two or three m<-uth.s' cramming. The S' s- 
' sionswere continuous, day and evening, with 
scarcely time for rest on Suuday. Stiiduuts 
came and weut at pleasure without Iboughtof 
record or discipline. Life scholarwhipc, rtsu- 
denng it impossible for any student to gi-t in 
his lifetime thai for which he had paid were 
tbe rule and not the exception text-books 
were ignored luid the manuscript course was 
as variou'^ in th' dilfereiA schools an were Ihe 
qutilifications of tlic teachers. And yet. un- 
der all these Jim<iatiouH. the schools did the 
work required of them, and did it iu the main, 
well. They suppi.ed a pressiug want, antl i 
affording just the instruction d'-manded won 
the lusting esteem of all worthy pupils. 

And noth'ng better need be said of these 
early efforts ihan that they demonstrated the 
necessity and the feasibility of technical 
schools for commercial studies, and that to 
them we owe the jjrivilege of meeting in this 
capacity, and marking tbe changes that have 
been wrought. And the ch.uges are many 
and radical, both in the coustituency and iu 
the material and methods of study and disci- 
pline. Year by year has it become iitcensary 
to change our curriculum aud methods to 
meet the changed condition of our patronage 
and the iucreasiug demands for a broader aud 
more complete education for business. Not 
only are we expected now to give a few fin- 
ishing touches or to supply radical deficien- 
cies in the merely practical applications of 
knowledge, but we are forced to take our 
places in the ranks of private schools, and to 
employ the highest culture aud the best ap- 
pliances known to the profession. Without 
surrendering our distinctive characters os 
schools for business training, we have found 
it necessary to enlarge the scope of our work 
embracing a greater variety of subjects and 
covering the wider demands of a full prepara- 
tion for active life. Our schools are besieged 
with a younger class of appUcants who wish 
to accept us instead of the regularpreparatory 
school or academy, and 
elude this desirable patrouage 
honest requirements. And 
we attempt tomeet thisdemandin its entirety 
certaiu it is that we cannot be faithful to our- 
selves 01 others without iu some degree sup- 
plying whatever deficiencies there may be in 
fundamental training; beuco the proper use 
of language, the oultivalion of thought, the 
habitudes of business and society, the princi- 
ples of government and poUtical science be- 
come not only our legitimate work, but a vital 
part thereof. It is this broader aspect of the 
work that lies before us that gives to this 
meeting its real importance. In selecting this 
central point for the convention due consid- 
eration was had to the demands of the whole 
country, and to securing a representation that 
should be Natioual, It is desirable that there 
should exist in some shape an authorative 
voice speaking for this specialty of education; 
that in some way we, who desire to be honest 
and earnest in what we do, should know who 
are our real colaborers, and should be able to 
point to a declaration of principles and a plan 
of individual aud co-operative labor that 
shoidd no longer leave the public in doubt. 
We owe it to ourselves, to our students, and 
to the commu"ities in which we thrive to re- 
deem our schools from even a lurking suspi* 
cion of superficialty. We should above all 
things be careful not to promise what we 
know we cannot perform and even to perform 
more than we promise. We should divest our 
schools of the character of mere clerk agen- 
cies, and assert our true position as institu- 
tions of learning. The obtaining of situations 
for our graduates should be no more a recog- 
uizcl part of our work than the selecting of 
their wives or the regulation of their families. 
Instead of putting our young men iu the false 
position of mere b - ggars for places, we should 
throw the obligation on the other side, and do 
the business world a favor by supplying a 
quality of service that must always command 
a premium. These rre the sentiments aud 
this the work which should render our com- 
ug together a real good. And nothing lei 

the absence of C. Claghom. the Treasurer 
of the Association. The constitution and 
by-laws of the Association were iheu read. | 
and an opportunity presented for the 


thau their adoption and enfnrcemeut should 
be accepted by us or the public as our warrant 
for the convention of '79. 

Gentlemen of the convention, we are on 
sacred ground. As I stand here in this room 
my mind goes back to the summer of 18.''i3, 
when I first met Mr. H, D. Stratton and his 
partner and co-worker, Mr. H. B. Bryant; as 
also Mr. E, G. Folsom, and where I renewed 
my acquaintance with "Father Spencer" aud 
re-cemented a warm persoufd friendship with 
James W. Lusk. Twenty-six years ago, gen- 
tlemen, in this room was laid the corner-stone 
of that wonderful "chain of colleges" reach- 
ing from one end of the country to the other, 
which made it possible for men working in 
the same field, though with separate interests, 
to work together. Of the five names men- 
tioned but two designate hving men— Mr. 
Bryant and Mr. Folsom, who are with us to- 
day. We return here as to our Mecca, and 
we reverently lay upon tbe graves of the de- 
parted, whose spirit* I feel hover over us, the 
flowers of our undimmed affection and the 
tokens of a r<-membrance which grows bright- 

At tbe close of Mr. Packard's address, J. E. 
Soule was appointed Treasurer pro tem, in 

daring which the members were invited to 
rise in their placet^, giving their names, 
residences, business, with a short history of 
themselves, which provtil not only an inter- 
esting but effective method of making known 
to each other the many strangers who were 
present. Many of these sketches were re- 
lated with such a degree of humor aud point- 
ed imecdote, as to be very amusing, aud 
well wonh.v of a place in full, iu this report, 
but want of space forbids : although we may 
in some of our future numbers give place to 
a portion of them. 

Robert 0. Spencer, Principal of the Mil- 
waukee (Wis.) business college, then intro- 
duced the first topic for di-cussiou. 

which he did in a manner so pointed, effec- 
tive aud interesting as to show himself a 
thorough master of his subject. He believed 
political economy to be a very important and 
necessary adjunct of a busiuess education, 
more so than is generally conceded. He 
said that iu instructing his class in pohtical 
economy he used no text books, but interest- 
ed them by just such talks as they were 
having there, and he made these talks as 
KJmple as it was possible for him to do. 
Young students had not been taught to 
think, although they were endowed with 
good common sense and abihty, and in inter- 
esting them by these plain talks it set them 
to thinking, and they would soon display a 
desire to read and study all the works on the 
subject which they could find. The business 
students were to be the future business men, 
and they should have the taste for study so 
directed that they would have a taste for 
that broader knowledge of poUtical economy. 
He di icuseed at some length his ideas on the 
subject, paying respect to E. G. Folsom for 
his labors in the work of political economy, 
and to the president, Mr. Packard, for labor 
in the same direction, and he wished to be 
put on record as one having a just apprecia- 
tion of the men who have done so much to 
spread this knowledge. 

At the close of Mr. Spencer's remarks, the 
topic was open half an hour for genernl dis- 

Mr. Folsom, was pleased to see that topic 
so ably and properly presented. He believed 
poUtical economy to be the basis of accounts 
aud business, and that it devolved upon 
business colleges to teach it. 

H. C. Spencer, regarded it as an essential 
study and urged tbe importance of having a 
text-book prepared better suited to the use 
of busiuess colleges, than any now in use. 
At present there were severtd which were in- 
harmonious or contradictory in their teach- 

L. L. Sprngue, said thnt authors were so 
mixed that he became confused on the sub- 
ject. One noted writer dwelt on a certain 
subject to air his views, and another on 
something else, which reminded him of a 
syllogism which he heard when he was a 
boy "Moses was the meekest man, Samson 
was the strongest man, therefore, David 
killed Goliath." He thought the science was 
in its infancy, but even in its infant state it 
was the foundation study in the curriculum 
of a business college. 

Interesting remarks were made by Messrs. 
A. D. Wilt, T. E. Hill, Frank Goodman, S. S. 
Packard, and T. M. Peirce. 

The discussion closed with what we deem 
an important Suggestion from K, C. Spencer, 
concerning his method of teaching political 
economy, viz., to have students watch tbe 
fluctuations of the markets, and inquire, and 
be instructed regarding their cause, which 
was found in political economy. 

A. P. Koot, Superintendent of penman- 
ship in the public schools of Cleveland 
(O)., gave a lesson illustrating his method of 
teaching writing in primary schools, the 
members of the convention sitting as a class. 
His methods were ingenious. His illustra- 
tions apt and pecuharly adapted to catch, 
interest, and impress a child's mind, to do 
which, or in other words, to reduce his 
thoughts and language to the level of a 
child's mind, he thought to be the great 
desideratum of a primary teacher's success. 
He made frequent use of simple stories and 
anecdotes which he always pointed with some 
important feature of the lesson. He laid 
great stress upon the importance of rigidly 
maintaining a correct position of pen (or pen- 
cil) hand, and body. He would at first teach 
only the fi iger movi=^ment. 

Kemarks were made by Messrs. Mayhew, 
Soule and R. 0. Spencer. 

Wm. H. Sprague, Principal of Business Col- 
lege, Norwaik, O., then opened the discussion 
of tbe topic, 

belonging to a Business College and how it 
should be taught." 

In his opinion sufficient commercial law 
should be taught to enable the student to con- 
duct the ordinary affairs of business legally, 
and so as to avoid all litigations. He should 

especially understand the law pertaining to 
contracts, portnerships, exchange, collec- 
tions, principal aud agent, good will, &c. 
Tbi-^ should be taught by a regnlar teacher; 
by familiar talks and practical illustrations 
aud apphcations of law to these several sub- 
jects as they are pursued during the course. 

Mr. Sprague's remarks were able, practical 
and well received by the convention. 

An animated discussion followed, partici- 
pated in by Messrs. H. 0. Wright, Folsom, L. 
L. Sprague, R. C. Sp.mcer, T. M. Pierce, 
Wilt. Goodman. White, Ames, Mayhew, W. 
H. Si.rague. H. C. Spencer and B. T. Wright. 

H. C. Wright opposed any effort to teach 
law in a busiuess college ; that should be 
learned at a law school. Thchttle that could be 
taught in a commercial course wos daugerou-.. 
it tended to cause the pupil to act ou his 
own imperfect knowledge of law, when he 
woidd commit mistakes, which would lead to 
litigations, that had he consulted a skilled 
lawyer, he would have avoided. This idea 
was thoroughly combatted by the other 
speakers aud it seemed to be the overwhelm- 
ingly sentiment of the convention that a grad- 
uate from a business college should be suffic- 
iently familiar with law to transact legally aufl 
succefisfuUy all ordinary business. At th© 
close of this discussion the convention ad- 
journed to meet at 3 P. M. 

was opened by W. H. Duff, of Duff's Com- 
mercial College, Pittburg, Pa., who gave a 
practical lesson in 

showing how he presented this subject to- 
pupils uiider his tuition, giving practical il- 
lustrations at tbe black-board. Mr. Duff's les- 
son elicited considerable interest on the jiart 
of his class, which led to a Uvely discus&ion 
at its close, participated in by Messrs, Peirce, 
Folsom, H. C. Wright, L. L. Sprague, R. C. 

was opened by D. T. Ames, editor of the 
Penmans Art Journal, New York, said he. 
tbe time when the utility, aye, the necessity 
of a business college can be successfully ques- 
tioned, is passed ; they have become a recog- 
nized necessity as much as special schools for 
inatruction, iu law, medicine, art, science, 
music or theology. It is true we occasionally 
hear some old fogy who himself advanced 
through all the various stages, from swetp- 
ing the store to his position as an awkward 
accountant, say that the course of training iu 
business college amounts to little or nothing. 

would concede that this might be true, i 
the complainant to attempt to initiate a well 
qualified graduate into his obsolete stage coach 
methods of conducting business and accounts. 
Such men are growing beautifully less; they 
belong to the past. It was their ancestors 
who used to burn heretics and witches, and 
ridiculed as lunatics, such men as Copernicus, 
Guttenberg, Watt, Fulton, Morse, and others 
who have announced new discoveries. 

Business colleges are yet scarcely out of 
their infancy, though vigorous and rapid in 
their growth and development, they have 

and gr. at mission, as the schools of c 
and finance, entitle them. 

To do this, the time now allotted to their pre- 
scribed course must be materially lengthened, 
and a niove rigid demand for thoroughness of 
scholarship in all the branches taught, and 
diplomas he persistently refused to all who 
are not thoroughly competent. Business col- 
leges have been much too lavish of their dip- 
lomas, to convey to the pubUc on exalted idea 
of their capabihties. 

The old plan of Ufe scholarship should be 
discarded as unjust aud injurious to both 
teacher and pupil, thoroughly unbusiness-like, 
requiring as it does a uniform fee for a wide- 
ly varied service. 

Much of business college advertising has 
been such as to convey to an intelligent pub- 
Uc a much more exalted impression of their 
capabilities for making extravagant claims and 
promises impossible to fulfill, than for impart- 
ing a thorough and practical education ; eat b 
has had the best and several w^ only prficti- 
cal ityHtein of business training fol-youog men 
in the world. These stutenieuts hnve been 
mtide sometimes in ignorimce, and often re- 
gardless of facts. Iu tbiM respect there is 
now happily n manifest improvement among 
the really representative managers of these 
institutions, aud, we trust that all will soon 
appreciate that the first capability of a man- 
ager of a business, college should be to tell 
thf truth and deal honestly. 

Friendliness aud unity of action on the 

fiart of proprietors and teachers of business col- 
eges, regarding their curriculum of study, 
management, and every thing touching their 
object and interest, will do much to enhance 
their capabihties for usefulness, and to com- 
m ind the respect, esteem and patronage of an 
inteUigent public; they should lock hands, and 
proceed as friends. For the cultivation and 
fostering of this spirit of friendship and unity, 
sui;h annual gatherings as this will serve a 
grand and noble purpose, and immeasurably 
enhance the capabihties and probabilities of 


n of business education. 

VK I tUli liWi. 

• "9VW 

L. L. Sprague fipokc »t t>oiue U-nf^h upon 
tbc nubjt-ct. He had authini; to nay agaiDNt 
literary collcgCM, but be would eay that a good 
biuiricHi college wait the peer of any educa- 
tiODnl iimtitutiOD in the laud. 

F. W. II WiciKbshD of the Wienehabn lu- 
vtitule of Pen Art. St. Louis. Mo., road a 
paper on "The iinportnooe of a knowledge 
of art matters generally, aud der^orative art 
Mpccially, to thoae who purwnp the art of cn- 
gronning." Mr. WieH.-hahn'8 paper, though 
iomowbat lengthy, wan lintened to with rapt 
attention, and it woh ahcantiful composition, 
defending tbc study ft art (U t-nQobling and 
purifying to the race, '■ No doubt," he naid, 
''many of you have observed and experieuc- , 
cd tlio antipathy with which pentunnffhip | 
wiw treated at art exliibitiouH and in t«.- mat ion- ' 
al expoxitiona, and the impottKibility of ent^-r- ' 
ing nod clawiiDg peomnnsbip among tbc fine , 
art« pr'-pcr. Of courKc wo were vain enough I 
nferior to none, requiriug 

taught the same methods practiced in buui- 

Tbe leiwon by Mr- Peirce wiw followed by 
a spirited discussion by Messrs. R. C. Spen- 
fc-r. H. C Wrigbl, Wilt. Boucher. Pond. L. 
L. aud W. H. Sprngue. The question regard- 
ing " dayB of grace " in commercial paper 
arose H, C. Wrightthought that ibey should 
bi- aboliKbed, K. C. Spencer also thought 
tbeni bad policy, and moved that a committee 
be appoiutt'd to prepare a resohittoii expre!>fi- 
iug the sense lo the convcntiou regarding the 
CUKtom nf allowiog days of grace on com- 
meicial paper, which was carried. aiidMcssrs. 
S, S. Packard. Ira Maybew and H. C. Wright 
were appointed such committee. after which a 
leseon wa^ given by L. L. Spnigue, principal 
of the Wyoming Commercial (Jullege, King- 
Btou, Pa., upon the 8'bjcctof 

smart. One r. 
businett collegi 

consequently patronized by a class of young paper 
irregular scholars befoi 

sou for this was that many i 

advertise to fit a young man ' Mr. E. G. Folsom, of the Albany, (N. Y., 

life in three mouths aud are Business College, followed with on interesting 

«rho w 
iug to the commercial college, aud are ouly 
prepared to bn fitted for business in three 
' moutht). He thought these things ought to 

el„rta„tly confe.s I ^ ,„i„ed every portiou of the form »ud g»> 
1. B..I mark ,o„. , ^^.^^^^ j^ ,b/ s»u,c-. The bu«i„e» JelUr 
I should be written with the full address upon 

ceived uoiionH detrimental to commercial col 
teges arc generally men of little informatiou 
regarding the colleges and have very strong 
prejudices. As a remedy he suggested that 
young meu sent out from commercial colleges 
to these busiuess men should not disclose the 
fact of their attendance at a business coUrge 
until after their work is appreciated. By this 
uieaus such men become the strongest sup- 
porters of business colleges. 

Mr. Packard thought that there was no 
more tendency on the part of graduates of 
liu-iinesH colleges to overrate themselves thau 
on that of other college graduates, cuid that 
whatever uotious of this soit they had were 
quite as likely to come from defettive home- 
education or natural iuchnatious. At all 

J. E. Soule, Pre 




1 Dcn and ink copy prepared by W. H. Flickinger, who is superintendent ol 
nd ornamental penmanship in connection witL Soule's Bryant A Stration 
:'t conception of the original which is a gem of 
to all penmen in America that more explanation 

I facsimile rcproduclion fri 

arte." He touched at length upon the art of 
omameutid penmanship ; spoke of the decor- 
ative arts of the aucients in comparison with 
our own. mid suggested various methods of 
study. Ho touched on the value given by 
art to materials of no intrinsic worth, and en- 
couraged in the highest terms the study of 

The address ^ 
and the f 
of it. 

The meeting then adjourned t 
Wedneeday morning. 

Thos. May Peirce, President of the Union 
Business College, Philadelphia, Pa,, gave a 

, that ii 

which was exceedingly interesting and prac- 
tical. He said that busiuess colleges are the 
dependence of a business community for 
practiml ariUinuUts. few of the reputed schol- 
a could evt-n add, according to his idea of 
to be certain that their 
—he here ill\istn»ted upon 


the blaokboapd how he rendered liis addiUons 
I of checks; we must have 

mulliphcation imd di' 
multiplt's which 
knowledge of co- 

A pupU ahoiUd thoroughly midenst^md the 

r^oiXHH^r""*^^ to know how the speak- ) events no self-respected or creditable teacher 
p would address a married lady m a business i would fail to inculcate lessous of moderation 
s answered "Madam, "or I and just self-valuation. His observations 
But bow would you ad- however, taught bim that there was quite as 
much danger of young meu imderrating as 
overrating themselves, and that it was import- 
ant that those who had the means of measur- 
ing their own worth should not hold them- 
selves too cheaply. 

Mr. G. H. Shattuck thought that though 
there were fewer colleges now than formerly, 
they turned out young meu more capable in 
every particular to enter business than ever 
I The Hon. Ira Mayhei 
esty to be taught as an 
of a business curriculum, 
I if young men expected 

, ., , — o--- The gentle- 
man scarcely thought a salutation necessary 
m that cose and would drop it. A great 
many suggestions were offered, when a gen- 
Ucmau arose on the other side of the room 
and miplored the brethren not to get mixed 
up on I he womau question. It was afterward 
agreed by the majority that ■' Dear Madam - 
would answer all necessary purposes. The 
discussion was participated in by Messrs. T. 
i.. HiU of Chicogo. Wright of Brooklyn, and 
A, P. Root of Cleveland ^ 

advocated mod- 
mportant feature 
He thought that 


"The place of busines: 
educational system " was i 

" opened by Mr. _ ,. 

He thought that The btisrni 
veryjmportant plai 

i ouly a thorough 

colleges in the 
topic for I 

Buffalo, K y'"""' 
colleges held 

educational system. 

merly taught exclusively __ 

being introduced „„„ ^^, 

the normal and high schooli 

»- . - ^""Ks "-e said of our colleges 

which are not true, a^■^ — ■■•^■■-- ^"t"'?'^" 

ought not to be. Som^ 

they bhould prepare then 
valuable services. 

.. ^,^ _, , Further discussion was participated 

0. Bryant of ' ^^^^"- ^'^^ ^^^ ^- H. Eaton. 

Branches that were for- 
commercial col- 

... , a -.->jed into the pub- 

jlioole, m the normal and ' ' ' 
A great many things are said of , 

»ot true, and prejudices exiiit that 
say they 

A "Lesson in Business Practice" followed 
by Mr. G. W. Elliott, teacher in the Metro- 
politan Business College of Chicago. 

which is given i 

It is related that on one occasion Agassiz 
was let dowu several hundred feet into a crev- 
ice of the glaciers of the Alps by his attend- 
ants. When he gave the sigual to be with- 
drawn they were startled, and he too, no 
doubt, with the atuaziug fact that they were 
powerless to do so They had not taken into 
considerutiou the weight of the rope. Miles 
had to be traveled to obtain leverage with 
which loelevatt the imperiled .\gassiz. There 
is up and down in the scale of morals as well 
as finance. Man hves in three realms — the 
financial, intellectual, and moral. The words 
solvency and insolveucy are by no means 
meaningless when applied to the moral realm. 
"Two things," said Emanuel Kent, "fill me 
with awe — the starry heaveus and the moral 
responfibility of man," Well maj- this dis- 
tinguished philosopher make this grand ut- 
terance wheu we reflect upon the fearful 
chances taken in ibe career of an earthly life. 
Looking upon society we observe some going 
up, others going doffn in the moral scale. 
Between the relations in the financial and 
moral realms we observe pecuUar analogy. 
Almost every question of the one. I beheve. 
may be argued on the ground of the other. 
The potential facts of the finaucial are loss 
and gain ; those of the moral ai-e wrong and 
right. It is by the obaervauce of profit and 
loss that man obtaius povr<rty or wealth ; so is 
it by right or wrong man attains poverty or 
wealth of soul. All men recognize these moral 
distinctions; they are no more slow to discern 
the distinctions between wrongand right than 
between loss and gain. In fact, the ideas of 
right aud wrong are innate or conuate in all 
minds, and are asupreme revelation, the same 
as all inteutions. But one must make a dis- 
tinction between the ideas aud iheir applica- 
tions in given cases. Men do not differ as to 
the universality of these ideas, but only in 
)heir iucamations into deeds and acts. Rea- 
son discerns tue right and wrong, the true 
and the false, the beautiful and the reverse. 
They belong to the class of first truths, as 
"personal existence and identity, of time and 
space, of number, cause and mathematical 
relation. " 

Manhasamoral sense ; hebasaconscieoce. 
He knows what ie right and what is wrong for 
better than he is disposed to obey. ' 'An ounce 
of self surrender to truth already possessed," 
says Cook, "is worth a planet's weight of 
truth not transmuted into deeds. " Man knows 
the right aud yet pursues the wrong. Jeremy 

that "whosoever 

the lips of a blazing can- 
al systenj 

regard in the student 


against light kii 
non." The central fact of the 
is the graud imperative " Ought," and 
ue " is the central word of the financial sys- 
tem. Out of "value" are born debit, credit, 
property, debt, loss, gain, wealth. Out, too[ 
of "ought" in morals come right, wrong, 
character, good or bad. There is something 
in us, but not strictly of ue, which says " I 
ought." directly in the face of the "I will 
not." This divine "I ought" is the voice of 
conscience, of the God within, as Pope would 
say, I need hardly say here, in the presence 
of this intelligent audience, that it is far safer 
to obey the solemn admouitions of this divine 
monitor. To disobey is evidently to run coun- 
ter to the moral law. The heathen Confucius 
told us, a great many years ago, on the Yel- 
low Sea : "Heaven means principle." It is 
because of this that man has occasion to en- 
tertain fear iu a given line of conduct. Men 
do not sufficiently consider the weight of the 
rope of sin that lets them down into the jaws 
of Gehenna. There is a moral specific gravi- 
ty which we all would do well to heed. The- 
odore Parktr used to say in his absolute re- 
ligion : "Every fall ie a fall upward." Tl is 
would not work well iu the fluaueial rea'm, 
nor will it in the moral. Is every fall a fail 
upward in the financial realm ? Is a fall iuto 
financial insolvency a fall upwards into the 
lap of wealth? By no means. Every wrong 
of the moral law that encir- 
Wrong acts precipitate 

cles the eternities, 
the soul downward ; right acts tend 
it. Man is a responsible being. 


would not W.e. boy i^toiViT^rorrSoTai ^ro^ecU, 
come froma busmess coUege. They gener- T Mr. H. 
aUj know loo much and are altogether too I discuLiioD. 

gularity, . , 

what the real merit of the jc 
habiu do much to either make c 

Mr. H. C. Wright and othera foUowed i 

Man creates his own weal or woo ; he is arch- 
itect of his own destiny. Personal quahtiea 
But I wpuld say, that 
ai8 jT^ ■ ■ ■■ ■ - 

rapidly, he is making character. Moral 
standing must be judged of from the righta 
aud wrongs of a life. It is the opinion of the 
best ethical scholars that character tends to a 
final permanence. Who knows but this may 
be so? Certain it is that hosts of financial 
insolvents never escape. Out of all the fail- 
ures of merchants and others in Boston and 
New York, many years ago, only two or three 
per cent regained solvency, says Freedley. 
How about moral insolvents? How about 
the Nerod and Caligulas of the world? Dof-s 
lago or Mephistopheles repent ? What says 
L, Macbeth? 

'but, damned spot! Out. I say! Here's 
the smell of the blood still. All the perfumes 
of Arabia wUl not sweeten this little hand," 

Suppose the wrongs of a Ufe far outw^^igh 
the rights of a whole life ; what is the state of 
that man ? We know very well the state of 
that man who has met with more financial 
losses than gains in a busiuess career. 

EtbicA IN the bcieoce of morals, and tuaj . mind of olhtre. To hare acqaired gritt ' The following resolution was then offered : 
and sboald be tanfjht iu a bMiness colli-ge. wealth in the opinion of many is to have made | irA<frMjt. Many vogue, erroneous, and fre- 

Du I hear yon nay. Lft the cohbltT sti " . . - ~ . 

bifl hurt I At fitor ultra ertpiiUtm. We 
9 Rtndy of these ethical laws. Bui 

men need it, and shall I add politi 

DOt politico being tumt-d into merchandise, biUiardist, or to own the fnste: 

and honor sold in Coogrpanional halls, and constituU^ the fullness 

Tirtue upon our streets? Will all the perfumes of many. Whilethere 

of Arabia aweeten the characters of some of op: 

desired. To have m'8-ed , quently unjust impressions exist regarding 
wealth but to have gained literary fame would the condition and proper claims of so-called 
constitute success with others. To be an ex- I business colleg<^8 and the educational work 
pert wrestler, the champion oarsman, the best i which they assume : therefore. 

ch a wide variety of 

itessuccees. we will 

of my hear- 

the«e? Theroiaapossibilityof three failui 

in life— the financial, the intellectual, tbe 

moral — but the greatest of them all is in the 

moral, since thereby man comes short of those . , . . j * „ i « v 

treasures of which, when a ctrtain grand per- >? he who has secured, at the close of his 
Bonag« spoke, "He spake as never man tmty, sufficient to comfortably provide for 
aoake ' the needs of bimself aud family, who has gone 

Mr.' Shattuck, of New York, gave an int«r- , through life 'Doing toothers as he would have 
estingand instructive lesson in penmanship, i others do to him ; who has to the letter dis- 
the members *• silting as an advanced class.' charged every obligation, radiated sunshiue 
_ all along his career, has reared a family to 

AFTEBNOos HE>i8ioN, honorable manhood, bos been on exemplary 

Tbe convention was again called to order at citizen, and has made the world some better 
8 o'clock. Mr. H. B. Bryant, of Chicago, one I for haviuR passed through it. Whilethere are 
of tbe original founders of Iho Bryant A Strat- different degrees of successful nchievement, 
ton Colleges, opened as the topic for discussion (he man who accomplishes this is fairly enti- 
the titled to honest praise, and his life may be de- 

nominated a success. Men should not fail in 
business. If they do, the fact indicates en*ore 
committtfd, which, if understood, might have 
verging been avoided. There comes a period of yeaif 

; »,;..i, ti.^.A ;„ -••'■nd prosperity, but thiw 

_ ike the iiftuens^e drive- 

grcarVystem orin8tnictro"n"whi"c'h"mauy of wheel of the machine which is propelled by n 
those present represent, and about which we beavy force of steam withouta regulator Ihe 

' - ■ ■■ r.,1 _. iM..i_ propelling power kept at its full head, the 

wheel starting slowly, grows gradually more 

rnpid, the velocity quickens, grows faster and 

f ■ ( r iii:(!l it '\^ only a question of time when 

■ ■' ■ I'ioces aud the machine be a 

II Iri' comes a period like this the 

.;.-i.,. I] I ^^reed of men carries them for- 

viicl viiLi .TLi-li reckless velocity as to cause 

linly fi commercial revolution, in which 

numbers go down into the 

Mr. Bryant said : "Considered 
with business education, an in 
CD Bacrednces clusters about this pli 

the pla. 

'st«m of statistics adapted 

hich these institutions 
and their work should be assigned in the im- 
partial judgment of the community. 

The resolution was adopted and the com- 
mittee appointed as follows: Messrs. B. C. 
Spencer of Milwaukee, E. K. Bryan of Col- 
umbus, and T. M. Peirce of Philadelphia. 

Mr. J. E. Soule, of Philadelphia, then read 
several advertisements of "alleged'' business 
colleges, offering flattering inducements to 
young men to become students. Mr. Soule 
condemned, in a severe manner, such adver- 

The Association next proceeded lo the 

have met to consult. That 
than a ^narter of a century ago. Small was 
the beginning, modest the anticipations, mid 
unwearied tbe endeavor to do w-^IJ .. liii ^ i- 
undertaken." AfterdwcUing sonj ■'. 
the history of commercial collcg.- i 

necessity for every businessman k. UiMr.ii. i,n 
understand his business, he said: ' L.i. b 
center of business is a moohftDiflra with many 
a cog and wheel, forming'a harmonious whole. 
Knowledge of this mechanism and ability to 
form part of it cannot be picked up, as the 
saying is. It must be learned os a foreign 
tongue or an abstruse science is. Our mission 
in life is to teach the young idea how to do 
busiupRB." He gave many good sound ideas 
in rogord to the manner of instruction, and 
closed by paying a compliment to P, R. 
Spencer, who hnd been hisaesociate in found- 
ing the college, aud to others in the profes- 

Mr. Packard said that the speaker had men- 
tioned one word which had been escaping the 
fonsidcrafiou of the association, and that was 
the making of experts in the various depart- 
raenta of business life. There was a growing 
demand for persons who knew jnore than 
dinary pereom 

bjects. Ill 
like to iiear from Mr. D. T. Ames ou the sub- 
ject of 


In response to which call Mr. Ames said 
that he had given considerable attention to 
the subject of expertism in houdwritiug. 
There was great need and frequent demaud 
for it. He hud been called in many coses of 
forgery, imitation, etc. He had been fre- 
quently' called upon during the past ten years 
to appear before courts in thai capacity. To 
be on expert one must watch closely the hab- 
its of pprsons. Pfculiarities go to determine 
tbe rci'OBuition of handwriting. Everyone in 

writing has peculiar habitual characteristics, 

whii'Ii lie can no more lay aside or conceal 

than ho can his own pbisiognomy, and by ex- 

omininy those oritieally it was almost impos- 
sible for a person to escape his identity. A 

pirriion might try to disguise his writing, by 

writing back handed, or otherwise, but he 

will leave his tracks behind by which he 

moy be identified. He gave some illustrations 

on the black-board. 

Mr. Poirce was not very clear whether they 

could make on expert in handwriting 

oounta; but he was clear in his mind that : useless for him 

He spoke of the men who did business largely 
■edit. ■' Whenever," said he, "a man in- 
a debt he makes o bet. He bets 
that he can pay the debt. He takes risks, 
and if he has certainties behind him he may 
ife. But observation proves that if he 
forms a habit of thus taking chances, through 
fortunate investments at first, the scale is very 
likely to turn against him in the end. Over- 
speculation is sure to bring its inevitable re- 
sults." The address throughout was full of 
wise Buggfttionr, and was received with ap- 

In the remarks ou the topic presented by 
Mr, Hill, Mr. Folsom said that he also be- 
lieved in the old Bible doctrine to '■ owe no 
man anything," but that it was impossible to 
do business without credit. It it were pos- 
sible to do cash business it was the better 

Mr. Spencer, of Milwaukee, thought Web- 
ster's definition of credit about correct. He 
knew of many men who w^re possessed of 
any amount of business etiquette who were 
unable to pay their debts, many he had 
known of settling their debts by notes. He 
was a strong believer in etiquette, 

Presidtmt Packard came down from the 
chair aud said that he always liked to bear 
Mr. Spencer talk. It produced a double ef- 
fect upon him. Wht-n he was talking he 
wished he would never stop, and yet when 
he got through he always wanted to say some- 
thing in reply. He thought Mr. Hill's paper 
one of the most interesting of the sesson. 
He thought etiquette ought to be used in all 
relotions of life, especially in the matter of 
collecting debts. He recollected a case a few 
years ago of a man who was indebted 

jrjr buiiness college should have an expert 
in the chair. The capabilities ot the student 
to study was what would determine whether 
he would become an expert or not. He de- 
mouKtrated how students co\ild be taught to 
become experts in accounts. One way to 
make expert book-keepers was a thorough 


business college, and another w 
ipittoon washer and 
■king up. He related incidents of graduates 

who discovered errors in books, and gave 
his idea of teaching them how to do this by 
mixing up the accounts and have them to un- 
ravel thorn, showiuf; them how it ought to 
have been done and how it was done. 



K'ht I 

t few very 
se of busi- 
uy dii)lomas 


in text-books 
l»il \v;nit''ii iljt' stiiili'nt to have practice, i 
not uTitil he became expert should he be gi< 
a diploma. 

Mr. Wright and Mr. Spence 
remarks ou the subject. 



of $4. At the first of each 

month the man was duly notified by a bill of 

his indebteduess. He grew tired of this and 

wrote Mr. Packard a letter, stjitiug that it was 

ding the bills, 

with the following result : President, Mr, 
Thomas M. Peirce, of Philadelphia ; Vice- 
Presidents, Messrs. R. C. Spencer, of Mil- 
waukpe, nnd Frank Goodmnn, of Nashville, 

T,.„„.-^.-- ^.■■■r-l'irv nn.l Tr-n-Mr-r, Mr. J. 

niortt advisabl.' placi' to hold the convention 
of 1880. President S. S. Packard of New 
York, favored holding it in some city where 
the press is fully represeutf d, Chicago was 
chosen as the place to hold the convention 

offered the following 

Jlr. T. M. 
resolution : 

Hemlvi'd, That the thanks of this Associa- 
tion are due and are hereby tendered to the 
Cleveland local committee, consisting of 
Messrs. P. II. Spencer. A. P. Root, and E. 
R. Felton, for the eminently satisfoctory 
rangements made by them for thi 
meeting of this Association 

which each 

Mr. G. II. Shiittuck. also moved that the 
thanks of this convention be tendered to the 
press of Cleveland for its full and 

The motions 

Mr. Packord, chairman of the committee on 
the Abrogation of "Days of Grace," made 
the following report: The committe to whom 
was referred the matter of touching the cus- 
tom of adding days of grace to the prescribed 
diite of payment of commercial paper, re- 
spectfully report that there can be no good 
reason for such custom either in finance or 
morals ; that it is one of those strange sole- 
cisms that, like the tautological verbiage of 
legal documents, hns grown out of conditions 
aud necessities of a primitive state of society 
which does not now exist; that the very 
phrase " flays of grace" conveys a confession 
of doubt and weakness upon the part of the 
debtor.ond a loose habit of commercial deal- 
ing ; that it is a difficult thing to explain to 
students or to reconcile with strict principles 
of business and integi'ity 

partners where their withdrawals had been 
unequal, which elicited warm debate. Mr. 
Wright maiutiiiuing there was no gain iu bus- 
iness until interest had been allowed on capi- 
tal and also salary for the proprietor. 

At 12 M. the president. S. S. Packard, of 
New York, gave a lecture on "The Theory of 
Acquisition." |He said there was no sub- 
ject of more importance to the human race, 
and none which more nearly concerned the 
;tudeut of accounts. The fundamentid idea 
of business wa^ the acquisition of wealth; 
and to properly understand business the vari- 
ous forces in acquisition must be brought into 
relief. These forces ore easily and naturally 
classified. First is human effort, whether of 
hand or brain, which was called serckt, or 
labor. This effort is, directly or indirectly, 
productive of value, aud in either case, meets 
with compeasatiou and is hence a force iu 
acquisition. Next is the service rendered by 
capital, in connection with labor, for which 
compensation is rendered to the owner of 
capital ; and next is the difference between 
the cost and production of property bought 
to sell, netting a gain to the dealer. The 
first of these forces he would designate as 
labor, the second as T(nt, and the third asex- 
c/uingc. These three ore the main instru- 
mentalities relied upon in business to pi*oduce 
wealth. Beyond these are gift and ciroum- 
stirnce which may be called involuntary 
forces; as they cannot be statedly employed 
nor relied upon, but nevertheless exist. 

At the conclusion of the lecture Mr. Pack- 
ard proposed to fill out the remainder of the 
hour in disposing of the two other topics 
that hnd been assigued him: "School Dis- 
cipline," and " The relation of the College to 
its Graduates." Under the first topic, he 
would lay down as a principle that the first 
thing to accompUsh was to put the student in 
complete harmony with his surroundings, to 
inspire him with the thought that he is a. part 
of the institution, quite as essentialin his place 
as the teacher is in his ; that his rights and 
privileges ore sacred and inalienable, and that 
whatever regulations it was deemed best to 
enforce were primarily for his benefits^ — to 
secure to him that for which he has paid. He 
would base all discipline upon the broad 
ground of securing equal justice to nil, aud 
would enforce it unswervingly and without 
reference to persons. Iu connection with his 
general remarks he displayed a perfected sys- 
tem of seif-government which he had prac- 
ticed for the past few years with marked 
success, under which the student could not 
evade writing his own history and making up 
the schedule of his own character. In par- 
ticular, he inveighed against the loose prac- 
tice of giving '■ letters of reccommendatiou " 
to students uot deserving them, or even any 
letters that did not state tbe exact facts as to 
the individual character aud attainments; 
and he exhibited a " schedule of character" 
drawn from his own records which plainly 
indicate the superior points of his system. 

' * ' its 

and that was, under no circumstances could a 
college rid itself of sympathy with, or respon- 
sibility for its graduates. In au important 

sound 1 

for the practic 
ud thit iu our opin 
to do away with so 

that a:^ s 


that he could not 

I of etiquette, stating 

money, but that it was one of his rules to send 
out his bills on the first of each month, and 
he might look for one at that time so long as 
they both should live. He continued to send 
out the bills, and the result was that at the 
expiration of two years he received the 
amount with interest to date, and money for 
the postage. He told many other anecdotes 

of the great advantages of etiquette, 

The Association adjou 
in the evening, at which 
came together for soeiti 
was improved to the int 
of all present. 

7:30 o'clock 

the members 


and advantage 

Tbe first topic for discu 

and the spirit and 

Thomas E. Hill, author of "HiU's Manual these instituUons shall set forth their claims 
of Social and Business Forms," of Chicago. ; for patronage and support, opened by Mr. 
then opened as the topic of discussion, "Eti- I E. K. Bryan of Columbus, C, whospoke of the 
quette-ll<i uses and benefits among men in need of these institutions throughout the land 
lh.> buMnofis relations of life." Mr Hill sta- and the value they were in educating and 
tfd that he would speak of the many things , fl">"g Jo^ig men for business by a thorough 
whiohthebroodmeauingofeUquette covered. I training on the subject, rhe discussion wa* 
He spoke of successes in life and the many mdulged m by Messrs, Robert C. Spencer, 

■ of success. "What is success or fail- <>■ '^^ Elliott, Henry 0. Spencer and T. M, 

the opinion of sozie is not bo in the j Peirce. 

lo uot feel authorized to 
suggest any plan iu detail, but would suggest 
that, under the authority of this association, 
correspondence be opened with eminent men 
in the councils of the Nation, with a view to 
bringing the matter before Congress, or if it 
shall be decided that the reform must come 
from the States, to take the necessary steps 
to awaken such general and particular inter- 
est in the subject as to move the different 
State Legislatures to enact local laws which 
shall forever dn away with days of grace. 

Your committee would suggest that no men 
or association of men can with more propri- 
ety or efficiency move in this matter than 
those whose work it is to qualify young men 
for business; and they feel confident that if 
wise and prudent steps be taken, the proper 
energy and persistence used, the proposed 

The school could no 
more' ignore or disinherit him than coidd a 
father his son. Aud this fact should be a key 
to the entire line of thought and conduct re- 
Hpecting the school family. 

Mr. Packard's remarks were received with 
great applause, and at the close of it the con- 
vention adjourned until 3 P. M, 

form may be put in the c 

e of final acheiv- 

President S. S. Packard spoke in, favor of 
the organ of the association "The Penman'i 
Art Journal," published by D. T- A 
New York. 

Thomas M. Peirce, of Philadelphia, movec 
that the next convention be held on Tuesday, 
the 24th day of July. 

Mr. H. C. Spencer moved, that 
the sittings of the conventi 
three days instead of four, 
with but one dissension. 

Mr. H. 0. Wright of Brooklyn, next gave 
a technical lesson on ■■ Partnerships Settle- 
ments," which Wiis received with great inter- 
est and attention. He said partnership set- 
tlement did not simply employ the di 
of gains and los-ses among parti 

) heor H- C. Spencer of Wash- 
ington, givea lesson in penmanship, illustrated 
by class drill in movements and exercises. 
The speaker explained, in a few prefatory re- 
marks, that be did not intend to discuss orna- 
mental but business penmanship. To acquire 
it a good hand training was absolutely necessa- 
ry. It was universally acknowleded necessary 
in surgery, drawing, pointing, reading, and 
yet there were people who maintained that a 
good hand could not be taught. Mr. Spencer 
went on to explain the 

the straight line, the right and left curves, 
the loop, with its various combinations, Ac. 
and then gave several examples of the differ- 
ent movements necessary to form them. The 
lesson, which occupied one hour, wa^xceed- 
ingly interesting and receive^ a great deal of 
attention throughout. [ 

The president read a communio|ition from 

of I Mr. Edwin Cowles, publisher of Thf Leader, 

to the members of the convention, invitiug 

them to visit his office and view his press at 

be Umited to 
t was carried 


Hon. Ira Maybew of Detroit, Mie 

an essay on " Business Practice." Thespeak- 

er dwelt upon the importance of a thorough 

business character to everyone. A knowledge 

of business would often prevent crime and 

fraud- Many of the great bank failures, the 

too-often recurring cases of defaulting treasu- 

iet- I rers and secretaries, 'and the ruin of large and 

ion once-flourishing houses were often directly 

the traceable to a want of knowledge, on the part 

and lio- I of some one in authority, of the firut principles 

ui..t.c» « Veu" Heshowed very clearly how of book-keeping and business qualifications, 
a net gain or lossin business, may be divided A comu.unication was read from the Brush 
among parties, by analysU. percentage or by I Electric Light Company inviting the members 
proportion. He also gave an illustration of the of the convention to visit the building and 
adjustment of private accounts between two I view th machinery. 


fDtttnic-tion WM condeniitd by the speaker 
with rc-tvrnacf- to the practical operations of 
tbiM brunch of bu»inei«. He reviewed in a 
tone and clear manner the UBiial tmnsactionB 
which occurrpd in buBinesH. beginning with 
aimple d«poHitii and withdrawals of money, 
and Ivadioguptolbe more difficult brancbeo. 
At .'. P. M. Frank Goodman of Nashville, 
rt^hd a paper on " Punwanitbip and Teachers' 
InrtitutcM.' Ho Mid thiit he was encouraged 
to bring thin matter before them by the belief 
that it woM of great importance, and that as a 
rnlo too little attention was given to it. The 
plans of instruclion were not uniform, and 
be would like to nee some committee formed to 

now in u*e, especially in reference to the in- 
troduction of the wtbject among teachire. A 
augge«tion was made and agreed to by tbe 
speaker that he Hbould reduce his suggestion 
to a motion and bring it before tbe conven- 
tion on Friday morning. 

C. Cloghorn of Brooklyn then opened a 
disouiwion on "TJie minimum qualification 
which will permit a pupil to graduate from a 
businesK college." He animadverted on the 
pomiciouH «yi»t«m adopted by fiome colleges 
of " rushing " a pupil through in two or three 
months and giving them diplomas. 

Thomas A. Peirce of Philadephia said he 
should like to see some positive legifdation on 
the subject. 

S. 8. Packard would like tc 
strained n some s ch ma ter b t he saw 
great diffi It B n th r way and pnno pa ly 
he did not bel eve that the ed t of 

Mansfield, O.: Mrs.''J. A. Goodman, teachi 
of writing in the public schooU of Parkers- 
burg. Va., and Miss R. H. Smith, teacher, of 
Geneva. O., be admiltted to membership in 
the association without payment of fees, 
which was carried. 

The first subject ou the programme was 
•'Civil government as a subject to be pur- 
sued by busiues-s college students," by R. C. 
Spencer, of Milwaukee. The speaker said 
that iu many half civilized countries where 
the people bad no voice in their government 
it was a matter of indifference to the inhabit- 
ants bow it was conducted, or if they were 
not indifferent th'-.v had im powrr to renn-dy 
the evili* which opprened Ihem. In this fne 
country it is different, and every man and 
woman ought to be familiar with the consti- 
tution of their goveruiug bodies. He roc- 
commended all of them to read the works of 
"that grand Euglishraan. John Stuart Mill." 
especially his "Consideration on Represen- 
tative Govctruraent" and "Liberty." 

Mr. Spencer then dwelt at some length on 
the Constitutions of the States and politics in 
public schools. At the close of the address 
accorded a hearty round of 
) motion of the Hon. Ira 
decided to have it printed 
had reduced it to writing. 
D. T. Ames of New York then gave a les 

of which he 
■ i-.:'ti vh'Tgedby "one of the 
Iciidiuy p«ptre of Cleveland with shovring 
pjipie" because his opening addrees was not 
published so fully in it as it was in the other. 
ThiK he wished most emphatically to deny 
The new president then delivered his open- 
ing address as follows : 

the speaker i 
applause, an 
Mayhew it ■ 
Mr. Spi 

thing in an unlimited amount ; and is so clear- 
ly a tax on intelligence, industry and applica- 
tion for the advoutnge of iguoranct- , idleness 
and inattention : therefore 

KEsoLvtD. that this association cougratw- 
lates itself that so many of itis members have 
diseouliuued tbe sale of Ufe-scbolarsbips ; 
and that Ihe continued use of these scholar- 
pernicious to the student, unprofes 


TBiCBEBa" AND Pbnmes's Associatios : In 
assuming the duties of presiding officer to 
which you have elected me I desire lo thank 
you for the honor you have conferred upon 
me. and to assure you that I will work earn- 
estly and with whatever ability I possess, to 
promote the interests of our association and 
til secure the objects we have in vi,w in meet- 
ing each other iu convention. The business 
collejie is a modem convenience in the edu- 
cational structure in this country. Duff es- 
tablished a mercantile college in Pittsburg, 
Pa., in 1840. Crittenden opened a commer- 
cial college in Philadelphia in 1844. Later on 
there became ideutitied with this department 
of education, Bryaut, Packard, the Spencers. 
Mayhew. FoIkoui and the rest of us. Now 
ihi? number of them in the United States is 
about 125. and tbeir standing is tjiat of re- 
spectable and respected institutions of leam- 
iug. And the tent^hers and princij-als exhibit 

mendable spirit of fraternity and 
tual respect for each oth' 
of the association. The business coUetie is a 
recognized institution for technical-education. 
The kind quality and uses of the education 

the Faculty, -lud degrading to the 


And made a motion that that resolution be 
considered, which he advocated with great 
>mestuess, affirmmg thai such a resolution 
as beyoud the province of the convention, as 
interferes in an unwarranted manuei. with 
the business and rights of several of its indi- 
vidual members, who fiom local causes 
deemed it their interest lo continuf to issue 
uuhmited scholanibips, aud what was 
most annoying to him. several competitors 
had quoted the resolution in their circulars, 
as having the authority of the convention in 
such a manner as to cost odium upon those 
who, for what appeared to then, as good rea- 
sons, continued to issue such scholarships. 
After some rather spirited debate pro and con, 
the motion to reconsider was caiTicd. on the 
of the cou- 
!lly opposed to Ihe gen- 
g life-scholarships hut that 
its disfavor should be expressed rjither as a 
sentiment than by an authoritative resolution. 
Amoti'nwas then made and carried thiit a 
committee of three be appointed to tousider 
the subject of life-scholarships and report at 
the next annual convention. The following 
gentlemen were appointed : W. H. Buff, C. 
Clagborn.L. L. Sprague. 

E. K. Bryan, of Columbus, O., then offered 
the followiui; resolution, regarding the legal 
methods uo\\ in use for 

ground that the average 
rol policy of 

1 Pknman u Ah Jo 

ation such as this could or would govern i 
dividual teachers. He did not wish to s 
that nothing coiUd be done by them to \ 
down these charlatan schools but it must Ue 
done individually. 

Hev. L. L. Spraguu, of Kingston, thought 
that they must rely more ou 

and good sense of the community at hirge 
than ou any special legislation. 

C. E, Olaghoru of Brooklyn and S. S. Cal- 
kins of (Mevuland spoke in the same strain. 

Mr. Thomas M. Peirce of Philadelphia of- 
fered as a resolution that Messrs. C. E, Clag- 
horu, B. Wright, aud Rev. L. L. Sprague be ap- 
pointed a committee to prepare a resolution 
ou the subject and that they report the same 
Friday morning. The motion w^ carried 

various members gave short autobiogra- 
phicul sketched of their lived. Among the 
many interesting ones Pniuk Goodman of 
NoshviUe. Teun. gave the mast checkered 
history of himself. Prank was one of the 
boys that the old folks generally look down 
upon in holy horror aud predict for them a 
place in the State prison or an early hang- 
ing — one of the bad boys, iu fact, whose 
large combativeness and a desire to have their 
own way get them numerous punishments. 
Mr. Goodman spoke of the good which a 
course at the Bryaut A Stratton College of 
Cleveland did him when financially a wreck 
aud u stranger. After various combats with 
hard luck and misfortune he is now the pro- 
prietor of the Commercial College in Nash- 

I been denominated ornamental penmanship I 
had consisted chit-fly of fiourished quills, ea- 

; gles. birds, dragons, and noiidesfript dfsigns 
of no practical value or utility save as a means 
of displaying skill in wielding the pen. or. by 
the writing master, for attracting patrons, for 
practical writing. The recently discovered 
photographic process by which pen and ink 
copies were transferred directly to stone and 
printed fts a lithograph, or to a metal relief 
plate and printed upon a common prt ss, the 
same as type, has opened a new and important 
field to all really skillful pen artists, one in 
which is ample promise for honorable and 
profitable labor ; by these methods the pen- 
man is enabled to enter upon the domain of 
tbe engraver, and shares largely his honor 
and recompense; but to do this he must be- 
er me indeed a skilled master of his art . Many 
practical hints uere made with illustrations 
upon the black board regarding engrossing 
and designing complicated specimens of pen 

The various processes, of reproducing draw- 
ings and their requirements were explained. 
He believed that tbe profession of penman- 
ship was an honorable and profitable one to 
all who could vindicate their skill as able and 
successful teachers of writing, or as accom- 
plished artists. 

Individuals and professions are valued nnd 
honored by society according to their claims 
for services rendered, and moral ond social 
worth. If penmen would be highly honored 
and paid, they must prove themselves highly 
honorable and useful. 

ell ascertained and accurately known. The 
iriouB Bubj'-cts taught are presented to its 
udentsin an applied form largely enhancing 
H'ir vnhie. To acquire the best methods of 

■n'ltii>-.' the t't;-;nipss branches, and to in- 

.-. ii, !. 1:1 1— nf the various institutions 

11 iM connected, to impart a 

ill ;iud useful business educa- 



i of ' 

With your hearty co-operation I feel that I 
can safely promise you a reasonable measure 
of success in securing these desirable objects. 
Trusting that the kind spirit and intelligent 
devotion which my predecessors have fouud 
existing among you may still continue to be 
manifested by you, I fondly hope to secure a 
profitable, pleasant and agreeable meeting of 
the laborers in the walks of business educa- 
tion at Chicago next year. 

I cordially invite to that meeting all busi- 
nes.s college teachers, priocipalsand managers, 
and all penmeu to take counsel each with 
the other, and thus by discussion and teach- 
ing to have each individual member obtain 
clearer views of the work before him. and 
larger power and greater ability lo perform it. 


Lime hiiving now arrived for the trans- 

of general business. Mr. Wilham H. 

)f Pittsburgh. Pa., urged upon the 

of the convention the unwise and un- 

taken by the 

At 11 A. M. the installation of officers was 
proceeded with ; the newly elected president. 
Mr. Thomas M. Peirce. of Philadelphia, was 
escorted to the chair, and the retiring officer, 
Mr. Packard, made a few remarks eulogistic 

'garding the plan of 
bich was t;mbod- 
■d in the following resolutions : 
Wbkreab, The plan of selling "life-scboL 
orships," or giving tuition throu{,'h an unlim 
ited time for a ^ven known number of dol- 
lars, which plan was adopti d by business col- 
leges at their iuceptions, rest upon such an uu- 
bufiiness-like principle — the giving of some- 


otPK of partial pRjiije 



ul. was car- 

riill ■ 


UFAs, What is know 

,1. r.d hazanloiis 

1 1- ranged bu^iiieh 

Ihertfore. that 

i , nniimittee of thr 



ir aritlmic- 

sk ot the 

lij.rt aud report at 

ext annual 



that shall in. 

duce tlie borrower to piiy pri 


and reudev 

Ih«, ll 

zardotih Ihe rifk of ti 


er do ju.. 

tice t< 

both parties and^iit 





iniittee appoiuted^Rs 



nryan, A. 

D. W 

It and W. H. Sprague 


report of the C'ouii 


which had ben. ir 

\ n lunnd, 

was then referred to, ml 

!i 't:, r in. 


ed toaet as th. -. ■ 

1 ..linn 

Ihe spirit of the resoliil 

, .ill. niu 


, and report at tli^ :: -. ....^n.u. 


.solution was th.-i, lui 

d by E. G. 

Polsoiu, of Albany. N. V. , t 


gc the 


the ■•Busiuem Colh' 



aehers' and 

Peumen's Association " to that of the "Busi- 
iness Teachers' Association," which was re- 
ferred to the following committee ; E.* G. 
Folsom. Ira Mayhew, H. C;. Wright. 

Mr. Frauk Goodman, of Nashville, intro- 
duced the following resolution, wliiuh was 
unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee of three be 
appoiuted to present to this association a plan 
of instruction in writing best adapt*'d to teach- 
ers' institutes ; also to report some plan by 
which the penmen of this association who are 
willing to assist these institutes may become 
known to the State Superintendent of Public 
Education of tbe States wherein the penmen 
reside; and that the State Superiutendenls 
may notify such penmen as to the time and 
place of meeting of the institutes, and theru- 
by briup about a co-operation betwei 

1 aud represt 

The foilowLiig r..sohitiou offered by J. E. 
Soule of Phila.. was unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That we hereby pledge oui-selves 
individually and collectively to use our best 

endeavors to promote the interes 

t^ of The 

Resolved, Tnat its publisher 

ud editor. 

Mr. D. T. Ames, will confer a fav 

r upon us 

byiudicating. a', bis pleasure andco 


ways and means by which we can 

best sup- 

d encourage his effort*. 

Resolved. That the sum of oue hundred 
dollars be and is hereby appropriotcd from 
the treasury of this association to be paid to 
D. T. Ames to defray the expense of publish- 
ing the proceedings of this convention in the 
Penman's Aet Joubnal. 

Mr Thomas E, Hill, of Chicago, author of 
Hill's Manual of Social and Business Forms, 
then gave a lesson iu writing. The speaker 
gave an interesting description of his mana- 
gement of classes and the technical diffi- 
culties to be overcome in acquiring a good 

Mr. Hill's address was replete with ],ractical 
and useful hints upon the methods of otgau- 
izing and conducting writing classes, and was 
received with well merited applause, after 
which the convention adjourned for on© year. 

Ilcnjamfo Rusink, Gibbfiville. Wia., Kends 
very creditalilc specimenB of writing sod 


Willium RhosidtK. oani writer, at licnd- 
intf. Pit.. ncncLi rtcvcral nttntt-tivc upccimcnit 
of card writing. 

A. K. Dewhurnt, I'lica. N. V.,HeQ<lsft 
very KrscefuIIy-cxtciiltd iipccimcD of Hour- 
JNlitn^ in form of a bird and surrotiDding 

P. B. Hiirdin. Ciinntlton, Ky.. forwarde 
u imckiiKc of writing and Hourislilng. wliieli 
evince inor.- tlian unnnunl sltill in the use of 
tlie jM-ii, Tlie writing especially is very 

French, the principal and proprietor, is u 
most geoinl and accomplished gentleman. 

A. J. Warner, the accomplished principal 
of the Elmira Business College, has recently 
taken a partner, if not to share the rc*pou- 
wihirities, of his IiuHinex!*, his joys and— 
ell. we .trust no sorrows— the new firm 

paid uei aVisit u few dayi 
turn from a honeymoon trip in Now Eng- 
land; we wish them the most abundant 
l)roHperity and happiness. 

Z. T. Loer, who has taught writing and 
dniwin^ in the Normal Seliool at Lebanon, 
()., dunni; the past eight years, will travel 

ind t 

ling year. 

JoH<iili Fr.tlier, .Ir.. Ashland. Pn., Hend« 
Iiliototrrajiliie copy of an original deK.t;i 

■ I 'he Polish Ian 

played mwe than 

ordmii'H Pn 
eh lie I 

skill an<l i 

.• both 

P. W. II. Wi. 

design and 
:lm.l of 

itognipliic riY 

»eute.l by III , 

i' skill in design and c 

especially, h 
'tion with the pun 
Illy haa few rivals 

Idom equaled 

(t. W. Mieliael. who conducts 
for pbiin and ornuinental penmanship 

neat f.,in-pii-e pHper. Professor iUcbiU-l 
if. one of our wide-awake and successful 
leaelier.s (if writing. • 

.1. .^I. Melian, who haa taught writing, 
drawing and book-keeping, in the Publi 
Schools, at Crcston, Iowa, during tin 
year has been engaged to continue b 

of 'JostoD lias been a 
• office during the past 
have the * " 
profession at heart 

a wide range of infonnnti 
iship, and b" 

experience and qualitication foi^his rcspon- 

The special penmanship department 
established last year, by .1. E. Sonic, Presi- 
dent of the Brvant and Stratton Business 
Cnlk-ne. Philade'lphia. Pa., assisted bv H. 
W. Flickinger. has proved, as it eminently 
deserved, a complete success. Both Mes^^rs. 
Soule and Flickinger possess peculiar 
skill as pen arti-sts and instructors in all de 
partments of penmanship. Such a depart- 
ment under their charge could only fail of 
success, from a want of knowledge of it.s 
existence, and proper appreciation on Ihe 
part of the public. There are two other 
excellent penmen, Messrs. T. .1. Prickett 
and H. Y. .Stoner. connected with this 

11. B, Bryant of Chicago, of t]w ohi lirm 

of Bryant and Strattqn. v.-ho \.» - !;in. 

past has beendisconnecte-i h m i. <'..-. 

so, Bryant and Stratton C>>'.] 

ly associated with him hi- -—n u ,ii ., mi 
resumed the management ol iJt;ii n 
Young Mr. Bryant has recently gnuiu 

rd University, and will l)e i 
to his father, whose long e 
"" ■ Colleges 

Soule & Flickinger. 



Tliorongli inatr 

'en.t>r»wiog, l 
•e parUcnlar a 

I partlcolarB will 1 


CHILDREN WILL READ. Tlic qiif-Btiou 

y\h-\\. formerly connected with the 
>. Out., Business College, has been 
1 .1 lo rake charge of the netual husi- 

teacher ol "riiim;, iit. (iiiskeli's Business 
College. Manchester. >i. H.. September Isl. 
He has fvw equals for graceful, rapid, off. 

11, S. Packani. of the flrn 
Hutlwr. designers, enijravers 
era. Philiidelpln,, 1':, , i;,v 

of Packard & 
nut! lithograph- 
n.i lis with a 

the VM . Mnducietl by U. C. 

Keiiil.i M, - , we found him hard 

at wnii,. ui .11 -|" , iriiciia of penmanslup; he 
is a skillful :in(l pojuilar penman, and pro- 
bably executes more professional penman- 
ship than any other penman in Boston. 

I. S. Preston now has charge of the pen- 
manship department of French's Business 
College. Boston, Maw. During a recent 

visit to the " Hub " we had the pleasure of Benson J. Losaine. L.L.d' 

visiting that institution, which we found lo- ; Opera House. Smce the death of Mf East' 

■ eated in commodious rooms and apparently man the institution has been conducted by 

enjoying a good <legree of prosperity. Prof. I Mr. E. White, who possesses the requisite 

Mr, Oaskell of the Manchester, N. H. 
Business College report^i a larger attendance 
than before, at this season, in many years. 
He receives pupiU from nearly every State 
in the Union. 

The Metropolitan Business College, Ohica- 
KO, under the charge of Messrs. Howe 
and Powers, has enjoyed an unusual degree 
of succeati during the past year, and has 
an enviable reputation as an efficient 
practical institution. 

The \Ve«t Side Chicago Business College, 
conducted by J. J. Soiider. is also well 

The SpHiicerian Business College, Cleve- 
'iini M by Piatt R. Spencei " 
ivedly prosperous colleges, 
' • 1 ; i" It- are excellent, and 
■iMv ;,. a H,.,i p. R. Spencer, is the pr 

energetic young man. and 
do liis best to n 
Mr. Goodman \\w 
at the late ."^essioi: 
Teachers" and Pei 

The twentieth 
man Business C 
Y., will be celelir 

lOth insLs. On \\ . ; . . ,1^. ii,,. 

nth. willbea r. r. ,. : , ,, . ,i, „. ,. .,i 

Mrs. Eastman ; i.n i i.^ii -.i.,> iin l^lll uili 
be a grand eonceii lu Lh. ClAU;..- Hall, by 
the College Band ; ou Friday irvcuing the 
19th will be the Anniversary address, by 

O t Y _,.:_- r T r. - ColHngWOOd 

s Association, 



Let tie Ea|lfi Scream. 


D. 8. pATEjrx Orncc, Wasbiwoioii. D, C^) 
Jima l», 18T9. / 
IIkkbt W, Ellhwobtb: Sib— Tour »pi>Hc»ttOD tor 
ft pbUot (of IiiriiorBicBitT w Copt Boom bM been 
ouuDtnad and kllownl. _Vott reiipeclfnll]r,_ 

H. B. PAINE, Com. < 
To Uvt Ttaeitf-Ti. ScAeoI 0£U»r« and Vu Publiei— 
Nlinplirying »nil Adaptlns Wrttlnjf «nd Wrttti 



LeltefioB Tablet 




Common School i^iit'on sinnis ^nd D-ubie 

nnl'i'i" ' I -' \ditpted by tbe besl 

Elemcntiirv ' " r..>iible Entry: prm 

niTTy .i- I J.I.I ,;:„M..,i,,i.n, two colors; pl»l 

Commercial iwition, Donbio sud siugi 

try, ror Oitninerci&l DepbrtinonU, Ac&demlHB. 

Not a Revision, but an Entirely 


Md for pBrtlculMi, BddroB tiie author iiid publiBli- 
or. J. 0. DHYANT, Buffalo N Y. 
Muttbewi Droi. Kud Uryuil'ft PrlntlDg and Pabllalf 

Tl 8 work vervilli nc 1 d Ij ll i ^s profe<^ ona p iin n au\ 

gou r 11^ . I b tb mot cou | r btu ] r I a und u ^ u de o o nam u 

mimship ever puljlisbed Scut, postpnid, to uuj- address on receipt of $5.0U, " 


Tbl« j>opuliir work, whJcb fi 

Ktive typographical 



f public ill:.: , 

l.m Kj s ^ 

<<r tbnii any other work uow boforo tbe public. 

Ivison, Blakemaii, Taylor & Co., 


School Blanks! 

International College Blanks, 

The Bryant & Stratton Blanks. 

Claghorn's Series. 



All the abovD blanks aro aew or recfntly revlnec 
jonutltiilly doBlgoed covers luid ar^eoldatthu ver] 


By 8. R. HOPKINS. 


Parker's Variety Inks. 

ACil'I^.XsS WA.lVTEr>. 

fully written on fiuo brlalo 
par dos. A biNiiitlful apecimen c 

ploa of uiy elegant!)- written ci 

Wleselialiii's Mtnte for Pen Art 

Printers and Penmen's supplies. 

Single or double Snow Flake, 15 

Marble, Comic Hash Fancy £m- 

OrotF«i)iio I>emoQ 10 highly color 
Lithographed Scroll Cnrds SI) va- 
Gupld Motto, Floral Cbromo Cud 
tilU Devel tCdge, cut or square 

6 style's, ' 

>d, White Brielot, with Gill 

a desiring to purchase any kind of Card Stock 
m<i to the N. E. 0. C.—D. T. Ame*. 


What Everybody Wants. 

ExMutr* In the grealcat perfeoQon of tbe Caligiapblc 
Art. and In nr<-«rdi<n<^' «Hth the blgheat order of taaie 
all kitid. of .\rU»tu lVuwau8blp,^acbM RMolullo^ I p^J^^ ^opieii" of ' .Dy""ol tbe'^fo'irdvnuR'pet 

e ppeclniena of penniauahip ever pnbllsl 

V ri>Uowiuu ra(<n pir doz. : Plain ^encerlan, 'i5 

oonta. : peu-f.ourlahe*!. %\. Sample, 35 cents, fi, P. 
SELLKT, aOS BraMcay. N. V. 1-tf 

■Y^AN 81CELES- Praci 


rhe Lord's Prayer 32x28 ii: 

rhe Marriage Certiacite!"..'*."'.".''*'.*l8xa3 Id 

rhe Family hecord 18x22 ii 

S Sp«clu)en SheetaofBngroiulngMoh 11x11 ti 

Artut Penman and Publiabar. 
AcanU wasi«d. a03 Broadway, N. 


clul ttnd Eugl 


chOB, Address. W. H.PEARCR, 


keoplDg and 
eucea given. 

-By a 




uation aa Teacher of Plain and 
Penmanship. Could Basist la 



EDIATELYI By an Eiperienced 
ches. in a good Business College 
(, T. J. SHAKP, Steeles Mills. 111. 



-s-Collegp work. Have taught 
iiiiau-bip, and common English 






The American Centennial. 

price from H to $3, atcordini 



promptly pro. 

p ^v c k: ^V K D ' s 



Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


Forged, Disguised & Anonymoua Writing 


206 Broadway. 


Every letier ia formed complete! and 

The Analytical Alphabet 
As a Self-Instructor, 

the Tablet is obeolutoly perfect, not only teaching thi 

difficulty In executing them. The size of thi 
Tablet IS a>tx8>ft inches, monufaclured irom ealn 

Read the following opinlooB from pcnmou win 

Your Lettering Tablet is received. I am muc] 
pleased with your plan, it is very ingenious. Th 

professional penmen, and will, no doubt, have 

Pbof. O. a. Oaskeli^ Manchester, N, H. 

I have given the Tablet a thorough test and cou 

Pros-, n. McEee, Oberlln, 0. 

Tour Magic Lettering Tablet, received this morn 
inii, is perfectly adapted to >he wants of Artist Pen 

generally known. 

Useful Instruments 

For Penmen and oibers which will be sent postpaid. 

either to enlarge or reduce designs. Arms 24 inch 
long. No penman should bo without one. 

Prt^« fl.OO. 

^T Squore. A very useiul Instrument for penmen 

. yw«.iuu,,ED, .Eij uHi-iujiui- Koiuug curves, 

either simple or compound, for headings. &c., lu sets 

lu. inheigbt'rMp'ectlvely.'"^'' Price pJrsc't.^.' ^'ote. 

r simple o 
1 height re 
, Maple Siralght Edge, oue edge I 

Ornamental Engrossing 


H. AV. IvIUUlO. 

^^' 20 Kemble Street, 


Dest Known. Established. :22'L 

r & Sons wa 

s publislicd in 1857. It wtis engraved on stone friui 1 
no longer possible, a wide and pressing demand wasti 
1 Authors is 1>cjng issued in ten paj-ts, each comprising nine beautiful steel plates, 9 by 12 inches i 

copies, Iiad an cvtensive sale, and 

The engravings are fac-similes from the 

_. jtably the celebrated pen-artist. Lyman P. Spencer. 

5 publication is to ]>re.sent Penmansliip in its highest perfection, widest range and most varied adaptation, 

'ucw^ind b2iVul''e'""'^'l'°'^'-d'''^ engrosser, the engraver, the sign-writer, and all admirers of practical and artistic penmanship will tind delight, inspiration and sub- 
fesucd quarterly, beginning August 1, 1879. •■ Part I." now ready, will be sent postpaid on receipt of .50 cents. 


ViH and 140 Grand Street. New York. 





presiijent of 

The Bryant & Stratton 


AcrlptloD tud price at »ac 


The Com plete A ccountant. 

This popular worlt .ra Boolt-lieeping has just appeared in revised form, and is by 
far tlie most practtcnt, tliarita.jh and coiuprebensivo treatise on the subject in print. 
It IS used in 'a of the best colleses in the United States, and has not only given 
entire satiBfaotion in every instance, but has received the highest praise from all. It 
omits all attempts at philosophising dryly and abstractly, ana has no space for super- 
fine discussions on topics foreign to the 'ubjeet. 

The Counting House Edition 

Contaios 3r.G pages devoted tu 

Retail, AVliolesaltN Farming:, Coixmiission, 

Lumbering. Manufacturing, Railroading, Steamboating, 

and Banking. 

bv the best teachers in America 

The High School Edition 

The Verdict Rendered. 

its, aod Retail and Wholesale Merehandie- 
id High Schools, and Couimercial Depart- 

9 IG-t pages, devoted to th( 
Precisely the thing for Ni 
Retail, $l.r.O; Sample for 

1-4:0, ISI «fc 1S3 State St., Chicajyo. IH, 



k-kffepluR with but little 

' get a tliuroiiRh 

the large irlniiug 
lowi BroB ft Bryaut. 

Bufl'alo, IV. Y, 


- I Ilk.— Specialty adnptcd to the reqatremenU of profcasio 
Fluid.— Com bill ea tlie advantages of a Irce flowing writli 

Spenrerinn Ladlen' 

ed. A ' new departure" 
;lie llow debghtful. It do 

MMEs H. STOKE, ^u^^^f/ "" ^TONE & CO., Washington. D. C. 

UEKBV 0. SPEKCEB, Sponcenin BiuUim. CoUege.-i!««ciMe iuUior SpenceriM Penmamlup. 9. 

With Sliding Copies. 

27Mf only Serien of Copy-Books with Motable 

Copies, the a-'perior advantnges of tnhtch 

are too ohviom to be disputed. 
The only Series of Copy-Book* which insurett 

rapid improvement at every ntage of the 

pupits practice. 

The only Series of Copy-Booka which wakes 
instruction in the subject of Penmanship 
easy, practiwl, and invariably successful. 

D, OQ receipt of 60 ct«. 

D. APPLETON & CO., Pnbliahera, 

New Fork, Bostou, Chlcsgo, San FranclW' 

I:>ut>lt8iied SXontbly, at SOS Broadway, for- »1.00 per Year 

" Entered at tfus Post OJia; of Neit York, N. T., as second-class matter." 


VOL. III. NO. 9. 


OoDorel Ageot RpeocerUn Cn[ 

l>. T. A.HI 

CouuidI given m Expert oi 



THOMVS MAY PEinCB, M. A., Prlnclpil. 
39 Buiith Toiitb SIreut. PbUadelpbtu. 






niAYlIKW nV8INE»48 COLLECili, 

fitic pcDinnnship; and whnt is equally prom- 
ising, many parents are banding us the 
names of their sons aud daugliters, iis 
suljscribers to the Journal, thus stimu- 
lating a desire, encouraging aud aiding 
them to become accomplished writers ; 
were the full power of the Journal in this 
respect properly understood and appreci- 
ated by teachers and parents, m* we 
hope it yet will be— at least 100,000 copies 
would monthly find their way into the 
homes where it would be a powerful pro- 
moter of graceful and accomplished writing. 
To enable us to meet the demands of our 
patrons for advertising space, we have been 
compelled to print four extra pages. 

It is also with pride that we note the 
character and standing of the persous wlio 
have thus sought the columns of the Jooh- 
nal to give publicity to thtir business, among 
them are our truly representative and suc- 
cessful teachers, authors, publishers and 
business managers, men who are accustom- 
ed to discriminate justly and wisely in se- 
lecting their mcdiimis for advertising. This 
practical denionstration of their confidence 
and esteem assures us of u reliable 9fxd 
vigorous support for the Journal which not 
only reaffirms its permanence but encour- 
ages its publishers to renewed efforts, to 
reu<iur it more and more worthy of the esteem 
(1 patronage, not only of all our brother 
penmen, but of every aspirant for. and 
lover of good writing. 


la EAST TWil 

The Present Issue of the Jonrnal. 

of si\tisfa< 

that we olTer to our readers the present 
number of the Penman's Art Journal. 
It is uow but little more than two years 
since wc assumed the responsibility of its 
publicitliott. not without doubt on our part, 
and apparently a much greater doubt on 
the pari of its patrons regarding its per- 
manv'Dcy and success. The first issue 
mimberud live hundred copies, which seem- 
ed iuducd a targe number, when we sought 
to mail them, to as many persons whom wo 
tbiiug ii promising for becoming patrons 
and sulwcribers ; of the present number we 
print upwimls of tMntu t^ouMnd copies, 
and now have upon our subscription list 
the names of nearly every writing teacher 
of repute in America, and many in foreign 
lands, nor are our subscribers limited to 
teachers of writing, but embrace those in 
other departments of education as well as 
SbMT pupils, also admirers of. aud adopts in. 

A Commendable Example. 
During a period of less than three months 
Prof. G. A. (Jaskell. principal of Gaskcll's 
Bryant and Stratton Business College, 
Manchester, N. H., has sent the names of 
OM hundred and twenly nine subscribers to 
the Journal, which is by far the largest 
number sent by any party during any cejual 
period since its publication. 

In this resp.'Ct Prof. Gaskell only evinces 
the same em-rgy and success which is char- 
acterizing him in all his business efforts. 
Besides conducting a very successful Busi- 
ness College, he has published a very credita- 
ipendium of practical penmanship, 

Why You Should Subscribe for the 


We luko Hut 

- C\ 

liberty of mail 

iug a very liirije 


number of the 

present issue of 


Vhe Journal to 

persous who 



ers, but whi j 

' n 

' ^'c have reason 

to believe iiavt / 

, Vi 

more than an 

ortiiiiary iuter-\| 

^f /) 

est in the sub- 

ject of writing, 


and we hereby 



cial inspection 

of tbe.IoiiuNAL 


and a consid- 

not abundantly pay them to subscribe for 
the same. 

To the teacher of writing and practical 
education it will be an invaluable aid not 
only from its many practical and useful 
hints in regard to teaching his specialty, 
but for the vast fund of information touch- 
ing his profession and his co-workers in it. 
To the student striving to attain to pro- 
(icieucy aud skill in any department of the 
art of penmanship, it will be a most valu- 
able example and teacher. 

To the school officer, who has in charge 
the great public interest in this most impor- 
tant and worst-neglected branch of educa- 
1, the Journal will be a valuable sug- 
„ ter and assisUiut in the intelligent per- 
formance of his duty. 
To the parent having sons and daughters 
■bom they would have become accomplish- 
:1 writers, it will be a most reliable and 
;onomical assistant. It will not only tend 
to awaken an interest and love for good 
liting, but powerfully aid in its attain- 
To the lover of the beautiful in the art, it 
will be a continual feast of fine examples 
and of the rarest and best thoughts upon 
that subject. 

To everybody, for everybody, save idiots 
and nobodies, write, and what they do 
they should have an interest to do well; the 
Journal, as the advocate and representa- 
tive of good writing, will always be found 
interesting and useful. 

Indeed, who can subscribe for the Jour- 
nal and read it one year aud not get one 
dollar's worth of information, to say nothing 

The Convention. 

On the sixth and subsequent pages of the 
Journal will be found as full a report of 
the proceedings of the late Convention as 
our limited space will admit. "We have 
been able to give no more than an outline of 
the proceedings which, througliout the en- 
tire session of the Convention were c.\cecd- 
ingly interesting and practical; indeed, we 
have never had the good fortune to be pre- 
sent in any educational gaihcrii.'g in which 
theie prevailed a more united, earnest and 
enthusiastic spirit or one in which more 
solid useful work was accomplished. The 
hoard of officers and executive committee 
all did their work admirably, omitting 
nothing, and doing all that could be done 
to insure the complete success of the Con- 

which is at this time having a larger'**^ the beautiful premium, wor'h a dollar, 
sale than any other work upon that subject ™''''^1* acmmnnnifo tl.o flr-ct -..n,!.,... ^i 

in the world. Were each of our BusinessCol 
lege friendsduring the entire year to succeed 
in sendingas many subscribers asMr. Gaskell 
has jn the space of two months, they would 
two hundred of 
them) help us to 33,800 new subscribers 
during the coming year, and at the same 
time do more through the influence of the 
Journal among their patrons for the up- 
building of business colleges and popular- 
izing business eduaition, than by any other 
they can employ. As the Official 
Organ of the Business College Teachers aud 
Penmen's Association, it sbiuild be made 
by its members a power for the dissemin- 
ation of thoughts and ideas pertaining to all 
the branches in which they are interested, 
and they should each bear in mind that they 
cannot help the Journal to a valuable 
thought or a subscriber, without doing 
something for their profession and them- 
selves. We therefore appeal to every one 
to help themselves, we think they can safely 
trust us to look after our share, and at the 
same time give the readers of the JouavAL 
a liberal return for their mi->ney. 

which accompanies the first 
every paper sent to a subscriber. Please 
read our premium list, and if you prefer 
cash premiums, send for our special rates to 
ageuts, but don't forget one thing of vi(al 
importance to you, and of course a trifle to 
us, and that is to subscribe for the JouR- 

The Childs Book of Language 

is the title of a new series of books recently 
brought out by D. Ajiplelon &, Co. The 
scries consists of four numbers.twenly pages 
each, arranged with pictorial subjects at the 
top of each page, with the lower half 
blank for the reception of a story to be 
written by the child pertaining to the picture 
and synopsis given at the top of the page. 
The series seem admirably adapted to 
interest and aid the child in its first and 
early efforts at composition; we certainly 
commend them to the attention of all teaclu 
s of primary schools. 

'■ The two greatest inventions of the bu- 
rn mind are writing and money, the com- 
)n language of intelligence and the com- 
'n languge of self -interest. "—Jfi>(K>«au. | 

Their successors in office are equally able, 
and will undoubtedly be equal to the task 
of rendering the Convention of of 1880 in 
every way equal to its predecessors, which 
will certainly be amp.'e to abundantly re- 
ward every teacher of writing, or in any 
department of business education for being 

Variety in Pens. 
One would naturally suppose that a vari- 
ety of a dozen or so of pens nicely graded 
regards fineness and flexibility would 
iffice to meet all the varied tastes and re- 
tirements of a writing community; but 
such does not seem to be the fact. 

g a recent visit to the office of the 

Esterhrook Steel Pen Factory, at 2(! John 

-reet, this city, we manifested some sur- 

rise at the extent and variety of pens there 

ihibited, when we were informed that they 

anufactured no less than two hundred and 

Jiffy different styles of pens, for each of 

which there was an extensive and special 


We were, however, no more surprised at 
the variety than by the enormous quantities 
of pens which they manufactured. Their 
works, which are located at Camden. N. J., 
are the most extensive in America. Pens 
of their manufacture have attained to a 
great popularity, and are to be found in 
almost every Hlatiouery store on the con ti- 

The Complete Accountant. 

We have before us the above entitled 
work by O. M. Powers and G. L. Howe, 
principals of the Metropolitan Business Col- 
lege. Chicago, III. ; it is an 8mo. vol., con- 
taining aid pages, of which C4 are devoted 
to Preliminary Exercises and Retail Busi- 
ness; 98 pages to Wholesale Merchandising; 
12 pages to Farm Accounts; 20 pages to 
Lumber Accounts; 18 pages to Manufactur- 
ing; 13 pages to Steamboating; 12 pages to 
Railroading; 20 pages to Commis.siou; 55 
pages to Banking; the remaining part of the 
%vork to miscellaneous subjects. 

So far a3 we can judge from a brief in- 
spection of the work, it appears to be a 
practical work, and well adopted as a Iei:t- 
book in all schools where double and sin- 
gle entry book-keeping is taught. 

Back Numbers of the Journal 

be sent from and inclusive of Septem- 
ber, 1877. twenty numbers m a\\. which, with 
the Lord's Prayer premium, will be sent for 


Writing Lesson . 

The object of the study and pract 
penmanBbip is improtemeni ; but neither 
study nor practice singly can produce IhiB 
result. A young man may have acquired a 
knowledge of the entire theory of penbold- 
iu;;, positions, moveTnentB. forms and pro 
portions as ehicidatcti by the greatest mas- 
ters, iind yet, upon his first attempt to put 
in pmclice his extensive knowledge, he 
would present but a sorry figure. Probably 
DO pupil would expect to wjlte well from 
theory alone, but ciin we say the same in 
rcgani to practice nlone? Wc have seen 
many persona attempting the irapossible 
fcftt of acquiring uu elegant hand by prac- 
tice, who seemed possessed of the idea that 
simple qaiU-dnDinff. persistently continued, 
would transform them into penmen without 
the drudgery of ihinkiDR. studying, criti- 

As theory and practice must go together, 
and as writing requires not only obedient 
muscular action, but intelligence to com- 
mand such obedience, and as the mind is 
required to immediately decide what cor- 
rections and improvements are deeirnhle, it 
would be well that fn'^ts were so arranged 



lilable; and, in orde 

facilitate this, the multitude of conditions 
to be considtTod iu writini^ a word may be 
included in six groups, the name of each 
beginning with 8. They are in the order 
of their Importance: 

Examjilcs illustrating their importance 
will be found in connection with the text. 

The pupil should consider whctlier the 
lines he wishes to molcc arc to be straight 
or curved, and if the latter whether left or 
right, and also the cleure« of curvature. 


liftv-two degrees, as this slant combint-i \ci- 
ibilily and rapidity of execution with the 
least sacrifice of either. 

The difference in slant can be made more 
apparent by drawing extended straight lines 
ibrcugh the downward strokes of the writ- 
ing, as seen abovp 

J ^ 

Id practical writing there are five kinds 
of .shade. The first is a diminishing shade 
which commences squarely at the top and 
diminishes to the bottom. This is seen in 
t and d. The second an increasing shade 
wliich stops squarely at the bottom; exam- 
pleF— />, and terminating /. The third 
shade is made by gradually increasing pres- 
sure on the pen in straight line and more 
rapidly diminishing at bottom. This appears 
in b.f. I. The fourth shade is made by in- 
creasing shade from upper turn, continuing 
uniform pressure in straight Hue, and 
nishing shade at lower turn. This or. 
in k, k and y. The fifth shade is made by 
increased pressure in curved line to centre, 
and diminishing pressure from tlie centre. 
This form of shade appears in a. g and q. 
Both points of the pen should press equally, 
that tlie shade may be smooth and that the 
following line may be fine. 
6th. speed. 
Cntil shape, size, space, slant and shade 
are satisfactory, speed should not be thought 
of; but when a reasonable confidence in 
one's abiliiv to creditably execute in unlim 
ited time is felt, then the pupil should en- 
deavor to limit the time as much as is pos- 
sible without deteriorating the quality of the 

This division is given last because it is to 
be considered least while learning to write. 
The business man, however, will ask for 
legiliility and rapidity, carin-; little for 

Exhibits at the Convention. 

Adjoining the maiu hall in which the Bes- 
sious of the conveutiou were held was a large 
and commodioiie room set apart exclusively 
for the display of 


be considered relatively. After 
once determining the desired size of the 
writing, sec that letters of the same name 
and kind be made of the same size thiough- 

t the 


yu, ; 

■ty t/^l^ 

In medium hand a space in height, meas- 
ured vertically, or in width, mrasnved hori- 
zontally is onc-tenlh ol an inch; a space in 
slant-height is about one-third greater. Li 
large hand the width is not usually increas- 
ed as much as the height, but in a small 
running hand a space in width is often 
greater than a space iu slant-height. 

The distance between letters in a word 
should bo uniformly one and one-fourth 
spaces, except between a letter immediately 

two o'jt. one space. The initial line of 
word should begin on base line one and ont 
half spaces from last downward stroke of 
preceding word; the initial and terminal 
points being in the same vertical line. 
twecQ sentences the distance should Be 
twice as great as between words. The pupil 
should bo familiar with these rules, i 
writing can bo considered satisfactory which 
is faulty in respect to spacing, and probably 
no fault is more universal. 

The main slant of writing, although gi' 
in a previous les.son at fifty-two degrees 
from a horizontal line, may be made to 
more nearly approach it, or be more nearly 
vertical or inclined little or much to the left, 
the important consideration b<>ing unifonni- 
ly of slant. The tendency now. more than 
at any previous period, among the best pen- 
men, is to write, upon a uniform slant of 

books, and such other things as parties might 
wifih to bring to the notice of the members of 
the aBBOciation. The Spencer Brothers made 
an extensive display of most elegant pen- 
work, amoug which were specimens rt^pre- 
Bcuting every deportment of plain nud artiKlic 
speciuiens represented the 

of d.slVM ,,,- tin , 

and fiuish in tin ir i 

skill and {.erfeeton 

A portion of the 

peu art. 

w Spenci'riau Compen- 
completed) comprising 
^ . ;\ch, published bv Ivi- 
\l<a A Co.. New York, was 
f.irrLs we can judge from 
iplitid, and the plan as set 
lift, tliis is to be a work of 
g the eutire range of the 

ing, and lettering. The design and copy __ 
being prepared chiefly by Lyman Spencer, 
assisted by his brothers H. C. and P. R.. aud 
H. W. Fht-kinger, while the engraving is 
being done with the utmost care by Archi- 
bald MoLees, npon steel ; the completion 
of this work will, from its extent nud great 
labor, necessarily require considerable time, 
lience it is being issued iu parts of nine 
plates, f ach quarto size. There was also on 
exhibition the Speucerinn copy books, pens, 
and the Spencerian inks, recently manufac- 
tured by Jas. Stone & Co., "Washington, D. 
0., cousifiting of six kinds, viz: Peuntan'e. 
Combined Writing Fluid, Jet Black, School 
luk. Violet and CriniBOu. From the brief trial 
we have been able to give these inks we are 
favorably impressed with their apparent good 

ng the fine exhibits of peu 


work were those of F. W. H. "WiesehahD. who 
conducts a peu art institute at St. Louis. Mo.; 
his specimens of engrossinfr. lettering, and 
pen-drawings especially were marvels of beau- 
tiful and correct workmanship, many of his 
pcu-drawines possessiug all the aceiiracv, fin- 
ish aud delicacy of the finest bteel-plale en- 

An elegantly engrossed album by H. W. 
Flickinger, aud an extensive variety of photo- 
graphic copits of resohilioufl, testimonial •-, 
Ac., engrossed in the highest style of the art. 

i.n- -P i, ^o'.^le■ nua t iicKiugcv of PhiladelptiiB, 
Pb., were exhibited by Mr. Soule. 

W. J. Amidoo, of Lenox. Mass., recently 
a pupil of Mr. N. K. Luce, Union City. Pa., 
exhibited a very creditable specimen of oma- 
mental penmanship consisting of lettering, 
scroll and floral work. 

Thos. Powers, Principal of the FortT\'Byne 
(lod.) Business College aud a pupil of P. R. 
Spencer, exhibited a very fine specimen of 
plain and ornamental penmanBbip. 

D. T. Ames, Artist Penman, New York. 
exhibited a compendium of practicid and or- 
namental penmanship which consists of for- 
ty eight 11x1+ plates, photo-hthographed di- 
rectly from the original pen and ink copy, 
giving a great variety of standard and fancy 
alphabets, the principles of flourishing, with 
numerouB examples for practice, pen-drawing, 
engrossed title pages, resolutions, memorials, 
certificates, displayed specimens for tenchers 
of writing, cards, monograms, &c., a com- 
plete hand-book ofdebignsand examples for 
penmen practicing or aspiring to ornamental 
penmanship ; Mr, Ames also exhibited spei 
mens of commercial work, such as business 
cards, letter and bill heads, cards of in 
tion, certificates of slock and member 
college currency, school and college diplomas, 
&c., printed from photo-engravtd relief 
plates or by photo-lithographic transfers, 
w'aich were made direct from the original pen- 
di-awingB, the prmts presenting all the ap- 
pearance of having been taken from regularly 
engraved plates ; these processes are of com- 
paratively recent discovery, and attracted 
much attention from all present, as did Day's 
new patent simcing, or tinting X square, 
which was also exhibited by Mr. Ames; by 
the aid of this instrument tints of any degree 
of fiueness from zero to % of an inch, as per- 
fect as those produced by the engraver with 
his ruling engme, can be ruled on any sheet 
of paper, with either pi-n or pencil, as rapidly 
as one can make random lines, fri?e hand. 

Wni. H. Spragiie. of Norwalk, Ohio, exhib- 
ited an extensive display of practical writing, 
and a new style of fountain peu, of his owu 
invention, which appeared highly couiraeud- 

good qualities, and a novel pen holder which 
be has recently patented ; it is turned entirely 
from wood, aud is of peculiar shape, desigu<.-d 
to be held in position with less effort than the 
ordinary holder, and to prevent inkiug the 
' ' i. prevention 

abl.- iuveutiou. 

The Rev. N. R. Luce, an euthusiastic 
griiduate of P. R. Spencer, senior, who still 
devotes a portion of his time which is no 
oiipitd by his clerical duties, to instructing 
pupils in writing at his home in Union Ciiy 
Pa., gave a very clover eiliibition of hii 
skill in the use of the pen. 

ready reached its tu>enty-firit edition, and 
one hundred tlton*and copies have been 
sold, and the sales are doily inertasing. Dur- 
ing our visit to Chicago, after the Conven- 
tion, we had the pleasure of visiting the pub- 
lisher's t^alesroom of the work, and also the 
bindery where it is being boumt ; the bound 
aud partially bound books, with printed 
sheets could be measured by the solid cord. 
Large as we knew to be the demand for this 
work we were not prepared to Bee them hand- 
led in such quantities, yet the demand is 
only in keeping with the actual mtrits of the 
publication. Every one who has not got a 
copy should get one. 

Perhaps no one thing on exhibition elicited 
attention and interest equal to the 

of specimens 
SAL, which ii 
10x22 inches in size, upon whioh'ar'e pasted 
the specimens of penmanship which bave 
been sent to the Jouiinal by nearly every 
skillful writer iu the coimtry, over two hun- 
dred in number. 

A specimen of slsite cloth, put up in rolls, 
forty-six inches wide and sold by the yard, 
was exhibited by the Silicnte Slote Company, 
191 Fulton street, New York. 

This we know from our own experience to 
be a superior article, and would advise part' 
lythiug iu the line of portable 

H, C. Spei 
ton, D. C. 1 
large volume: 

up bj 

resenting the hi 

students whde passing through the depart 
ment of iictual busiuess practice, all of which 
evinctd thorough and successful work on tl 
part of pupil aud instructor. 

Hon. Im Mayhew of Detroit. Mich., uli 
exhibited a large volume which contained tt 
various forms, through which the stiideuts i 
his college v/vra required to pass, and which 
also represented the high degree of profii 
cy to which they attained in business writing, 
and knowle^^;;'? of accounts. 

S. S. Packard, Principal of Packard's Bi 
inesB College. New York, exbiliitfd bis pli 
of keeping a daily record of the progress 
madu by each student in his college, not only 
as regards his studies but his deportment and 
genernl standing; this was done by requiring 
a written and independent report from each 
of his instructors, touching all things per- 
taining to his standing as a student uud as a 
man, an abstract of which was uent at i>tated 
periods to his parents, aud upon which was 
l)a8ed all com nieudat ions or statements regard- 
ing the student's scholastic attainmentH and 
reliability; the plau was admirable, and we 
commend it for adoption, not alone by busi- 
ness colleges, but by other educational insti- 

Geo. Elliott, principal of the actual busi- 
ness department of the Metropohtan BnsiueBf 
College. Chicago, presented a large volume 
representing the plan and fonuB passed 
through by the sludeiita of that institution, 
which gave evidence of a very comprehensive 
and thorough business training. 

ThoB. E. Hill exhibited a copy of B: 
Manual of Social and Businefcs Forms, of 
which he is the author. This is on^ of the 
most popular, as it is useful, books that hai 
come out during tLe present century, although 
comparatively a recent pubUcation, it has al- 

Roll of the Convention. 

S. S. Packard, SO.'i Broadway, New York. 

D. T. Ames, 20.j 

G. H. Shattuck, 

C. Ctagborn. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

A. P. Hoot, Cleveland, O. 

P. E. Spencer, " O. 

R. C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Wis. 

L. P. Spencer. Washington, D. C. 

H. C. Spencer, 

W. H. Puff, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Ti,n. y H'l), r^^^■".^i\ 111. 

Ill, \(..t ■ .. !n fM.,t, Mich. 

M- Pei 

!l>birt, Pa. 

E. White, Ponghketpsic, N. Y. 
L. L. Sprague, Kingston, Pa. 
N. S. Beardslpy, Youngntown, O. 

A. J r'ni.h. ^r.nlrtnl. Out. 

' 1. S.llll.d. O. 

\v li 


. O, 

, \:<H\n- 

A. A. Clark, Cltvtlaud, O. 
W. H. Zinn, Circleville, O. 
G. W. ElUott. Chicago, 111. 
U. McKee, Oberlin, O. 
N. R. Luce, Union Cily, Pa. 

N. Y. 


, O. 

W. J. Araidou, Lc 

D. H. Hartzell.N. Ben 
C. W. B-juchef AValparaiso, l-id. 

A. L. Wymau, Lincoln Centre, Me. 
W. A. Frnsier, Oberiin, O- 
J. M. Frasier, Wheeling W. Va. 
J. W. Pierxon, Mecca, O. 

A. L Hiiwkiijs. Cleveland. O. 

i; U I . ii. 1,1 -I \\ Limasille, O, 
V ^1 !'■■ I . ■ '■l.v.-land. O. 
.1 i I . ' ' ■ I, O 
\ 11 r.,i..M. i;.,:iii„ore, Md. 
\V. H. SudUr, 

F. W. H. Wiesehahn, St. Louis, Mo. 
M. A. Pond, Topeka. Kas. 
H. B. Bryant. Chicago, IU. 
J. C. Bryant. Bnflalo, N. Y. 
T. J. Ribiuger. New Castle, Pa. 

B. T. Wright, Chicago, III. 
T. J. ColliuR. Hespelrt-, Ont. 
H. C. Wright, Brooklyn. N. Y. 
W. H. Sprague, Norwalk, O. 
F. M. Choquill. Zauesville, O. 
A. A. Clark, Cleveland, O. 

E. K. Bryan, Coluiiibus, O. 
Miss.Terii.i. 1). \\ CuHC. Mansfield. O. 
l\Iis J. A. (Inniiniiiii. Parkersburg, W. Va. 
^h^^ R. H SiiDili. Geneva, O. 

Mjss Aiinir 'n'mnas, Cleveland, O. 
Mr. .1 >■ M. ^v,,- " O. 

Mi-- I'. . . 1 I' N.. '• O. 

\' - . ) . I ■ .' . !'it>tBburg, Pa, 
s ~ . . . ' -.hujd. O. 

-Inln, \V:..^. 11. W onMer. O. 
P. ItoHvijf.Id.r. ClevL-Iaud, O. 
J. L Grace. " O. 

W. W. Ault, Summit, 0. 
J. Wantz, Cleveland, C 
Frank C. Cain. " O. 

F.MauvelPra-se," O. 

Frank Stimpbou, " O. 

C. F. Schroanek, " O. 
L. Dean West, Corrv, Pa. 

J. F. Whiteleather, New Haven, Ind. 
C. A. Maher. Cleveland. O. 
Eugene M. Barr, 

Shall We Hear From Him ? 

As itost of the visitors at the lati 
tion know, the large scrap book coutAiuing 
numerous specimens of penmanship sent 
to the JoDBNAL by the leading penmen of 
the country, was despoiled of upward of fifty 
of its choicest specimens. We are in re- 
ceipt of information which points almost 
witli certainty to the individual Kuilty of 
the offence. We at present, however, with- 
hold his name, that he may have an oppor- 
tunity to return to us the specimens, and 
thereby save himself from the enviable noto- 
riety that the piiblication of the factw, in con- 
nection with his name aud address, would 
give him, and save us the pain of placing him 
thus conspicuously before our readers as a 
thief. He can avoid this only by a prompt 
return to this office of the stolen specimens. 




n Brrknt Md BtnOon Chain of Bni 
niu * C.B«tcal or SoperdcUl Edaa 

(Of the Alb«D7 BoaioM Collogt, wrtlteD for tbe 

Od aeTcUnd'a b'Igbta, tbe glowloR IUin» In torn, 

Iiiei.oi>)«<»iu«.)F«.r«((0 .«Tl«»*<J, 

Now •tiiibinbf'UvefluuBlts youih ranewea. 

'X'w*a<'ern -lui Koiao.u flnt tuepUu reVcMcdi 


a tbe iupp} tbou^tit 

a But to' WMt, 

Tumi cu.l li 

QOie vomulnid, 
a dyliiQ brecS", 

And wiuuuw iruui tiiu wbc«t ta' luoumb'rlug obalT ; 
Wmiu yul our crnato m iq iu Mrluoatti, 
Burcki loim ihc w-niaitfiiof ibf^itb; , 

WUo iviacly obose <•! ieed tie prise haBwuD. 
Oaoiiudied luDguages for uues d> ud, 
by wiilob bu MUuut eani bis dully broad, 
Aud foo BbiiiiMir too leorcod for oouiiuon to 
Tbougb Illti'd b«l t ■ oulilviilu the soil. 

In galulDg knowlodgu bo ba> uearlyloat; 

Tb ) n^atuii wby bo's lost it nearly all. 
Anil oibcr* lor tuo sake ol frBuuu und Spaul 
Obligod m pait tbe praatlcol to bunlsh, 
Mow bod tbemielvva toofitr upou tbv track 

Ouo proudly vlewa Ibo novloo ua ue stares 

But bo 


oof studlvtaiepai 
" ' op^ortuDltloa a 
MU uf dUoIpi^ed, i 
nln.8— '-'• -- 

As ofioa'beard. Is nolblDig a 

Witb lltt Laltn. Spanlsb, i 

Dp. I 

cad of bmuty noiiid product 
ik not that (orBigD flowon 

would wltb elaMlea d 

I.e lore lakei fllRbt' a batty winfii 

n pssalDK ib'uugbe 

,Le trUHty, well adapted ebUld. 

iDud gbaatly fseea, 
un lolly bueed, 

I ciiluga tbey never need. 

P, II Hiirdin. CannL-lloii. Ky , forwards 
a packiigc of writing and lloiiri>hing. nliicb 
evince mon- tbao uniisua) skill iu tbc usu of 
the pen. Tbe writing especidlly is very 
easy and graceful. 

Joseph Foellcr, Jr., Ashland. Pa., sends a 
pLotogmpliic copy of an original design 
for the Lonl-s Piayer iu the Polish lan- 
guage, in wliich he has displayed mc re than 
o'diuary skill and taste buih in design and 

P. W. H. "Wicsehabn, Principal of Ibe 
Si, Lnnis Pen Art Instilule, has favored us 
Willi 111.- ].iM.r,,L'i-iphic copies of engrossed 

r('M>ii), jMii . \. . nil .1 Uy liiiH, which exhibit 
<-\i; I I I in design and execution; 

ilii I ; Uly, is seldom equaled 

in 11 ■ I" I '' ' '"'11 ^viiliihe pen; Mr. Wiese- 
hnhti cL'ilaiuly bus few rivals as a true pen 

G. W. Whitehead. Newark, N. J., sends 
a phnlo.litlio;,'nii>h copy 11x14 of si set of 

ivork a handsome c 

A New Feature in Book-keeping. 

The latest departure in Ibe li"-ld of in 
provunieuls upon boiik-kei 
ed hy Mr. S. R. Ilopkii 

revolutionary character 

/be above cut h photo-engraved from a part of plate No. 14 ol tbe ucw Hpencerian Compeudium. Tbe original ts 
Lyinau P. Sptucer, Tlie engraved cut fails to give to tbe bair lines tbe extreme delicacy and perfection that is givei 
■s, from which tbe compendium was printed. Part 1 is now rcadj, and will be forwarded by us on receipt of 50 ce 

is flourished 
by tbe steel 
Its, tbe pub- 

Like ol 

t tanlta ai 

For attrrtug otamba of luxur> that fall. 
^Vblob aa be g>tb«r«. picks uo dirt aud all. 
Let Doue nilsiaklQiily ibe Ua believe 
Tbat false pretvnse can oatward abine recelr 
Bonrerer iuu>'b tbe effort owte without. 
The luward aboddy geocrato* a doubt. 
Tla waU ve pay to gain the whole who can. 
Bat who hia power to but a P'Mtlon span. 
May Iu hlB JudgmBut show bit bMter seaie 

Kxponalrepurcbs^osof Dc*dJeaa tools 
Ar« prtctlcat bespoakiog seDMiass tools. 
Bill judgmeDleierclsed In what wecbooae. 

Ibe b.iir dedtced a 
e thought woudei 

Specimens Keceived. 

Benjamin Rusink, Gibbsville, Wis., sends 
very creditable specimens of writing and 

William Rhoades, card writer, at Read- 
ing, Pu., sends several attractive specimens 
of curd writing. 

A. E. Dewburst, Utica. N. Y., sendsa 
very gracefully-executed specimen of flour- 

1 form of a bird and surroundir 

A package of twelve fancy drawn or 
flourished airds printed in colors have been 
receivt-'d from Joseph T. Kofiuss of Easlon. 
Pa., by whom the originals were executed. 
They are finely engraved and present a veiy 
fine appearance. 

A special feature claimed for Ibe improve- 
ment is tliul it prnvides an easy, quick and 
accurate pliui 111 .lui. i imniiig tlie fluaucial 

prise, ami |ii :_ n,. .miu daily, iu a 

I spec 

I iginal design 
ijok and jour- 
fijientof buai- 

cb i 

. „ md jou 

rendered unnecessiiry elements in theory or 

For the limited time we have had to spare 
in making an examination of the new plan, 
we can say thjit it evidently possesses strong 
marks of pnictical utility and important ad 
vantages. Many years of experience aa 
book-keeper und teacher has givtn Mr. Hop- 
kins a thonmgh qualification 'o deal witb 
the subjijct both in a pbilo.sophical and prac- 
tical manner. Tbe work baa been carefully 
examined by some of our most prominent 
teachers, practical hook-keepers, and othcis, 
bj^ whom it is lieartily endorsed. It is cer- 
tainly unlike anything we have before seen 
or heard of, and we would recommend 
teachers aud otiiers interested to avail 

themselves of i 

I oppoi 

11 ty t 

s of merit and UKeftiln 

The great amount of space necessarily 
given to ihc report of the proceedings of the 
Convention excludes many ioteresiing art- 
icles designed for this issue of the Jouk.vai.. 

PubllBbrd Moaihir ■■ tl>00 per Year. 

D. T. AMES, Editob **d F«OFBirT«m, 

308 BrMdw»T, New york. 

Single coptf of Joob**l >eiit on rewlptof tao 

ccdU. BpeOiDCii coplf* rnrolBlied lo Agenta free. 


1 Column W'VO f*1<» *'■■**» "ii? SS 

X ;; 9^ ^2J 5i«00 36 00 

1 Incri<l3irDVBV.!! 1 BO 3 2B S 00 1" 00 

S UD«a, at wordB. 43 1 « 3 M 3 BO 

Id ■dnnce; for •!« moothB lod one y«r, payable 
quarterly In adMoea. No devl»tlon from the abo^e 
ralM. HMdlna iDBtter, 30 conta par Itiie, 

Wo hope lo nitthalhe JouBK*!. aoinlCTMHngand 

iritbhold ellber bla aub.. rtptlnn or a good word ; bul 

their active co operattoo aa oorroApoudenta and agenta, 
we tboreloro offer Ibe folloirtng 
' ToFvery new aabscriber, or rcnonal, until further 
notlea. wo wUl aend a cojiy of Iha Lord's l*rayer, 

To any perBoa aendlng their own and anotber 
namo n* aubacrlbora, Inoloslng f3. we will mall to each 
the JoDHSAi. one ye»r, and forward by return of moil 
to Ibc acodcr, a ropy of ritber ol the followliig publl- 
oallona eaob of which are among the finest apedmeaa 
of penmamblp cvor pubtlahed, vli. : 
The Oentacnlnl Piolure of Progroaa . . .20x38 In. Jn aUe 

TUe Lord a Prayer WxU " " 

Tbe Marriage Certlftcute )B«aa " " 

The Family Reofird 18x23 " *' 

8 Sp'Olmeu Sbcota ol EngrOBBliig eaohllxH " * 

ISO B- mlif ul xcroll Ourda. 18 difffreot dealgna. 

Uoudoa'a Normal Hyatem of LotterlDR, 

Or, " PloiirlJilng. 

For three namm and fS we will forward the largo 

Wllll^ma A Packard's Quido. re:alla for (3.00, 

of Amoi' Cnmpondliim of Urnamentnl Penmsnehlp, 

elKlitrpn aubscrlbora and $lfl, price «7.B0. 

For twelve nnmoa and $12, we will forward a copy 
or WlltlBma ft Packard's Qcms of Peamontblp, retalK 
for (6. 

pubacntlon, 205 Urondway. Now York, 


Now well known as the larcest anil most successful school of its kinil in America, affords tlior 
practical training for business pursuits. None l>ut the most expeiicMccd and ac:complislied teaclic 
employed. Young men desiring to make a special study of PENMANSHIP, will Hud in this 
(he best known and most successful teachers of the art in the country. 

For full particulars, address, mentioning this jiapcr, the Principal. 

H. E. HIBBARD, 60S Washington St., Boston, 


The rrincipal trusts that the followin? i 
tions from cliiiming .similanly c-itlu-r in e\tc 

sufficiently definite and chnracioristic as to previ 


A Suo^eisfal Co.ninercial School 
Amon-j the many highly prospeious I 
iness Colleges iu the country, we koow 
none more so than the Bryant 
tStnitton Commercial School, conducted 
by H. E. llibbnrd in Boston, Muss nc 
do we know of any wliose prosperity 
bfiter deserved. It commands an enviablu 
pliico among the educational institutions 
of a locality that is justly celebrated in that 
respect. During a recent visit to Beaton 
we enjoyed the privilege of inspectingall of 
tlic several departments of this institution 
illustrated with great fldulily on tlii:< 
and the following page, it will be seen 
by the illustration that all the arrange 
ments of the School arc admiiable Tin 
building isun elegant slructurt rtbu Itsiuct 
the great fire, provided with all modern 
improvements, and arranged in it^ crtction 
especially for the convenituce and ac< 
modalion uf Mr. Ilibburd s school 

In the management of his school from 
tbe first, Mr. llihbard has cxhibiltd great 
energy, skill and a rare fitntss for hts pla< 
at the head of, at present the leadmg Cor 
mcicial School of tbe world 

No pains or e?cpense ha.s been spared 
to provide representative teachers in 
each of the several departments while 
tcQclicrs and pupils have alike been held 
to a most rigid performance of tbtir whok 
duty. In this will be found more tlim 
any other one thing the secret of tht r 
mnrkable success of this school and it i 
feature worthy of emulation bj all otlur 
educational institutions Pbc course of in 
struclion is comprebcasivo and thorough 
That Boston belicv s in Mr Hibbaid 
School, she demoustrntcs b) her hbir 1 
patronage, and what Boston beluve». 
may generally bo taken to be correct 

f of the " Mode} CounUDO-Room" of th* FouvUi Depa 

The Bryant & Stratton Coniniereial School, Boston, Mass. 

Fourth, or Finishing Departme; 

Second Depan 

Proceedings at the ConTention. 

The fiecoDd nanunl cfmvf^ntion of the "Busi- 
neaa CoUt-ge 'IVaohers' ami Penmen's .^ssocio- , 
tiOD" f^onveocd id tbc halls of the HpeQcerian 
Basioess College, Cleveland, Ohio, on Taes- 
day, AiigUBt A, and was colled to order at 9 A. 
M., at which time the large hall of the college 
waa well filled with niemberH and visitors. 

The proceediuga were opened by an inter- 
esting salutatory' address by the President, S. 
S. Packard of New York. 

AKl JorKWI. 

I speak of diverse interebts to i of age, whose rniiiu thought was to supply 
express :i commou thought, not lomark k real j some deficiency iu varly training, particularly 
diutinetion, for I am wure it will not be ucces- in the matter of writing, arithmetic, and 
sary here to insist upon the most vital truth 1 book-keeping, with a \-iew always to a posi- 

uce in poMtioo, at the end 

iDths' cramming. The ses- 

i, day and evening, vV^ith 

hing the relations of 
those wbovoltu tirily tzchange equal services. 
The efficiency aid econonjy of cur work re- 
quires that there should be those who work j scarcely time for rest on 'Sunday. Students 
for pay and these who pay for work, but in- came and went ut pleasure without thought of 
asmucb ca the amount of pay must inevitably ' record or discipline. Life scholarships, ren- 
depend upon tht: nuulity of work thtre is no dering it impossible for any student to get in 
bject proper to be discussed here that does j his lifetime tlial for which he bad paid were 
and not the eseeptiou — textbooks 

touch alike these two classes, 
work there are no blind devices, no tricks of 
legerdemain, no patent processes which 

•t: The ad- 
mirable programme of exercises submitted by 
your Executive Committee rirDders it unneces- 
sary (or me to speak as to thecbantctur of the 
work which lies before us. Whether it shall 
bo found possible or not to carry out this pro- 
gramme U) the letter, certain it is that thert.' 
18 little danger of getting out of material dur- 
ing the four days that have been set apart for 
our deliburutioua; and whatever estimate we 
may place upon the work of the committee, 
wc must render them cordial praise for the 
careful arrungemcut of topics, the fullness of 
detail, and the compruhonxiveneHS of their 
schedule. Que thing muat be apparent, that 
if this schedule is carried out, even imper- 
fectly, thert- will be no time to waste, and the 
discussions will need to be brief and pointed 
in no common degree. I have carefully scan- 
ned thu programme, and I could wish that it 
might bo fulfilled in letter as well as in spirit. 
8 the first time iu my recollection of con- 

ignored :iud the : 
rious iu the different schools i 
qualifications of the teachers- ;Vnd yet, 

, the schools did the 

r fidelity to whom it is impossible, work required of them, and did it iu the 

orthy combination, to find ample ! wtU. They supplied a pressiug waut, and in 

scope and consideration for their offerings, i affording just tbi 

f this >,orI— n 


commend, Ihtrcfore, that biloiu we enter 
upon our real work the committee ascertain 
how nearly we may follow the order laid 
down, as also that ihuy suggest such rules 

of . 

lining the discussion 

tii<' time allotted, which 
ivy brief, and 

justice may be done to those who have con- 
sented to staud sponsor for topics, or to others 
specially interested therein, it will be neces- | 
sary to observe the utmost punutuality in 
opening and ulosing. Thu experience of all 
who have ever ijartioipatcd in educaticmal 
conventions will bear me out iu the fear Ihat 
our chief dit&cully lies in this direction. It 
is II diihculty. however, that may be easily 
avoided, and should be by us whose life work 
ia set to the mca-sure of half hours. We need 
only to exact ourselves that reasonable o'^serv- 
ance of wholesome regulations which we hold 
up to our studeuts as chiefly among the manly 
virtues. And in view of the ultimate results 
to which we all look as a compensation for 
the time, expense, and trouble incurred, it 
will be well at the outset to accept the limita- 
tions and enforce the requirements of the oc- 

The main thought with each one of us 
should be to get the largest amount of perma- 
uout good out of the convention. And to 
this end let it be our first care to place our- 
selves iu harmony with our work. In a meet- 
ing like this there are lUwiiys those who need 
bringing forward. It is not enough that 
the privileges of the convention are thrown 
opeu equally to all ; and it will uot do to say 
that if all do uot enjoy them equally the fault 
is their own. Certain members, in view of 
long service and favorable acquaintance, to- 
gether with the greater faculty ot speech aud 
better knowledge nf procedure, have quite 
the advantage of certain other ifienibers who 
are without those couditions. It will be well 
to consider this fact, and by a little thought- 
fulutiss and courtesy to reduce any such ine- 
quality to the lowest terms. The sooner we 
Icorii to measure each other and place our. 
selves ou a common footing of mutual rela- 
tionship, the sui-.r w.i shiiU iicooiiiplish 

I juid no managers of institutions to whom 
necessary or profitable to withhold the policy 
or plan of their operations from those upon 
whom they mainly depend for that true huc- 
] ce«8 which is the only honest return for faith- 
ful work. It would scarcely be possible to 
broach a subject suitable for discussion in this 
convection which should uot have an equal 
I claim upon all its members. We arc all equal- 
ly interested in the dignity and efficiency of 
commereialBchoolsofwhateveruame or grade. 
I Wfc are are equally anxious that the practical 
I work we are trying to do should receive its 
j proper recognition from the pubUc and as- 
sume its proper place iu the educational sys- 
tem. We are united iu our purpose to make 
I requisition for faithful service of all who claim 
I a place iu our ranks, and to put the ban of 
, public disfavor upon those who are faithless 
to their trust. We have too much at stake ti) 
quarrel over nou-essentials, and are too busy 
iu trying to meet the just demands of our 
own students to cultivate jealousy aud un- 
, worthy rivalry. We have nothing to conceal 
aud much to learn, aud the surest road to all 
good results in our labor lies iu that generous 
bro,therhoud of effort which makes it impos- 
sible to withhold from one auother that which 
we have found to be good for ourselves. It 
is said with some truth that there is no class 
of intelligent people so apt to be arrogant and 
self-opinionated as teachers. If such be the 
case, then there is some reason for it. In the 
main, teachers are autocrats. It is their 
province to commaud, uot to obey. They are 
in the constant habit of thinking for others, 
aud rarely meet with minds self-poised euough 
to place them upon their defense. Their 
methods grow, from coustflut habit, to be 
oracultir aud imperative, and it becomes 
difficult to accept with patience a line tf 
reasoning which may dislodge them from 
their bilherlo uuassailed positions. This is 
uot because teacher are really different from 
other people, or that under favorable conditions 
they might not develop into liberal-minded 
aud modest citizens, but rather because they 
do uot sufficiently encounter their equals, and 
because they are permitted too much to have 
their own way. A meetiug like this, if no 
other results should follow, must be of great 
service to those whu take part iu it, in the I that 
one direction of liberating thought and es- | and 
tablishing a basis wherein, without undue 

dem audeil 'i 

the lasting esteem of all worthy pupils. 

And nothing better need be said of these 
early efforts than that they demonstrated the 
necessity and the feasibility of technical 
schools for commercial studies, and that to 
them we owe the privilege of meeting iu this 
capacity, and marking the changes that have 
been wrought. Aud the changes are mauy 
and radical, both in the constituency aud in 
the material and methods of study aud disci- 
pline. Year by year has it become necessary 
to change our curriculum and methods to 
meet the changed condition of our patronage 
and the increasing demands for a broader and 
more complete education for bu&intss. Not 
only are we expected now to give a tew fin- 
ishing touches or to supply radical deficien- 
cies in the merely practical applications of 
knowledge, but we are forced to take our 
places in the ranks of private schooLo, and to 
employ the highest culture aud the best ap- 
phances known to the profession. Without 
surrendering our distinctive characters as 
schools for business training, we have found 
it necessary to enlarge the scope of our work 
embracing a greater variety of subjects and 
covering the wider demands of a full prepara- 
tion for active life. Our schools are besieged 
with a younger class of applicants who wish 
to accept us instead of the regular preparatory 
school or academy, and we must either 
elude this desirable patronage or meet its 
honest requiremeuts. And whether or b 
we attempt to meet thisdemaud in its entire 
certain it is that we cannot be faithful to oi 
selves 01 others without in some degree sn 
plying whatever deficiencies there may be 
fundamental triiiniug ; hence the proper ii 
of language, the cultivation of thought, the 
hiibitudes of business and society, the princi- 
pt»:? of govtrument and politicLil science be- 
come not only our legitimate woi k, but a vital 
part thereof. It is this broader aspect of the 
work .that lies before us that gives to this 
meeting its real importance. In selecting this 
central point for the conveution due consid- 
eration was had to the demands of the whole 
country, and to securing a representation that 
should be National. It is dtsinible that ther 
should exist iu Rome shape au authorative 
peaking for this specialty of education: 
some wily we, who desire to be honest 
rnest iu what we do, should know who 

r real colaborers, and should be able to 

humility, we arrogant pedagogues may get a ■ point to a declaration of principles and a plan 
peep at the other side of questions aud possi- of individual and co-operative labor that 
"' ' ' " well-fortified [ should no longer leave the public iu doubt. 

the absence of C. Claghom, the Treasurer 
of the .Association. The constitution and 
ws of the Association were then read, 
m opportunity presented for the 

during which the members were invited to 
iu their places, giving their names, 
residences, business, with a short history of 
lemselves, which proved not only an inter- 
liug but effecti>e method of making known 
' each other the mauy strangers who were 
present. Mauy of these sketches were re- 
lated with such a degree of humor and point- 
ed nuecdote, as to be very amusing, and 
well worthy of a place in full, in this report, 
but wont of space forbids ; although we may 
in some of our future numbers give place to 
a portion of them. 

Ilobert C. Spencer, Principal of the Mil- 
waukee O^'s.) business college, then intro- 
duced the first topic for dis 

which he did in a manner so pointed, effec- 
tive and iuteresting as lo show himself a 
thorough master of his subject. He believtd 
political economy to be a very important and 
necessary adjunct of a business education, 
more so thtin is generally conceded. He 
said that in instructing his class in poUtical 
economy he used no text books, but interest- 
ed them by just such talks as they were 
having there, and he made these talks as 
simple ad it was possible for him to do. 
Youug students had uot been taught 

■ share I Wg 


id lb. 

Ming. I 

able m:.tii.iiiii.mi^(r.tjip, ilna .l-, im ,is possible 
w© may begin our woik ou au lvou footing. 

The committee have wisely recognized the 
fact that this is a meeting of working teach- 
ers, and in the arrangement of the topics and 
exercises have showu their appreciation of the 
field to be occupied. It is one of the merits 
of this schedule that no marked prominence 
is given to any one branch of the g^eral sub- 
ject ; so that whatever distinction any topic 
moy hold must depend upon its inherent 
merit*, or upon the wisdom aud ardor of its 
advocates, or upon both. It, therefore, be- 
comes those who have a particular interest in 
any subject to see that its claims are not over- 
looked from any failure to show it at its best. 
Aud this should surely not occur in h conven> 
tion comprising not only specialists but lead- 
ers of specialties— men whose names, among 
via, are as houswhold worda, and whose works 
are as famihar to us' as the faces of our owu 
ohildreu. This is a featui^ of our convention 
which shoidd secure to it a lasting place iu 
our history, 

Auother not less important feature exists in 
the diverse nterests embraced— a feature 
which is fitly tecoguized iu the title of our 

bly go 

opinions. If we wi 
of worldly wisdom !< 

eral fund of kuowl< ■{ s ■ ' niy con- 

tribute and from \\ h i . i , , . ' , ,\ accor- 

ding to his needs. I; ■■.'... i . ,,;, .. i-iuvince 
of knowledge that It 1^ L^h.l..^^t;-^. In fact. 
the more surely it yrowt^. A new thought 
may be jiomore to him who discovers and re- 
veals it thttu it is to those to whom it is re- 
pealed ; and the revelation of a thought is not 
parting with it, but really getting a better 
hold of it. To attempt to shut up wisdom 
within our owu narrow brains is 'to exclude 
oui-selies from its benefits. It ia a miserly 
act, for which there is not the poor excuse of 
"laying up something Tor a rainy day." And 
the world takes cognizance of such meanness, 
aud pays back with compound interest. I 
accejit the fact of our coming together as a _____ 

satisfied with what ,' th^R the work which should rende 

:ng together a real good. And nothing less 

declaration that 

we are doing, and as au earnest that 
to do more and better; and I shall feel that 
our time is more than wasted if we do not 
take back to our several workshops not merely 
better inspirations to labor but more definite 
purposes and aims ; and I shall hail with de- 
light every indication of an honest desire to 
make our business not only more profitable, 
worthy of our devotion and of pub- 

ourselves, to our students, and 
iimuritii's in which we thrive to re- 
schools from even a lurking suspi- 
cion of superficialty. We should above all 
things be careful nut to promise what we 
know we cannot perform aud even to perform 
more than we promise. We should divest our 
schools of the character of mere clerk agen- 
cies, and assert our true position aw iutstitu- 
tious of learning. The obtaiuiug of sitiuitions 
for our graduates should be no more a recog- 
nized part of our work than the selecting of 
their wives or the regulation of their families. 
Instead of putting our young men in the false 
position of mere b ■ ggars for places, we should 
throw the obh'gation on the other side, aud do 
the business world a favor by supplying a 
quality of service that must always command 
a premium. These rre the sentiments 

lie acceptonci 

Let i: 

t forget that we have i 

than their adoption aud enforcement should 
be accepted by us or the public as our waiTant 
for the convention of '70. 

Gentlemen of the convention, we are on 
sacred ground. As I stand here in this room 
my mind goes back to the summer of 1853, 

uted a warm personal friendship with 
James "W. Lusk. Tweuty-six years ago, gen- 
tlemen, in this room was laid the corner-stone 
of that wonderful "chain of colleges" reach- 
iug from one end of the country to the other, 

I am sure it has received from 

than a passing thought. Year by year as o>ir ^ji^jch made it possible for men working 
work has progressed and Uken shape has it ■ the same field, though with separate iuteres 
' :» .-' ■ - future ! to work together. Of the five names m. 


is destined 

euuse the characteristics of 

refer to the coustituency of those days as 
compared with that of the present to feel the 
force of these suggestions. In those early 
days the few business colleges m vogue had a 
comparatively small attendance of young 
men, rouging from eighteeir to thirty years 



Mecca, and 

we reverently lay upon the graves of the de- 
parted, whose spirits I feel hover over us, the 
flowers of our undimmed affection and the 
tokens of a remembrance which grows bright- 

At the close of Mr. Packard's address, J. E. 
Soule was appointed Treasurer pro tern, in 

)0(l common sense aud ability, aud in mter- 
iting them by these plain talks it set them 
to thinking, and they would soon display a 
desire to read and study uU the works on the 
subject which they could find. The business 
studeuts were to be the future business men, 
aud they should have the taste for study so 
directed that they would have a taste for 
that broader knowledge of political economy. 
He discussed at some length his ideas on the 
subject, paying respect to E. G. Folsom for 
his labors in the work of political economy, 
and to the president, Mr. Packard, for labor 
iu the same direction, and he wished to be 
put on record as one having a just apprecia- 
tion of the men who have done so much to 
spread this knowledge. 

At the close of Mr, Spencer's remarks, the 
topic wiyi open Jialf an hour for generril dis- 

Mr. Folsom, was pleased to see that topic 
so ably and properly presented. He believed 
political economy to be the basis of accounts 
and businesR, and that it devolved upon 
business colleges to teach it. 

H, 0. Spencer, regarded it as an essential 
study and urged the importance of having a 
text-book prepared better suited to the use 
of business colleges, than any now in use. 
At present there were several which were in- 
harmonious or contradictory in their teach- 

L. L. Sprague, said that authors were so 
mixed that he became confused on the sub- 
ject. One noted writer dwelt on a certain 
subject to air bis views, aud auother on 
something else, which reminded him of a 
syllogism which he heard when he was a 
boy " Moses was the meekest man, Samson 
was the strongest mau, therefore, David 
killed Goliath." He thought the science was 
in its infancy, but even in its infant state it 
was the fouudation study in the cun-iculum 
of a business college. 

Interesting remarks were made by Messrs. 
A. D. Wilt. T. E. Hill, Frank Goodman, S. S. 
Packard, and T. M. Peirce. 

The discussion closed with what we deem 
au important suggestion from R. 0. Spencer, 
concerning his method of teaching political 
economy, viz., to have students walch the 
Qucluatious of the innrkets, and inquire, and 
be inf-tvui'ti'il n'garding their cause, which 
was fouud ill political economy, 

A. P. Koot, Superintendent of penman- 
ship in the public schools of Cleveland 
(O).. gave a lesson illustrating his method of 
teaching writing in primary schoole, the 
members of the convention sitting as a class. 
His methods were ingeuioue. His illustra- 
tions apt and peculiarly adapted to catch, 
interest, and impress a child's mind, to do 
which, or in other words, to reduce his 
thoughts and language to the level of a 
child's mind, he thought to be the great 
desideratum of a primary teacher's success. 
He made frequent use of simple stories and 
anecdotes which he always pointed with some 
important feature of the lesson. He laid 
great stress upon the importance of rigidly 
maintaining a correct position of pen (or pen- 
cil) hand, and body. He would at first teach 
only the fiager movt-ment. 

ICemarks were made by Messrs. Mayhew, 
Soule and R. C. Spencer. 

Wm. H. Sprague, Principal of Business Col- 
lege, Norwalk, O., then opened the discussion 
of the topic. 

belonging to a Business College and how it 
should be taught." 

In hie opinion sufficient commercial law 
should be taught to enable the student to con- 
duct the ordinary affairs of business legally, 
and so as to avoid all litigations. He should 

«gpcctally niKl'TKUDd Uh law perUioing to 
OODtractii, j*rtut«hips f-ichaoge, coUcc- 
tloiiH, priiK'ipAl nud ageut, good-will, ^c. 
Tbis (OionU be tauubt *'y a rcyiikr tc-atbtr ; 
by fani'liax UlkM and iiracticaJ tlluHtnaious 
and ap]/iio«tionH of Iaw to these several tiub- ' 
jc;ct«B« Ui'jy Brt' pufhutd during the oouree. 
ilr. Hnmguc'B njuarlw wore nbin, practicftl 
and well roc»nTw] ly tb« cooTentiou. 

An animaU'd dj^cawion followed, partici- 
paU-d ia by Mcwtn. li. C. Wright, FoIboid, L. 
L Spr»tfiic, K. C. SpcooCT. T. M. I'it-rcB, 
Wilt, (Soodmao. Wbit^, Amen. Mi^b-jw W. 
H. Spraguo. H. C. Spencer audB. T. Wnght. 
H. <,'. Wright oppoHud any effort to t«ach 
law in a biumc-tw coUegti ; that itbould bu 
learuod at u law iiobool. Tlit- little tJiat could be 
Uutjbt ill a cowniercialeour«« v/m dangerouf, 
an It tended to cuuho tiic pupil to not oq hiit 
own irnpr-rfect knowledge of law, when 4ie 
would coiDQiit uiiHtakcM, whiob would lend to 
litigntioijH, tlint hritl ho conHuJu<d n Hkillud 
lawytr, be trould bavo avoided. TbiB idea 
wiiH tliorou«bly combatt*d by tbe oUier 
fipf^nkcTH and it aecmed to bo the overwhelm- 
ingly Buutiiuent of the couventiou that a grad- 
UAto from a bugincM college should be suffic- 
iently familiar with law to traiwact legally and 
Hucoesiifully all ordinary buflinc&e. At the 

L. L. Sprague spoke at some length upon 
the ffubject. He had nothing to say against 
literary colleges, but be would say that a good 
business college was the peer of any educa- 
tional institution in the laud. 

F. W. H.Wiesehabn of tbe Wiesehohn In- 
stitute of Pen Art, St. Louis, Mo., read a 
paper on " Tbe importance of a knowledge 
of art matters generally, and decorative art 
especially, to those who pursue the art of en- 
grossing." Mr. Wiesehahn's paper, though 
somewhat lengthy, was listened to with rapt 
altvutiou, and it was a beautiful composition, 
defending the study of art as ennobling and 
purifying to the race. '* No doubt," he said, 
" many of you have observed and experienc- 
ed the antipathy with which penmanship 
was treated at art eThibitious and intcrutttiou- 
al expositions, and the impossibility of enter- 
ing and classing penmanship among the fine 
arts proper. Of course we were vain enough 
to consider our art inferior to none, requiring 
equally as much skill in execution as our sis- 
tiT arts— such as 

t 3 P. M. 


t-ntiou ad- 

was opened by W. H, Duff, of Duff's Com- 
mercial Collfgt; riltburf;. Pa., who giive a 
practical lesion in 


„„„ ^ would reluctantly confess 

tht-m ah our superiore in art. But mark you, 
ornamental penmanship, to be equally appre- 
ciative and vnluable, must possess merits 
equal in importance to any other of the fine 

relations of numbersandprinciilfS: be should 
know the exact relations of yg.,, .OW, 8 '\,-, 
arithmetics do not contain, nor are pupils 
taught the same methods practiced in busi- 

I The lesson by Mr. Peirce was followed by 
a spirited discussion by Messrs. R. C. Spen- 
cer. H. C. Wright, Wilt, Boucher. Pond, L. 

, L. and W. H. Sprague. The question regard- 

t ing " days of grace " in commercial paper 
arose. H. C. Wright thought that they should 
be abolished, It. C. Spencer also thought 

, them bad policy, and moved that a committee 
be appointed to pn-pare a resolution express- 
ing the sense to the convention regarding tbe 

' custom of allowing days of grace on coiu- 

] meicial paper, which was carried, andMessrs. 
S. S. Packard, Ira Mayhew and H. C. Wright 

I were appointedsuch committee, after which a 
lesson was given by L. L. Sprague, principal 
of the Wyoming Commercial College, King- 
ston, Pa., upon the subject of 


He advocated strongly a general form which 
he had written out upon the blackboard. He 
explained every portion of the form and gave 
reasons for the same. The business letter 
should be written with the full address upon 

smart. One reason for this was that many 
business colleges advertise to fit a young man 
, to enter business life in three months and ore 
j consequently patronized by a class of young 
I men who were irregular scholars before com- 
I ing to tbe commercial college, nud are only 
' prepared to bo fitted for buciuess in three 
I months. He thought these things ought to 
, be remedied. 


Mr. Spencer of Milwaukee, in discussion, 
said that those men who had those precon- 
ceived notions detrimental to commercial col- 
leges are generally men of little information 
regarding the colleges and have very strong 
prejudices. As a remldy he suggested that 
young men sent out from commercial colleges 
to these business men should not disclose the 
fact of their attendance at a business college 
until after their work is appreciated. By thia 
means such men become the strongest sup- 
porters of business colleges. 

S. S. Packard thought great care should be 
taken in teaching yoimg men to engraft into 
their minds the necessity of not overrating 
themselves and their abilities ; that if any- 
thing they should underrate themselves. He 
did not mean to say, however, that a young 


of Ilia clasN, wliicli led to a lively discussion 
at itfl cloHf , partici])ntrd in by Messrs, Peirce, 
Polsom, H. C- Wright, L. L. Spmgue, K, C. 
Spencer and Ames. 

The next discussion upon the topic of 

WOB opcutd by D. T. Amtp, editor of the 
PBNMAMftAuT jowitNAL, Ncw York, said he, 
the time wht-n the utility, ayo, the necessity 
of a busini'sti college can be succewtfully ques. 
tioned, is piissa^d ; they bavo become a recog- 
nized neci-HHity as much as special schools for 
instruction, in law, medicine, art, science, 
music or theology. It is true we occasionally 
hear somi* old fogy who himself advanced 
through all the various stigts, from sweep- 
ing the store to his position as an awkward 
accountant, Boy tlint tho courae of training in 
n busint K8 collcgo nmounfa to liltle or nothing. 
Some ^■. hnyr \u nnl .v.-n i.ffiiTi, thut «iich a 
.■ v^.^:. l-'Hv.h.jurj-. We 

»M . 

belong to tho past. It was their ancestors 
who used to bum heretics and witchen, and 
ridiculed aa lunatics, such men as Copernicus, 
Quttenberg, Watt, Fulton. Morse, and others 
who have announced new discoveries. 

BuBiucHs colleges arc yet scarcely out of 
their infancy, though vigorous and rapid in 
thvir growth and development, they have 
much to do to attain tb the full extent of their 
capabilities, and to command th^ high and 
conspicuous place in th« great American sys- 
tem of education, to which their importance 
and grout mission, as the schools of commerce 
and nuance, entitle them. 

To do this, the lime now allotted lo their pre- 
scribed oourso inii^t W ni)il> riaHy I-ugthened, 
and a moreri(,'iil <)' n iiii im tiioronghuess of 
Bcholarship in !iU tin IojiimIl. s luught, and 
^■■-'- ^ ' , i„:„,i lo all who 

t tho 


logcs have bctn uimh too luvisli of their dip- 
lomas, to convey to the public on exalted idea 
of their capabilities. 

Tho old plan of Ufo scholarahip should bt> 
(Uscarded as unjust and injurious to both 
teacher and pupil, thoroughly unbusiness-like, 
requiring as it does a uniform fee for a wide- 
ly varied service. 


ho a much more i-x»ltod impression of their 
capabilities for mnkiugextnivagant claims and 
promisi's impossible to fidfiU, than for impart- 
uig a thorough and practical education : each 
baa had the best and several the onlypractu 
eat w.»(*m of business training for young men 
in the world. These statements have been 
made sometimes in iguoronce, and often re- 
gardless of facts. In this Respect there is 
now happily a manifest improvement omoug 
the really r»-prcaentativo managers of these 
mstitutioua. and, we trust that all wiU soon 
appreciate that tb© first capability of a man- 
ager of a business, college should bo to tell 
the truth auddeal honestly. 

Friendlinoss and »mity of action on the 
part of proprietors aud teachers of business col- 
leges, regarding their curriculum of study 
mnnagemput, and every thing touching their 
object and interest, will do much to enhance 
their cnpabiUtiis for usefulness, and to corn- 
maud the respect, esteem and patronage of an 
intelUgeut pubUc; they should lock hands, and 
piweed as friends. For the cultivation and 
fostering of this spirit of friendship and unity, 
such annual gatherings as this will serve a 
grand aud noble purpose, and immeasunbly 

J.C.Soule, President. 
RW.f licKinger, Secrelanj. 




I from pc-n and ink copy prepared by W. H, Flickinger, who is superintendent of 
ical and oinnmcntal penmanship in connection with Soule's Bryant & SlrattOB 
Business College, Philadelphia. Pa. The cut fails lo convey a full and eorrcct conception of the original which is a gem of 
beautiful and almost faultless pen work. Mr. F. 's splendid work is so familiar to ull penmen in America that more explanation 
's uuueeessiiry. 

arts." He touched at length upon the art of 
ornamental penmanship; spoke of the decor- 
ative arts of the ancients in comparison with 
our own, and suggested various methods of 
study. He touched ou the value given by 
art to materials of no intrinsic worih, and en- 
couraged in tbe highest terms the study of 

The address was received with applause, 
aud the association spoke in highest praise 
of it. 

The meeting then adjourned to'? o'clock, 
Wedneeday morning. 

I, 9:30. 

Thos. May Peirce, President of the Union 
Business College, Philadelphia, Pa., gave a 

which was exceedingly interesting and prac- 
tical. He said that business colleges are the 
dependence of a business community for 
profO'cai arithmetic, few of the reputed schol- 
could even add, according to his idea of 

the blackboard how he rendered his additioi 
certain by means of checks ; we must have 
checks upon ourselves to be certain. He 
urged the importance of short methods of 
multiplication and division by the use of 
multiples which required only a thorough 

An inquirer wanted to know how the speak- 
er would address a mamed lady in a business 
connection, and was answered ■' Madam," or 
" Dear Madam." " But how would you ad- 
dress a lady in salutation, not knowing whe- 
ther she was married or single ?" The gentle- 
man scarcely thought a salutation necessary 
in that case and would drop it. A great 
many suggestions were offered, when a gen- 
tleman arose on the other side of tbe room 
and implored the brethren not to get mixed 
up ou ihe woman question. It wasafterward 
agreed by the majority that "Dear Madam" 
would answer all necessary purposes. The 
discussion was participated in by Messrs, T. 
E. Hill of Chicago. Wright of Brooklyn, and 
>.P. Boot of Cleveland. 

man should be too cheap; he wanted them 
taught to respect tbemsi-lven. 

Mr. G. H. Shattuek thought that though 
there were fewer colleges uow than formerly, 
they tiuned out young men more capable in 
every particular to ent er b uiiiness than ever 
before. 86Kv 

The Hon. Ira Mayhew, advocated mod- 
esty to be taught as ao important feature 
of a business curriculum. He thought that 
if young men expected to receive large solar- 
ies they should prepare themselves to render 
valuable services. 

Further discus 
Messrs. Wilt and A, H. Eaton 

participated in bj 

"The place of business 
educational system" was the next topic for 
discussion, opened by Mr. J. C. Bryant of 
Buffalo, N. Y. He thought that the business 
colleges held a very important place in the 
educational system. Branches that were for- 
merly taught exclusively in commercial col- 
leges ore now being introduced into the pub- 
he schools, in the normal and high schools. 
A great many things are said of our colleges 
which are not trae, and prejudices exist that 
ought not to be. Some business men say they 
would not take a boy into their store who has 
come from a business college. They gener- 
ally know too much and are altogether too 

I A " Lesson in Business Practice" followed 
, by Mr. G. W. Elliott, teacher in the Metro- 
! poUtan Business College of Chicago. His re- 
marks favored a strict regord in the student 
to his business habits— punctuality, cleanli- 
ness, regularity, ueatuesK, Sec. ; no matter 
what the real merit of the young man hia 
habits do much to either make or destroy his 
prospecta - -^ 

Mr. H. 0. Wright and others foUowed Tn 

Business College, followed with an int*-resting 
paper on "Business Honor and Morals," 
which is given in full for its value to every 

II U related tb»t on one occasion Agaasiz 
WW let down ieveral hundred feet tatoacrer- 
iee of the glaciera of the .Ups by bU attend. 
uita. Wh^n lie gave the si goal 
dfttwn they we 
doabt, with the 

he with- 
startled. nnd he too, do 
aziog fact that they 

The following resolution 
yVhfrta*. Slauy vague, 
To be an ex- ! queutly UDJiiet impressions 
the best the condition and propei 
n the characters of" some of billiardist, or to own the fastest horse would j business coUeg^ 
possibility of three failures constitute the fullness of success ip the minds whj,ch they ' 

j men need it, and shall I add politicians? Is of life all that is desired. To have missed 

not politics being turned into merchandise, wealth but to have gained literary^fame would 

and honor sold in Congressional halls, and constitute success with othe 

virtue upon our streets? Will all the perfumes pert wrestler, the champion 

then offered : 
and fre- 

1 hfe— the financial, the intellectual, the of many. While there is such a wide 
loral— but the greatest of them all is in the ; opinion as to what constitutes succet 

„,. „ „„ traveled to obtain leverage vrith | moral. »ince thereby man comes short of those 

which to elevate the imperiled Agassiz. Thi 

iety of 
16 wiU 

„ ..„ and down in the scale of morah 
as flaance. Man lives in three realms — the 
financial, intellectual, and moral. The words 
Holvoncy and insolvency "' '~ 

nglesBwhen applied to the moral realm, 
'Two things," said Epianuel Kent, "fill me 
with awe— the starry heavens and the moral 
roHpon«ibility of man." WeU may this dis- 
tingolnhed philosopher make this grand ut- 
terance when we reflect upon the fearful 
chances Ukou in the career of an earthly life. 
Looking upon society we observe some going 
up, others going do^ 

Mr. Shattuck, of New York, gave an inter- 
esting and instructive lesson in penmanship, 
the members " sitting i 

1 advanced class.' 

The convention was again called to order at 
3 o'clock. Mr. H. B. Bryant, of Chicago, one 
of the original founders of the Bryant A;8trat- 
ton Colleges, opened as the topic for disoiissiou 

is he who has secured, at the close of his ac- 
tivity, sufficient to comfortably provide for 
the needs of himself and family, who has gone 
through life 'Doing to others as he would have 
others do to him;' who has to the letter dis- 
charged every obligation, radiated sunshine 
all along bis career, has reared a family to 
honorable manhood, has been an exemplary 
citizen, and has made the world some better 
for having passed through it. While there are 
oral BcoleT different degrees of successful achievement, 

thi refations in the financial and "history and MisfliON or business col- t^e man who accompliehee this is fairly enti- 
moral realms wo observe peculiar analogy. ''^^^- ^. . titled to bouest praise, and his hfe may be de- 

AJmoBt averv fiuestion of the one. I believe. Mr. Bryant said : "Considered in connection nominated a success. Men should not fail m 
mav bo argued on the ground of the other, with business education, an interest verging | business. If they do, the fact indicates errors 
The notcntial facts of the financial are loss on sacreduess clusters about this place. It \ committed, which, if understood, might have 
and iain ■ those of the moral are wrong and was here that was laid the comer-stone of that i been avoided. There comes a period of years 
riKht: It is by the observance of profit and , great system of instruction which many of ■ in which there is grand prosperity, but this 
loa« that man obUins pov*-rty or wealth ; so is 1 those present represent, and about which we j period always seems like the immense drive- 
it bv riirht or wrong man attains poverty or I have met to consult. That was little more I wheel of the machine which is propeUed by a 
wealth of soul All men recoKuize these moral than a quarter of a century ago. Small was , heavy force of steam witbouta regulator The 
diHtinotions- they are no more slow to discern I the beginning, modest the anticipaljons, and j propeUing power kept at its full head, the 
the diatinctions between wrouK and right than j unwearied the endeavor to do well what was wheel starting slowly, grows graduaUy more 
between loss and gain. In fact, the ideas of undertaken." Afterdwelling somewhat upon rapid, the velocity quickens, grows faster and 
riobt and wronc are innate or connate in all the history of commercial colleges, and the i faster, until it is only a question of time when 

^ - . ^ 1".:-" .»,«--...- 1 necessity for every businessman to thoroughly it will fly to pieces and the machine be a 

understand his business, h© said: "Each I wreck. If there comes a period like this the 
center of business is a mechanism with many i selfishness and greed of men carries them for- 
a cog and wheel, formiug'a harmonious whole. , vord with such reckless velocity 
Knowledge of this mechanism and ability to I certainly a commercial revolutior 
form part of it cannot be picked up, " 

roiads, andareasuprom' 
OS bU intentions. But 
tinction between the idi 

and mathematical 

lation, the same 
mst make a dis- 
id their applica- 
Men do not differ as to 
the universality of these ideas, but only in 
jhoir iocamations into deeds and acta, Kea- 
BOn diacoros the right and wrong, the true 
and the falsw, the beautiful and the reverse. 
They belong to the class of first truths, as 
"pergonal existence and identity, of '^•'"■' ""'' 

space, of number " "-^ "'"" 

roUtioa. " 

Ho knows what is right and what is wrong far 
hotter than he is disposed to obey. "An ounce 
of «oU surrender to truth already possessed. ' 
says Cook, "is worth a planet's weight of 
truth not transmuted into deeds." Man knows 
the right and yet pursues the wrong. Jeremy 
Toylor used to say that ■•whosoever sins 
against light kisses the lips of h b!;i/iiit; onu- 
non." The central tact of tbo uioriil wvstem 
ia the grand imperative '■ Ought." ami ■•¥«!- 
ue " is the central word of the financial sys- 
tem. Out of "value" are born debit, credit, 
property, debt. loss, gain, wealth. Out, too, 
of "ought" in morals come right, wrong, 
oharaoter, good or bad. There is something 
in ua, but not strictly of us, which says "I 
ought,"' directly in the face of the "I will 
not" T^is divme "I ought" is the voice of 
oonaoience, of the God within, as Pope would 
say. I need hardly say here, in the presence 
of this intelligent audience, that it is far safer 
to obey the solemn admonitions of this divine 
monitor. To disobey is evidently tonin coun- 
ter to the moral law. The heathen rouf.iciuB 
told ua, a great many years ago, ou the Yel- 
low Soa : "Heaven means principle." It is 
because of this that man has occasion to en- 
terUin fear in a given line of conduct. Men 
do not sufficiently consider the weight of the 
Topoof sin that lets them down into the jaws 
ol Gehenna. There is a moral specific gravi- 
ty which we eU would do well to heed. The- 
odore Parkor used to say in his absolute re- 
ligion : "Every fall is a tall upward. Ihie 
■would not work well in the Quaucial realm, 
nor will it in the moral. Is every fall a fall 
upward in the financial realm? Is a fall into 
financial insolvency a fall upwards into the 
lap of wealth? By no means Every wrong 
act is a violation of the moral lnw that encir- 
cles the eternities. Wrong a'-ts precipitate 
the soul downward ; right acts tend to elevate 
it. Man is a responsible being. 
• ■The mind !■ Ub owu place, ftnd in fteelf 

saying n 

It must be learned as a foreign 
in abstruse science is. Our mission 
) teach the young idea how to do 

He gave many good sound ideas 


He spoke of the men who did business largely 
on credit. " Whenever," said he, "a man in- 
curs a debt he makes a bet. He bets 
that he can pay the debt. He takes risks. 

Mr. Packard siiid that the speaker had n 

tioned one word which had been escaping the ftjkely 
consideration of the associntion, and that was 
the making ot experts in the various depart- 
ments of business life. There was a growing 
demand for persons who knew jnorc than or- 
■y per^oui 

forms a habit of thus taking chances, through 

fortunate investments at first, the scale is very 

.gainst him in the end. Over- 

Mikely to turn agi 
I speculation is eu 
suits." The adi 

like to hear from Mr. D. T. Ames on the sab- 

Man creates his own weal orwoe ; he is arch- 
il«icto( his owu destiny. Personal qualities 
arts not excbaugeable. But I would say, that 
man should be. and is judged by. the acts of 
a lifetime. Slowly, but steadily, and some- 
times rapidly, he is making character. Moral 
standing must be judged of from the rights 
and wrongs of a life. It is the opinion of the 
best ethical scholars that character tends to a 
final permaueuoe. Who knows but this may t^eorgeiLiii 
be so? Cerlain it is that hosts of fiuancial | teUmg 
solvents never escape. Out of all the fail ' 

In response to which call Mr. Ames said 
that he had given considerable attention to 
the subject of expcrtism in handwriting. 
There was great need and frequent demand 
for it. He bud been called in many cases of 
forgei-y, imitation, etc. He had been fre- 
quently called upon during the past ten years 
to appear before courts in that capacity. To 
be an expert one must watch closely the hab- 
its of persons. Peculiarities go to determine 
the recognition of handwriting. Everyone in 
writing has peculiar habitual charactrtistics, 
which he can no more lay aside or conceal 
than he can his own phisioguomy, and by ex- 
amining those critically it was almost impos- 
'" " for a person to escape his identity. A 
person might try to disguise his writing, by 
writing back handed, or otherwise, but he 
will leave his trucks behind by which he 
may be identified. He gave some illustrations 
on the black-board. 

Mr. Peirce was not very clear whether they 
could make an expert in handwriting or oc- 

in the chair. The capabilities of the student 
to study was what would determine whether 
he would become an expert or not. He de- 
monttrated how students could bo taught to 
become experts in accounts. One way to 
make expert book-keepers was a thorough 
course in a business coUege, and another was 
by commencing as a spittoon washer and 
working up. He related incidents of graduates 
who discovered errors in books, and gave as 
his idea of teaching them how to do this by 
mixing up the accounts and have them to un- 
ravel them, showiui^' them bow it ought to 
have been done and how it was done. 

bring its inevitable 
address throughout was fall of 
received with ap- 

in the remarks on the topic presented by 
Mr. Hill, Mr. Folsom said that he also be- 
lieved m the old Bible doctriue to "owe no 
anything," but that it was impossible to 
do business without credit. If it were pos- 
sible to do cash business it was the better 

Mr. Spencer, of Milwaukee, thought Web- 
ster's definition of credit about con-ect. He 
knew of many men who were possessed of 
any amount of business etiquette who were 
unable to pay their debts, many he had 
known of settling their debts by notes. H' 
was a strong believer in etiquette. 

President Packard came down from th' 
chair and said that he always liked to hear 
Mr. Spencer talk. It produced a double ef- 
fect upon him. When he was talking he 
wished he would never stop, and yet 
he got through he always wanted to say 
thing in reply. He thought Mr. Hill's paper 
one of the most interesting of the sesson. 
He thought etiquette ought to be used in all 
relations of life, especially in the matter of 
collecting debta. He recollected a cas 
years ago of a man who was indebted 

laims of so-called 
and *lhe educational work 

,^,^„ ^ e ; therefore, 

Reaolttd, That a committee cf three be ap- 
pointed by the Chair whose duty it shaU bo 
mature a system ot statistics adapted to 
__jw the place to which these institutions 
and their work should be assigned in the im- 
partial judgment of the community. 
The resolution was adopted and the '^ 
appointed as follows; Mr 

Spencer of Milwaukee. E. K. Bryai 

of Col- 
^^buB "and T. M. Peir'ce of Philadelphia. 

Mr. J. E. Soule, of Philadelphia, then read 
several advertisements of "alleged" busmesa 
colleges, offering flattering inducements to 
young men to become students. Mr. Soule 
condemned, in a severe manner, such adver- 

The Association next proceeded to the 

with the following result : President, Mr. 
Thomas M. Peirce. of Philadelphia; Vice- 
Presidents, Messrs. It. C. Spencer, of Mil- 
waukee, and Frank Goodman, of Nashville, 
Tennesee ; Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. J. 
E. Soule. of Philadelphia; Executive Com- 
mittee, Messrs. A. P. Root, of Cleveland, and 
Thomas E. Hill and H. B. Bryant, of Chicago. 
Some discussion then followed as to the 
most odvisable place to hold the convention 
of 1880. President S. S. Packard of New 
York, favored holding it in some city where 
the press is fully represented. Chicago was 
chosen as the place to hold the convention 

Mr. T. M. Peirce, offered the following 
resolution : 

lieaolvtd, That the thanks of this Associa- 
tion are due and are hereby tendered to the 
Cleveland local committee, consisting of 
Messrs. P. R. Spencer, A. P. Root, and E. 
II. Felton, forthe eminently Bati.«factory ar- 
rangements made by them for the annual 
meeting of this Association, at which each 
individual member has been made so com- 

Mr. G. H. Shattuck. also moved that the 
thanks of this convention be tendered to the 
press of Cleveland for its full and accurate 
repoi-ts of the proceedings. The motions 
were unanimously carried. 

Ur. Packard, cbi 
the Abrogatiou o 
the following report; 

of S-t. At the first of each 
month the man was duly notified by a bill of 
his indebtedness. He grew tired of this and 
wrote Mr. Packard a letter, stating that it was 
useless for him to continue sending the bills, 
that as soon as he got the money he would 
pay it. Mr. Packard wrote him a letter em- 
bracing the very cream of etiquette, stating 
that he could not 

e of his 

jorchants and others in ISoston and 
New York, many years ago, only two or three 
per cent regained solvency, says Freedley. 
How about moral insolvents? How about 
the Neros and Caliguhis of the world? Does 
lago or Mt-phistopheles repent? \N'hftt says 
lAdy Macbeth ? 

"Out, damned spot! Out. I wiy! Here's 
the smell of the blood still. .\11 the perfumes 
of Arabia will not sweeten this littl9.1|jwxd." 

Suppose the wrongs of a Ufe faiOBprtiireigh 
the rights of a whole Ufe ; what is tlq|;Btate of 
that man ? We know very well the itate of 
that man who has met with more financial 
losses than gains in a business 

Ethics is the 
and should be taught in a business collegi 
Do I hear you say. Let the cobbler stick 
his hist I S'c sutor ultra errpulam "' 
more study of these ethical laws. 

of Chicago, made a few very 

) regard to the course of busi- 
thought too mauy diplomas 
were givt'u He did not believe in text-books, 
but wanted the student to have practice, and „^^ ,^ 
not until ho became expert should he be given j of*au'present 

Mr. Wright and Mr. Spenct 
remarks on the subject. 

habits, that he did 
money, but that it was 
out his bills on the first of each month, and 
he might look for one at that time so long as 
they both should live. He continued tn send 
out the bills, and the result was that at the 
expiration of two years he received the 
amoimt with interest to date, and money for 
the postage. He told many other anecdotes 
of the great advantages of etiquette. 

The Association adjouri 
in the evening, at which 
came together for social 

lan of the committee ou 
Days of Grace," made 

— „ - . Thecommitte to whom 

referred the matter of touching the cus- 
tom of adding days of grace to the prescribed 
date of payment of commercial paper, re- 
spectfully report that there can be no good 
reason for such custom either in finance or 
morjils ; that it is one of those strange eole- 
cisms that, like the tautological verbiage of 
legal documents, bus grown out of conditions 
and necessities ot a primitive state of society 
whif^h does not now exist; that the very 
phrase "days of grace" conveys a confession 
of doubt and weakness upon the part of the 
debtor, and a loose habit of commercial deal- 
ing ; that it is a difficidt thing to exphiin to 
students or to reconcile with strict principles 
ot business and integrity; that there is no 
sound reason for the practice except that of 
custom, and that in our opinion steps should 
be taken to do away with so nnbusinesa-like 
and unnecessary a law. 

The committee do not feel authorized to 
Bujgest any plan in detail, but would suggest 

in the councils of the Nation, with a view to 
bringing the matter before Congress, or if it 
shall be decided that the reform must come 
from the States, to take the necessary steps 
to awaken such general and particular inter- 
est in the subject as to move the different 
Stale Legislatures to enact local laws which 
shall forever dn away with days of grace. 

Your committee would suggest that no men 
or association of men can with more propri- 
ety or efficiency move in this matter than 
those whose work it is to qualify young men 
for business; and they feel confident that if 
wise and prudent steps be taken, the proper 
energy and persistence used, the j 
form may be put in the t 

7-30 o'clock 
the members 
the interest and advantage 

The first topic tor discussion ^ 

■ also made a few 


Thomas E. HUl. author of " Hill's Manual ' and the spirit and manner in which the pub- 
of Social and Business Forms," of Chicago, | lie annoimcements and advertisement^ of 
then opened OS the topic of discussion. "Eti- these iusUtutions shall set forth their chiims 
quette — Its uses and benefits among 

.^^^ ^^^ .- , for patronage and support," opened by Mr. 
relations of life." Mr. HiU sta- ! E. K. Bryanof Columbus. O., whospoke of the 
ted that he would speak of the many things need of these institutions throughout the land, 
which the broad meaning of etiquette covered, and the value they 
of morals, and may He spoke of successes in life and the many fitting young^ 

._, ducating 

for business by a thorough 
phases of success. "What is success or fail- training on the subject. The discussion was 

_ ._ I «re in the opinion of some is not so in the ' indulged in by Messrs. Robert C.Spencer. 

We need I mind of others. To have acquired great i G. W. EUiott, Henry C. Sp( 
~ wealth in the opinion of many is to have made ' Peirce. 

and T. M. 

rue of final aoheiv- 

President S. S. Packard spoke in favor of 
the organ of the .-issociation " The PaKMAK'a 
Abt Journal," published by D. T. Ames, of 
New York. 

Thomas M. Peirce, ot Philadelphia, moved 
that the next convention be held on Tuesday, 
the 24th day ot July. 

Mr. H. C. Spenctr moved, that in future 
the sittings of the convention be limited to 
three days instead of four. It was carried 
with but one dissension. 

Mr. H. C. Wright of Brooklyn, next gave 
a technical lesson on ' ' Partnerships Settle- 
ments,'' which was received with great inter- 
est and attention. He said partnership set- 
tlement did not simply employ the division 
of gains and losses among partners, but the 
adjustment and division of i 

lay be divided 
by analysis, percentage or by 
proportion. He also gave a 

among partie 

^ iiluBtration of the 

adjustment of private accounts between two 

pmrtntn where tbeSr withdrnwalB bad b^-eu ' 
ODCqoal, which elicited warm debate. Mr. 
Wright mainUining there waa noguin in bus- 
iupM uutil inU-rcNthud been allowed oo capi- 
tal nod also Ralsry for the proprietor. 

At 12 M. the preiident, S. S. Patkard. of 
Now York, ga»e a k-(i».0D od "The Theory of 
AcqulMitioo. He «iaid that there wm no sub- 
ject of mor© importance to the hnman race. 
From the cradle to the grave most of them 
were "on the make," No incentive was bo 
titroog a« the nimighty dollar to the biisinewi 
man. In a Icgitimat* way they were all try- 
ing to incre«iiB their incomen to add to their 
material pronperity. You put forth your ef- 
fort and you obtain a aalary; therefore the 
firat powerio the acquiaition of wealth in labor. 
Another nource i» capital in whateTer sliape it 
ezivt*. And yet a third in the differtnce io 
the purchaginu pnwer of goods ; eichange, 
buying, and seUiuK. in other words- The dif- 
furCDCO in buyine and Helling is of course the 
profit, the acquwition of wealth. In these 
threo points are enumcrat«d the principal 


There are. however, yet other means of ao- 
quifiition where neither capital or Ubor is ei- 
ohaagcd for wealth. These may be defined 
by thu word circumHlance. For instance, the 
lucroiuointhe value of property, whether land- 
ed or otherwise. Mr. Packard also gave 
a abort addreSH on the subject of " How Bhall 
wo manage the young men who come to our 
■cbools." Ho said that the great thing waa 
to innpire tbom with self-respect, ambition — 
to develop in short whatever good there was 
in them. There was one rule which he would 
inipreiis upon them all as necotwury to good 
govcrnaient of colleges or schools, and that 
was the enforcement of strict silence among 
the pupils. Attention to dctiuls which are to 
often ni-gloeU-d as unimportant, Ruth as a 
place for the ntudent to wash his hands to 
hang up his coat, thorough ventilation in all 
th« buildings, Bitontion to the tempt mture 
&o., was altto absolutely necessary if they 
wished their estjiblishment to be a sucte'-s 
He also condemned the practice of 

to pupils who left, when they knew will that 
they had not been by any means blameless 
during their course in the school. Ht wa^al 
ways ready to give a character to au) of his 
pupils, but they were records of what had 
been mode by them during the timt. he had 
known them. Mr. Pockard's remarks were 
re TCived with great applause, and at the close 
of it the convention adjourned until t P M 
The Penmen's Oouvention resumed ite sit 
tings at a P. M, Thursday, and formed iti>elf 
into a cloBB to hciil- H. O. SpnMter of Wash 
ington.givea lesson in penmanship, illustrated 
by class drill in movements and exorcises 
The speaker explained, in a few prefatorj re 
marks, that he did not intend todiscuBS oma 
muntal but businiKH pGniuauehip. To acquire 

ry. It WiiM uuivrrs;i!l\ :ii kiH>« !■ ii..'(i iiLCesbary 
in Burgmy, dniwiii)_', I'^iinlii];,', ri.'nding and 
yet tliiTi" wert' pciipli' who lUJiiiitnincd thata 
good hiiud could not bn taught. Mr. Spencer 
went on to explain the 

the Btroight line, the right and left curves, 
the loop, with its various combinations, &.c., 
and then gave several examples of the differ 
eut movemi-nt« necessary to form them. The 
lesson, which occupied one hour, was exceed- 
ingly interesting and received a great deal of 
attention throughout. 

The president read a communicntiou from 
Mr. E<\wiu Oowles, publisher of 7'Ac leader, 
to the memberi of the convention, inviting 
thorn to visit his office and view his press at 

Hon. Ira Mayhew of Detroit, Mich., read 
ou essay on " Business Praotice." The speak- 
er dwelt upon the importance of a thorough 
buBiness chamcter tocveryoue. A knowledge 
of business would often prevent crime and 
fraud. Many of the great bank failures, the 
too-ofteu recurring coses of defaulting treasu- 
rers and socretarius,'iiU() the ruin of large and 
ouce>flourishing houses were often directly 
traceable to a want of knowledge, on the part 
of some one in authority, of the first principles 
of book-keeping and business qualifications. 

A communication was read from the Brush 
Elocl)-io Light Company inviting the members 
of the convention to visit the building and 
view the machinery. 

Qeorge W. Elliott of Chicogo, gave an iu- 
torestiug address ou banking. Much valuable 
instruction watt condensed by the speaker 
witJi ri-d-reuce to the practical operations of 
this branch of businei^. He reviewed in a 
terse and clear manner the usual transactions 
which occurred in business, beginning with 
simple d<eposita and withdrawals of money, 
and loading up to the more difficult branch- 

suggehtiun was ma<ie and agreed to by the 
speaker that he should reduce his suggestion 
to a motion and bring it before the conven- 

C. Claghorn of Brooklyn then opened a 
discussion on "The minimum qualification 
which will a pupil to graduate from a 
business college." He animadverted on the 
peroiciouK system adopted by some colleges 
of "rushing" a pupil through in two or three 
months and giving them diplomas. 

Thomas A. Peirce of Philadephia said he 
should like to see some positive legislation on 
the subject. 

8. 8. Packard would lite to see colleges re- 
strained in some such matter, but he saw 
great difficulties in their way, and principally 
he did not b